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The Saint as a Soldier 
2011 Theological Forum 
Valley Baptist Church 

By Chris Philpot 


God refers to believers in many realms. Ones who belong to God are called the chosen 
ones. Christians are referred to as the church, the called out ones. Believers are called saints, as 
ones who are set apart unto God for a purpose. They are called sons, as ones who are in a place 
of privilege and position, with the idea of maturity. They are also called children, as ones who 
belong to God the Father. They are also referred to as brothers in Christ, showing we are part of 
the family of God. Believers are referred to as parts of the Body of Christ, relating to how one 
operates their spiritual gift to serve the Head and the Body. They are also referred to as slaves 
showing the relationship a Christian has in reference to the Divine Slave Master Jesus Christ. We 
are called ministers, each one having a specific list of works to be carried out. Believers are seen 
as priests who can offer up spiritual sacrifices. Believers are also referred to as sheep, an 
unflattering description, but unfortunately true. We can do very foolish things and are apt to 
follow just about anybody who can speak well. There are many ways God has described us, but 
the one we will be dealing with is the saint as a soldier, when a believer needs to see himself as 
one who is in a spiritual battle. We will be looking at passages of scripture that use military 
terms such as soldier, warfare, commands or charges, guarding, and weapons to name a few of 
the major ones. As we deal with these terms we will come across other related terms that deal 
with conflicts. We will be looking at these terms as they relate to the three enemies of a 
Christian. The first is Satan who is the enemy that attacks on the outside coming down from the 
heavens. The second is the sin nature that attacks from the inside. The third is the world system, 
which is the battleground where the deck is definitely stacked against us since Satan himself 
designed it. One will find at the end of this paper a list of words looked at for this study along 
with derivatives of these words. Definitions were taken from Thayer’s Greek Lexicon unless 
otherwise stated. 

Satan (A case study of Timothy) 

The Christian needs to see himself as a soldier when dealing with Satan. Paul wrote two 
letters to Timothy who was at Ephesus at the time. Paul used military and warfare terms in the 
letters reminding Timothy there was a spiritual battle going on and he needed to think in such a 
way as to help him get through his ordeals. He was dealing with many problems there and 
wanted to leave. We know this because Paul told him to remain there (1 Tim. 1:3). Throughout 
the two letters there are references to what he was actually dealing with such as bad teaching. 

The Situation at Ephesus 

There was plenty of bad teaching going around Ephesus. It also did not help that there 
was a problem of not having a pastor and deacons there at the time. Paul gave Timothy a grocery 
list of qualifications for a bishop (the office of a Pastor/Teacher) and deacons (1 Tim. 3:1-13). 

This probably gave an open door for false teachers to spread their heresy. They wanted to go 
back to teaching law and traditions of the Jews, or at least a form of it, instead of the doctrine of 
the dispensation of Grace, the one in faith. Their traditions dealt with myths and genealogies (1 
Tim. 1:4, 7; 4:7). The correct teaching dealt with godliness and letting Christ live His life out 
through the believer through faith and love, as well as other parts of the fruit from the Spirit. 
These false teachers were selfish and self centered and their teaching lent itself to vain talking (1 
Tim. 1:6). These different doctrines were causing many problems and there was demonic 
influence of the doctrine being pushed (1 Tim. 1:3, 6:3-5; 4:1-3). It must have been very serious 
there. Paul had no problem naming names of dangerous men in this situation. Timothy was told 
to be on guard concerning Alexander the coppersmith (1 Tim. 1:19-20, 2 Tim. 4:14-15). There 
was unhealthy teaching with respect to godliness, and fights and questionings from ones who 
were puffed up. They were teaching gain to be godliness (1 Tim. 6:3-5). There was profane 
empty speaking concerning a falsely named knowledge that was causing some to miss the mark 
generally concerning the faith (1 Tim. 6:20-21). Heresy was spreading like gangrene by two 
more culprits saying the resurrection had already happened (2 Tim. 2:16-18). There were 
malignantly evil (ponhro,j) imposters who were deceiving while being deceived. John writes of 
some of these characters whom were called false apostles (Rev. 2:2). There is also mention of the 
Nicolaitans, who were idolaters and placed the clergy above the people, as the Catholics do 
today (Rev. 2:6). These dangerous men, having a long list of bad traits, are described as ones that 
go after women and are opposed to “Truth” and “The Faith” (2 Tim. 3:1-9).

 Along with the bad teaching came a very willing audience in the church who had their 
own problems. In the fourth chapter of 2 Timothy, Paul described the future Timothy had to look 
forward to with respect to the people in the church. They wanted their ears tickled and their 
strong desires satisfied by these false teachers. They were going to be turned aside from the truth 
to myths. They were not going to bear with sound teaching of Old Testament doctrine. They 
were going to want to live by the Old Testament or at least a form of it, instead of living by 
grace, which is taught in the New Testament. People were also asking moronic and uneducated 
questions (2 Tim. 2:23). There were people who were ensnared by the devil to do his desires, 
fighting over words and opposing Timothy’s teaching (2 Tim. 2:14, 26). The church had other 
problems. There were problems with some of the women (1 Tim. 2:9-14). There were ones 
looking down on Timothy because of his youth (1 Tim. 4:12). Some of the elders were out of 
line in sin (1 Tim.5:17-20). There were also problems with others sinning and acting unrighteous 
(1 Tim. 5:24, 2 Tim. 2:19). The scriptures concerning Ephesus show a great potential for that 
church to go far, but we see something quite different and indicative of the church and its failure. 

The History of the Ephesian Church 

The history of Ephesus starts with Paul going there and teaching for three years. They 
were well taught by Paul. He taught them the whole decree of God (Acts 20:27). He spent three 
years teaching them at the synagogue, the school of Tyrannus, publicly and house to house (Acts 
19:8-10, 20:17, 20). One must wonder if his following dwindled over time, as he kept on 
teaching grace, ending up in houses. In the letter to the Ephesians, they were given a wealth of 
information regarding who they were in Christ and how they were to behave based upon their 
position and possessions in Christ. It may not be a coincidence God revealed the Armor of God 
in the Ephesian letter, since there was so much opposition there. There was a lot of supernatural 
activity going on when Paul was at Ephesus. God had healed people and performed exorcisms 

through Paul (Acts 19:11-12). It is interesting to note how man will try to imitate Gods work. 
Look at the example of the seven sons of Sceva trying to cast out a demon. One cannot help but 
get a chuckle out of what happened to these guys (Acts 19:13-17). Paul also dealt with the 
craftsman uproar when he was there. They saw their livelihood going away, which will always 
get a Christian in trouble with a gentile (Acts 19:23-41). He also got himself in trouble with the 
Jews by teaching grace instead of law and the Jewish traditions (Acts 20:19). Paul had warned 
the Ephesian elders, who met him at Miletus, of what was going to happen (Acts 20:17-18, 2830). 
One can compare this to the mature sons of Satan (Eph. 2:1-3) and the “Wild Beasts” at 
Ephesus, who were probably men and not actual beasts in the arena (1 Cor. 15:32). The 
Ephesians had to put up with false apostles, who were found out to be liars (Rev. 2:2). Despite 
all the opposition, the door was still opened in Ephesus, where the church grew, and the word of 
God spread throughout Asia (1 Cor. 16:8, cp. Acts 19:10, 18-20). Paul gave them an example of 
how to serve, but they failed leaving their first love (Acts 20:20, 32-35, Rev. 2:4). Tradition has 
it that the Apostle John spent his remaining years around Ephesus. His three letters (1, 2, 3 John) 
hammer the point of loving God by loving the brethren. If they were doing this, then he would 
not have to tell them to do it. Finally, as has already been stated, the Ephesians did not carry on 
directing love, a part of the fruit from the Spirit. Christ stated they had left their first love, though 
they were part of the body of Christ (Rev. 2:4). With the things Timothy had to deal with and the 
history at Ephesus, one can see how Timothy needed to see himself as a soldier. 

Timothy’s Predicament 

Timothy as a soldier had to take instruction from Paul and then give it. This was not 
going to be an easy task for him when we look at his demeanor and physical weakness. There 
was strong opposition going on at Ephesus. Just looking at Paul’s opening statements in the two 
letters give an indication of some of the things going on. Grace, mercy and peace were needed. 
Timothy was going to need the grace of God to get through this. He would not be able to do this 
on his own. Mercy indicates sin involved. There is no doubt about that. False teachers and unruly 
members in the church surrounded Timothy. He may have been in sin himself, acting upon 
spiritual cowardice, not using his gift of evangelism. The need for peace tells us there was a lot 
of commotion going on around him. He needed an unruffled mind and to not be cowardly and 
fearful. He wanted to leave. Paul had to tell him to stay put (1 Tim. 1:3). He was being cowardly 
(deili,a) (2 Tim. 1:6-8, cp. 4:5). This cowardly fear is a condition of one without faith and peace 
(Mt. 8:26, Jn. 14:27). Timothy was one who possibly tended towards being fearful or timid (1 
Cor. 16:10). 

He was not using the spiritual gift of evangelism. He was not sharing the full Gospel, 
leaving out the resurrection (2 Tim. 1:8, 2:8). He was to stop neglecting (present active 
imperative of av,

melew - to be careless of) the gift in him through prophecies about him (1 Tim. 
4:14, cp. 1:18). He was to rekindle (present active infinitive of av,

nazwpurew - to resuscitate) the 
gift from God (2 Tim. 1:6). He was not doing the work of an evangelist (2 Tim. 4:5). Timothy 
was an exception to the rule of having more than one spiritual gift (1 Pet. 4:10). The gift of 
evangelism came about with the laying on of hands by Paul, who was an apostle. Timothy was 
also an apostle (1 Thes. 1:2, 2:1, 6 (7)). Beside being timid, Timothy was also physically weak 

sqeneia - frail) (1 Tim. 5:23). This problem did not help him when dealing with the opposition. 
Confrontation takes a lot out of a person both mentally and physically. Regardless of his 
situation, he had charges to deliver. 


The Charge (paragge,


Timothy was to charge others with instructions on various matters. The term we will be 
dealing with in this section is parangello (paragge,

llw). This term has the idea of coming 
alongside and announcing something. Illustrations of the verb paragge,

llw are seen in the 
following verses. Jesus charged others in many instances. He commanded a demon to come out 
of a man (Lk 8:29). We also see Him charging the apostles not to leave Jerusalem, but wait for 
the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:4). He charged them to spread the gospel in Acts 10:42 (cp. Mt. 28:19-20 
and Acts 1:8). Jewish leaders charged Peter and John not to preach the gospel or teach, which 
they did not obey (Acts 4:18, 5:28, 40). There are also illustrations of the noun paraggelia,. We 
see it used as a command from chief magistrates to the jailer concerning Paul and Silas at Phillipi 
(Acts 16:24, cp. vs. 23 (paragge,

llw)). Luke used the noun when he wrote of the Jewish leader 
who charged Peter not to teach (Acts 5:28). In these instances we see that the person charging or 
commanding has the authority to do so. Timothy also had this authority, though he seems to not 
want it. He is encouraged by Paul to give the charges. He is, in a sense, a General who wants to 
act like a Private that is ready to go AWOL. 

 In chapter 1 of 1Timothy, we have the verb (paragge,

llw) one time in verse 3 and the 
noun (paraggelia,) in verses 5 and 18. These are all linked together with respect to the charge to 
teach a certain kind of doctrine. Paul came alongside Timothy so that he would possibly charge 
certain ones not to teach a doctrine of a different kind nor pay attention to myths and endless 
genealogies (1 Tim. 1:3-4). The verb is an aorist active subjunctive, meaning he hopefully would 
charge them at a point in time and he was responsible to actively do this. The different doctrine 
is in contrast to healthy words, which were from the Lord, and the Old Testament teaching 
measured by godliness. The ones propagating this different doctrine were obsessed to the point 
of it being a disease. This brought all kinds of trouble with men who were puffed up and wanted 
to fight over words saying such things as gain to be godliness (1 Tim. 6:3-5). There were also 
myths, which are fables and outlandish stories. Timothy was told to avoid profane (something 
that is common) old wives tales (1 Tim. 4:7). Even with the charge from Timothy, some were 
going to turn away from the truth to myths (2 Tim. 4:4, cp. Titus 1:14, 2 Pet. 1:16). These 
individuals also wanted to chase after genealogies that were important to the Jews. These myths 
and genealogies brought about debates. The term for debates (zh,

thsij) has the idea of seeking or 
questioning. These debates go along with fighting over words and generate fights (1 Tim. 6:4, 2 
Tim. 2:23). Looking down a few verses it states these men also wanted to be law teachers, 
which is in direct opposition to the teaching for this dispensation (1 Tim. 1:7). In Acts 15, Peter 
told the converted Pharisees and others that they were to no longer live under the Law, which no 
one could fulfill. Paul spells it out clearly as well in the book of Galatians that we are not under 
law, but grace. The myths and genealogies were in contrast to the dispensation (house rules) 
from God, which is in or by a quality of faith. This dispensation of Grace is one where a believer 
walks by faith (Eph. 3:2, cp. 2 Cor. 5:7, Gal. 2:20). 

Paul goes on in 1 Tim. 1:5 to explain the intended end of the charge that has three parts. 
The first is a self-sacrificial love (av,

gaph) out from a pure heart. A pure heart means there is 
nothing hidden, no motives or agendas. Love is different in this dispensation. We have this part 
of the fruit from the Spirit to allow us to do things for others in a godly manner that could never 
be done before. Under the Old Testament Law the Jews were to love their neighbors as 
themselves, which was in a way a self centered kind of love. The standard would also vary 
depending on the person loving. But a change came with Jesus Christ. He brought about a new 

standard stating to “love one another as I have loved you” (Jn. 13:34). He served the disciple as a 
slave washing their feet even though He was their master, teacher and God. John also recorded 
how one is to love today, which is more than just lip service. It requires action and a mind and 
heart open to the needs of others (1 Jn. 3:16-18). The next part of the charge is a good 
conscience, meaning one can weigh things and be happy since they are in line with what is right 
to practice, which is a practice of living by faith rather than myths and genealogies. If one is 
living by Grace they will have a good conscience. If one is living according to the Law, it only 
tells him what he did wrong, and he will not have a good conscience. Finally there is 
unhypocritical or sincere faith. Faith is another part of the fruit where grace believers are able to 
make hope, which is based on a promise, real (Heb. 11:1). A good example of this is that 
Christians are promised they will spend eternity with God and will go to heaven. We will 
actually always be with the Lord Jesus Christ. Christians do not have it, but ask any spiritual 
Christian living out a God quality of life now and they will probably tell you it is as real as if it 
has already happened. Christians are also to be directing faith at the promises they have right 
now. Remember that we walk by faith, not by sight. We can direct faith knowing that God will 
supply everything we need, spiritually and physically, to accomplish in us what He wants. This 
faith is not phony. Timothy was to have faith and a good conscience as he carried out the charge 
deposited by Paul. Verse 6 describes certain men who actively turned away from (av, 


aorist active participle) love, a good conscience, and a sincere faith to be turned to empty talk. 
They were turned aside (ev,

ktrepw - aorist passive indicative) by something else, probably their 
myths and genealogies. They also desired to be teachers of the law, which they really did not 
understand. This did not stop them from speaking confidently about it. It would be somewhat 
like a person who had never been to medical school, but maybe read about how to perform a 
surgery out of a book, such as “Heart Surgery for Dummies”, lecturing on how to perform a very 
intricate procedure. He would not know what he was talking about, but he sure would be 
convincing. This brings to mind 2 Timothy 3:13 where it states “deceiving while being 
deceived”. In other words these malignantly evil imposters will make others wander or error 
while they are being made to wander. 

In 1 Timothy 1:18, Paul placed beside Timothy the charge referring back to verse 3. This 
was placed according to the prophecies about Timothy. The prophecies had to do with Timothy 
receiving the gift of evangelism with the laying on of hands by the elders (1 Tim. 4:14). The 
purpose (i[na) was for Timothy himself to possibly keep on warring (strateu,w present middle 
subjunctive) a fitting warfare or campaign (stratei,a). With the middle voice, Timothy needed to 
do this himself. The subjunctive mood shows us the idea that Timothy may or may not continue. 
Paul was reminding him to keep with it. The good warfare shows that he needed to be fit for use 
in the situation. The term for warfare has the idea of a military campaign. This was not just a 
one-time battle, but a continuous series of events that were going to take place. It has actually 
been going on for about two thousand years from the time this letter was written. There are just 
different people and churches in place today. The campaign from Satan and demons will 
continue to the bitter end when God will finally cast Satan and the fallen angels in the lake of fire 
that was prepared for them (Mt. 25:41, Rev. 20:10). In this battle Timothy was to be directing 
faith, part of the fruit, as well as have a good conscience, which goes back to the end of the 
charge in 1 Timothy 1:5. In verses 19 and 20 Paul mentions two individuals who were 
blasphemers, meaning they were attributing things to God that were not true, such as the need to 
live according to the Law. They had violently pushed away “The Faith” which is the doctrine of 
how to overcome the three enemies (cp. 1 Pet.5:9). Here it is related to Satan and the individuals 

wanting to be law teachers. Timothy was, and would continue to be, under satanic attack having 
spiritual cowardice, discouragement and disappointment. He was going to need to be in the right 
frame of mind because he had more than just this command to give. 

The next charge or command is in 1 Timothy 4:11. The verse is very short and to the 
point with two imperatives. The verse reads as follows; “You keep on presently charging 

llw present active imperative) and you keep on presently teaching (didaskw present 
active imperative) these things.” He was to keep on commanding with authority and teach. He 
was told to always be ready to preach the word, as well as confront others using meekness and 
teaching for grace believers (didach,

) (2 Tim. 4:2). Paul also told Timothy to pass on the things 
he learned from him to faithful men so they could teach others (2 Tim.2:2). This is something 
still going on today by the grace of God. The Holy Spirit is the ultimate teacher of the scriptures, 
but He also uses trained men to help us along the way. The time the writer of this paper has spent 
with others, who are much more knowledgeable, has paid off huge dividends with respect to 
knowledge and insights that may have never been realized in this lifetime. The context of the 
first 11 verses of chapter four reveals the things Timothy was to command and teach on. It is 
basically broken out into the things of God versus the things of Satan. The things of God deal 
with the dispensation of Faith (compare back to 1 Timothy 1:4) and Godliness. The Holy Spirit 
revealed that men would turn away or withdraw from the faith and give heed to wandering spirits 
and demon doctrines. They were going to give up the house rules with respect to faith and take 
hold of this other doctrine. The term “to take hold of” (prose,

cw) is the same one found in 1 
Timothy 1:4, where it describes ones giving heed to myths and endless genealogies. It is also 
used in the qualifications for a deacon who should not be “given to” much wine (1 Tim.3:8). In 
other words one who is addicted or a practicing alcoholic is a clearly a carnal man. These 
wandering spirits cause a person to wander off like a planet in the sky. 1 John 4:4-6 states a clear 
contrast between God and his hearers vs. Satan and his hearers. These guys try to put 
unnecessary man made worldly rules on believers such as abstinence from foods and marriage, 
as well as other restrictions. Colossians 2:20-23 states a believer has died to these worldly things 
and does not need to put themselves under useless rules, even though they are very appealing on 
the outside. Religiosity does not equate to spirituality. 

Godliness is also talked about in the context. We have the Mystery of Godliness in 1 
Timothy 3:16, basically stating we as believers can show forth a quality of God’s life here on 
earth as He (not us on our own power) lives through us. The works we do are His, not ours (Eph. 
2:10). The Son came down to earth and showed forth godliness in His humanity. Because of his 
death burial and resurrection, along with his indwelling, we as believers can show forth a God 
quality of life. This is not to be confused with acting just like Jesus did. We cannot be exactly 
like Him. We are not God. We cannot walk on water, and we cannot show authority over 
creation like He could. We can direct the fruit from the Spirit though. A look at a few scriptures 
will give us an idea of godliness. The teaching (OT) measured by godliness had to do with a 
proper use of Old Testament doctrine. The Old Testament shows that one cannot live godly by 
the Law. It is one example after another of the failures of men in the Old Testament (1 Tim. 6:3). 
True godliness had nothing to do with gain but contentment. Paul knew this well (1 Tim. 6:5-6, 
cp. Phil. 4:11-12). Timothy was to keep on pursuing (diw,

kw PAV) godliness (1 Tim. 6:11). He 
was to exercise (work out) himself toward godliness and refuse common old wives tales or 
myths (1 Tim. 4:7, cp. 1 Tim. 1:4). An experiential knowledge of truth comes down from 
godliness (Tit. 1:1). We can live a higher plane of life (zwh,

) and show forth godliness with the 
Lord’s divine ability (2 Pet. 1:2-3, cp. 2 Tim. 3:5). Godliness is related to an experiential 

knowledge of the Lord (1 Pet. 1:3-8). The Grace of God instructs us to live a godly (euv/


adverb) higher plane of life in the present age (Tit. 2:11-12). 

Another charge he had to lay out was to the widows and their families. Paul told Timothy 
to keep on charging (present active imperative) the widows and families to behave in such a way 
as to be held blameless or without fault (1 Tim. 5:7). The context of verses 1-16 reveals things 
about the widows and the caretakers. 1 Timothy 5:3-6 and 9-11 give the qualifications for 
widows. After this the younger widows are addressed and it is suggested to them that they should 
marry and not give an opportunity for Satan to attack, being busybodies and gossips (1 Tim. 
5:11-15). This is very destructive to the body of Christ. It is easy to get a story mixed up, or the 
facts embellished to make it more interesting. This kind of talk destroys the facts and the people 
involved on both sides. It ruins relationships. Verses 8 and 16 give the guidelines for helping the 
widows not qualified otherwise. Families need to take care of their own. Christians have a 
responsibility to take care of the elderly ladies either through immediate family or church family. 

The final charge Timothy needed to command was to the wealthy in this present age (1 
Tim. 6:17). There is an extensive list of things commanded to the wealthy. They were not to be 
high-minded (u`,

yhlofronew present active infinitive.). They were not to hope in uncertain 

dhlothj, 1X, cp. 1 Cor. 9:26 adv. adhlwj) riches. The context above shows the pursuit of 
money vs. the faith (6:6-11). It talks of the error of gain to be godliness and the problems with 
following such an error. There will be troubles for ones determining to be rich as well as 
problems with fondness for money. Timothy was to flee for safety away from this. They were to 
hope in the Living God (cp. 1 Tim. 4:10). They were to be in a state of doing works that made 
for happiness (av,,

gaqoergew present active infinitive). They were to be rich (ploutew present 
active infinitive) in fitting works. They were to be (eivmi, present active infinitive) liberal. The 
term literally means “good with freely giving (euv,=

metadotoj (euand metadi,dwmi)). They were also 
to be willing to share. This term means fellowship (koinwnikoj,, from koinwnia, ) and can be used 
in the giving of physical goods (cp. 1 Cor. 8:1-5, 9:13). If they were to follow the charge from 
Timothy they could receive benefits. They could put away for themselves a fitting foundation 
because of future things, which are crowns. They could take hold of themselves (ev,

aorist middle subjunctive) “eternal” life (textual problem - change o;,

ntwj to aivwniou) (1 Tim. 
6:19). They already had eternal life, but they needed to live it out, being called to salvation like 
Timothy (1 Jn. 5:11-12, Jn. 17:3, cp. 1 Tim. 6:12). 

Timothy had different charges to deliver, but Paul had a direct charge to Timothy 
himself. Paul commanded Timothy to keep the commandment (1 Tim. 6:13-14). Now the 
question would be what commandment? Thinking as one living in the dispensation of grace, we 
need to keep it in that realm. With that in mind there are two possibilities, either the new 
commandment set forth by Jesus before his departure in John 13:34 to love one another as he 
loved us, or the list of imperatives in verses 12 and 13. It makes more sense to look to the 
preceding verses, though it would not be worth breaking fellowship with someone who wanted 
to take it to the first choice mentioned. We are supposed to do both anyway. With this in mind, 
let us look to the imperatives listed. Paul suggested to Timothy, as a man belonging to God, to do 
four things; flee, pursue, contend, and seize. 

Timothy was to keep on fleeing for safety (feu,

gw present active imperative) from things 
mentioned in the context. These things were different kinds of teaching, questionings and fights 
over words, works of the flesh (sin nature), constant friction, and chasing after wealth (1 Tim. 
6:3-11). While he was to get away from these things, he was to keep on pursuing (diw,

kw present 
active imperative) the things of God. He was to pursue righteousness showing forth a certain 


behavior compared to others seeking riches. He was to pursue godliness, showing forth the 
Lord’s quality of life while being content versus pursuing gain. He was to pursue faith, 
depending on God to get him through this ordeal at Ephesus. He was to pursue love, seeking 
others interests instead of his own. He was to pursue patience to help him get through this tough 
situation and meekness to help him keep on track with the work God wanted him to do. He was 
to flee and pursue other things as well (cp. 2 Tim. 2:22). Timothy also needed to keep on 
contending (av

gwni,zomai present active imperative) the fitting contest concerning the faith, 
having victory over the three enemies in the dispensation, the one in faith (cp. 1 Tim. 1:4, 2 Tim. 
4:7, 1 Pet. 5:9). He needed to keep on fleeing, pursuing and contending. He also needed to start 
laying hold (ev,

pilambanw aorist middle imperative) of eternal life. He already had it, he just 
needed to start living it out (1 Jn. 5:11-13, cp. 1 Tim. 6:19). 

One who is charging, needs to do it in a certain way. Other scriptures show how Paul 
charged. The actual source of a charge is the Lord (1 Corinthians 7:10). It is to be done in the 
character of the Lord Jesus Christ (2 Thes. 3:6), and by one who is spiritual: “in the Lord” (2 
Thes. 3:12). The charge is to be done through the intermediate agency of the Lord (1 Thes. 4:2). 
Please keep in mind Timothy and Paul were apostles, a spiritual gift that came with more 
authority. Timothy was supposed to give commands since he was enlisted as a soldier. 

The Suffering as a Fitting Soldier 

Timothy was told to suffer with Paul as a fitting soldier belonging to Jesus Christ (2 Tim. 
2:3). The term for suffering (sugkakopaqe,w) is a compound verb meaning “be very close in 
suffering things lacking in character”. It is an aorist active imperative, basically telling us that 
Timothy needed to start suffering with Paul right now. Paul was telling Timothy, come on man, 
get with it. Suffering was part of the deal Timothy had to accept as one who belonged to Jesus 
Christ like Paul did (cp. 2 Tim. 1:1). Suffering is a gracious gift from God (Phil. 1:29). We have 
a promise that since we co-suffer with Christ, we shall be co-glorified with Him (Rom. 8:17). 
Timothy was to suffer hardships as an evangelist (2 Tim. 4:5). There are four imperatives in this 
verse that help give us a picture of what Timothy was to be doing. It was suggested to Timothy 
to keep on being sober, (nh,

fw present active imperative) meaning calm and collected. He would 
need to be calm and collected because Satan was on the attack (cp. 1 Pet. 5:8). Then he was told 
to start suffering (kakopaqew,aorist active imperative) and start doing (poiew,aorist active 
imperative) the work of an evangelist (cp. Eph. 4:11). He was to suffer due to the gospel & 
resurrection (cp. 2 Tim. 2:8-9). He was to keep on remembering (calling to mind) (mnhmoneu,w 
present active imperative) the resurrection (2 Tim. 2:8). He would leave that out probably 
knowing that as soon as the resurrection was brought up, persecution would start (cp. Acts 4:2, 
17:32, 24:21). The final imperative gets down to the bottom line where Timothy was to “fill to 
the full” his ministry. He was told by Paul “You start completely fulfilling (plhroforew,aorist 
active imperative) your ministry (cp. Eph. 4:11-12, Col. 4:17).

 Continuing on with 1 Timothy 2:3-4, Timothy was to be a fitting (kaloj) soldier. He 
was not to entangle himself (ev,

mplekw present middle/passive indicative) with the biological 
needs at that time, since he was in a spiritual warfare in the world system (cp. 2 Pet. 2:20). When 
a soldier is in a foxhole with bullets flying overhead, it is doubtful he is worried about the day to 
day affairs of domestic life or what restaurant he wants to go to. Timothy was supposed to start 
pleasing (av,,

reskw aorist active subjunctive) the One having enlisted him (stratologew aorist 
active participle) The term (stratologew,) means to gather or collect an army. 1 Corinthians 

10:33 describes pleasing as “one who does not seek their own profit.” We are to please God as a 
slave belonging to Christ (Gal 1:10, cp.1 Cor. 7:32, 1 Thes. 2:4, 4:1). We cannot please God 
when we are carnal (Rom. 8:5-8). We are also to please fellow Christians (Rom. 15:1-3). Paul 
only told Timothy to do what he was doing. 
Paul had suffered for the gospels he preached on numerous occasions (2 Tim. 1:8, 2:8-9). 
He had preached the gospel for initial salvation (1 Cor. 15:3-4) as well as his gospel, the one for 
how to live in ones present tense salvation that stabilizes (Rom. 16:25, cp. Acts 20:24). He was 
beaten, imprisoned, chased after, starved, as well as even put to death more than once (2 Cor. 
11:23-33, Acts 14:19, 2 Tim. 4:7-8). Paul was also a soldier who struggled or contended. Paul 
inferred that he was one who was serving as a soldier (1 Cor. 9:7). Paul contended, stating “I 
have contested (av,v,

gwnizomai present middle indicative) the fitting contest (agwn)” ( 2 Tim. 4:7). 
Paul had weapons (o[,

plon) of warfare (strateia) . One could look at these things as spiritual 
implements for a spiritual campaign going on, which we are a part of. These implements in the 
context are to deal with contrary men. These implements were not of flesh (humanity) but from 
an ability from God (2 Cor. 10:4). Though we have a general lifestyle in our humanity, we do not 
campaign from our humanity. The term here is for flesh, but not a reference to the sin nature. In 
the context of 2 Corinthians 10, we have people speaking ill of Paul. These men were making up 
there own list of how to match up to what is good and comparing themselves to that standard 
instead of God’s standard which is according to His word (2 Cor.10:12-18). There were things 
needing to be overthrown and taken captive. The things needing to be overthrown were 
strongholds of reasonings and high things. The term for overthrown (kaqai,

resij) means pulling 
down or demolition. The term “strongholds” (ov,

curwma) is defined as a castle. It is from the word 
to fortify. The castle Paul was going to destroy, by the power of God, was the reasonings and 
high things against the experiential knowledge of God. Reasoning (logismo,j) is a computation or 
a conception (Green, pg. 111). The high things (u[

ywma) has the idea of “a towering of self-
conceit” or presumption (Green, pg. 136). These conceptions and high things were in contrast to 
the knowledge pertaining to God. Paul stated he wanted to know Christ and His power and 
suffering (1 Cor. 2:1-2, Phil.3:10). While he wanted to destroy the strongholds of conceptions 
and high things, he wanted to also take captive every thought unto the obedience concerning 
Christ. Ones who believe are the ones who will obey (cp. Rom. 1:5, 10:16). The term for taking 
captive (aivcmalwti,zw) is a present active participle meaning to lead away captive or bring under 
control. Illustrations of the term are seen in the following verses: Christ led captive 

cmalwteuw aorist active indicative) captivity (aicmalwsia) (Eph. 4:8). Christ was sent to 
proclaim release to the captives (aivcma,

lwtoj) (Lk. 4:18). Paul was in a campaign against certain 
individuals in Corinth like Timothy was at Ephesus. There were people wanting to live according 
to the principles of the world system and man’s ideas. There were problems with people 
following men instead of the Lord. They wanted to debate rather than learn of the simplicity of 
the death burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ (cp. 1 Cor. 1-2). Paul was dealing with people 
who were disobedient (2 Cor.10:6). The term for disobedience (parakoh,

) is defined as erroneous 
or imperfect hearing (Green, pg. 136). They heard but did not comprehend. As stated a few 
sentences ago, they were not being obedient concerning Christ. 

The Guard (fula,


Timothy, as a soldier belonging to Christ, was to guard the spiritual things given to him. 
The term “to guard” (fula,

ssw) has the idea to keep watch over someone with a protective 
quality, or put a garrison around something. Illustrations of the term are as follows: 

Used to observe or keep something such as commands or decrees, Mt. 19:20, Acts 16:4, 

Rom. 2:26. 

Used to keep watch over others or things, protect, Lk. 2:8, 11:21, Acts 22:20. 

Used of ones who will keep something or someone protected, Jn. 12:25, 17:12. 

Used of incarceration (with protection), Acts 23:35. 

Used of guarding from something (idols), 1 Jn. 5:21. 

Uses of Timothy guarding himself concerning Alexander the coppersmith, 2 Tim. 4:14

15, cp. 2 Pet. 3:17. 

Used of Jesus Christ, Who is able to guard what was entrusted to Paul and to us 

(salvation) until His appearing, 2 Tim. 1:12, cp. 2 Pet. 2:5, Jude 24. 

Timothy was supposed to guard (fula,

ssw aorist active subjunctive) against being 
prejudiced and taking sides when dealing with issues with others (1 Tim. 5:21). The subjunctive 
gives the idea he would hopefully do this, and not show favor to individuals. Maybe he liked 
some people more than others. The context suggests this is mainly talking about elders (mature 
ones) who were out of line. It could have been some of the men Paul had met in Miltetus who he 
warned about the terrible things to come. There were also others who Timothy needed to deal 
with in a proper way. He was to have a certain attitude toward the young and old men and 
women, as well as widows. 

Timothy was to start guarding (fula,

ssw aorist active imperative) the deposit given to 
him (1 Tim. 6:20, 2 Tim. 1:14). He was to start guarding the teaching from Paul while turning 
away false teaching. He himself was to be avoiding or shunning (ev,

ktrepw present middle 
participle). We saw this term earlier in the paper where men were turned away (ev,

ktrepw aorist 
passive indicative) from love and faith to empty words desiring to teach law (1 Tim. 1:5-6). 
There were young widows who were turned aside (ev,

ktrepw API) after Satan, being busybodies 
and gossips (1 Tim. 5:15 (11-15)). People would be wanting their ears tickled and they would be 
turned aside (ev,

ktrepw future passive indicative) to myths (2 Tim. 4:4). So just as these people 
turned away from things of God to things pertaining to the sin nature and Satan, Timothy was to 
avoid profane empty talk. The term profane (be,

bhloj, adj.) means something that is common or 
unhallowed; here of ones who “treat God like dirt” (Dale R. Spurbeck notes) or as if He is 
nothing. This common empty talk (kenofwni,a, aj, h`

) will lead to more ungodliness (cp. 2 Tim. 
2:16). Timothy was also supposed to avoid opposing things from the falsely named experiential 
knowledge. The term opposition (av,

nti,qesij) is a hapox from the verb (tiqhmi) meaning to set, 
put or place with the preposition (av

nti) meaning against. The idea is to set something against 
something else. There was opposition from the falsely named (yeudw,

numoj) experiential 
knowledge (gnw/

sij), which was the bad teaching the people wanted to go after, such as myths, 
genealogies, law, gain to be godliness, and anything against grace teaching and the Gospel. The 
ones promising this false knowledge were missing the mark on purpose (av,

stocew aorist active 
indicative) generally concerning “The faith” (1 Tim. 6:21). We have mentioned “The Faith” of 

how to have victory over ones enemies. We have also mentioned the dispensation, the one in 
faith where we live by faith in this dispensation (grace). In the context we have “the faith” 
mentioned pertaining to ones who have wandered away from it to chase money (1 Tim. 6:10). In 
the next verse we have the fruit, from the Spirit, faith (1 Tim. 6:11). And in the verse after that 
we have the good fight pertaining to the faith, probably referring to the general walk of a believer 
(1 Tim. 6:12). 

Timothy was to guard (fula,

ssw aorist active imperative) the teaching from Paul through 
the Holy Spirit (2 Tim. 1:14). In the verses right before this Paul is talking about past, present 
and future salvation (2 Tim. 1:9-12). Paul also talked to Timothy about the healthy words and 
grace. Paul may have been concerned for his young disciple since others had turned away from 
him (2 Tim. 1:15). 

Another term worth mentioning in this section is (frourew,) which means to keep or 
protect by a military guard. This is a guarding to prevent a hostile invasion, or to keep one from 
fleeing (2 Co. 11:32). The Mosaic Law kept ones under control until faith came, which has to do 
with the dispensation we are in now (Gal. 3:23). Peace guards our hearts and minds in Christ 
Jesus (Phil. 4:7). Christians are being guarded by the power of God for the inheritance promised, 
which is a glorified resurrected body (1 Pet. 1:5). 

The Contender (av,


Besides being a guard, he was to also be a contender. Timothy was to “fight the good 
fight” (1 Tim. 6:12). We have already mentioned this earlier. The term translated as “fight” 

gwni,zomai) means to contend , and it is in the present middle imperative showing that it was 
suggested by Paul to keep on contending the fitting (kalo,v,

j) contest (agwn - struggle). This term 
is more of a sports term rather than a term used for warfare, but it was worthwhile to mention. 
Paul also contested and was continuing to contend himself (av

gwni,zomai perfect middle 
imperative) the fitting contest (2 Tim. 4:7). Paul himself contested (av,

gwnizomai present middle 
participle) a contest for others according to the inner working which itself was working by 
Christ’s ability in Paul (Col. 1:29 - 2:1). There will be contention when suffering on behalf of 
Christ (Phil. 1:29-30). One can labor and contend themselves (av,

gwnizomai present middle 
indicative) by hoping upon the living God, Who is the Savior of all men (1 Tim. 4:10). 

The Ministry (How it was to be done) 

Timothy was to completely fulfill (plhroforew,aorist active imperative) his ministry 
(diakonia,) (2 Tim. 4:5). He was to preach the word. (2 Tim. 4:2, cp. 2:2, 25). We will now look 
at a few verses to see how he was to do his ministry. He was to be strong in the grace, which is in 
Jesus Christ (2 Tim. 2:1). He was to have a certain demeanor (spiritual) (2 Tim. 2:24-25). Even 
though Paul talks to him as one who should be soldiering, Paul tells him to be the opposite of 
what one might think a soldier ought to be on the battlefield. He needed to be gentle to all, which 
would include the ones causing trouble. The term for gentle (h;

pioj) is used in 1 Thessalonians 

2:7 (There is a textual problem and the word h;
pioj should be added) in reference to a nurse who 
keeps warm and gives tender care and love to a child. Try to picture a great big man holding a 
baby trying to be careful not to hurt him and to protect him. It would be along those lines. 
Timothy was also to be patient of wrongs (av,

nexikakoj). This term occurs only one time in the 


New Testament. Timothy needed to be patient of many things that were happening at Ephesus. 
He was to do this using the fruit from the Spirit, meekness (prau<

thj), which would enable him to 
keep on track with what God had for him to do (Gal. 5:23). This would keep Timothy focused on 
fulfilling his ministry and completing his race like Paul had. Meekness is directed when dealing 
with confrontation (Eph. 4:2, Gal 6:1). It is directed (of wisdom - descriptive genitive) when one 
is pointing out their works by a fitting manner of life (James 3:13). It helps one to be consistent 
in the works God has set for him to do. Another time when meekness needs to be directed is 
when one gets an opportunity to give the Gospel (1 Pet. 3:15-16). This is something Timothy 
definitely needed since he was not doing the work of an evangelist. For one to be an evangelist, 
he needs to be sharing the death, burial and resurrection, which Timothy seemed to be leaving 
out. He was to direct the fruit and also be empowered in the Lord to not only accomplish the 
works God had set before him, but also to deal with one of the sources of his ordeals, Satan. He 
needed to put on the whole armor of God. Timothy must have known of the armor since the 
letter to the Ephesians was written a few years before these letters to him. 

The Armor 

One needs to put on the armor of God when under satanic attack (Eph. 6:10-17). When 
doing this we first need to be empowered in the Lord. We need to be spiritual before we put on 
the armor (Eph. 6:10). Timothy needed to realize the battle was actually against Satan and his 
demons, even though carnal believers and tares were involved. One thing about Satan is he roars 
as a lion to cause fear (1 Pet. 5:8). We are to stand facing the devils methodologies in the evil 
day when he is allowed to attack us, throwing lusts into our minds. The term to stand (av

means to oppose or set oneself against. Satan will flee (to run seeking safety) away from (av,

po) a 
believer if they resist him (James 4:7). When we are ready to stand we need to mentally put on 
the whole armor (panoplia,). The term is only recorded three times in the scriptures. It is used of 
an actual soldier in Lk.11:22 and twice in the context of Ephesians 6 (Eph. 6:11, 13). In the 
context of Ephesians, Paul tells the readers to “put on yourselves right now!!!” (ev,

nduw aorist 
middle imperative second person plural) the whole armor. They were to put it on as an outer 
garment (Eph. 6:11). They were also to take up right now!!! (av,

nalambanw aorist active 
imperative) the whole armor (Eph. 6:13). We have two aorist middle imperatives showing a 
sense of urgency for them to do this. They needed to put on the whole armor so no part of their 
thought process would be vulnerable. The whole armor consisted of the following: 

Truth – Keeps one from lying. Gird about (perizw,

nnumi) prepare oneself. 

Righteousness – Keeps one from pride and independence from God. Armor or 
breastplate (qw,,

rax). Compare the breastplate (qwrax) of faith and love (1 Thes. 

Gospel of peace – Keeps one from stealing, give something rather than take 
away. Preparation of feet (e`

toimasi,a) put on sandals basically. 

Faith – Keeps one from doubting. Shield (qureo,j) a long shield. 


Salvation – Keeps one from discouragement and disappointment (Job). Helmet 
(perikefalai,a). Compare the helmet (perikefalai,a) as the hope of future 
salvation (context) (1 Thes. 5:8). 

Utterances of God - Keeps one in line, not a sword to go after Satan. Sword 


Worship and supplication for other saints - gets one out of themself and their 
problems. This is not part of the armor but needs to be done as well. 

We have seen that Timothy needed to be thinking as a soldier as he was dealing with 
many situations. He was under satanic attack in a spiritual warfare. We need to be thinking in a 
similar manner when the evil day arrives. We need to be on guard and sober as we deal with this 
formidable foe. He is no joke and should not be treated as such. When the campaign begins, we 
need to follow how Timothy was supposed to act and think. 

The Sin Nature 

The next section we are going to look at will deal with terms that are used in a military 
sense when confronted by an even more formidable foe, the sin nature. A close study of Romans 
7 will give one insight into the strength of the sin nature. One cannot control it on their own. We 
need help from the Holy Spirit. The sin nature is more powerful than man, but the Holy Spirit is 
more powerful than the sin nature. The two terms we will be dealing with in this section on the 
sin nature are weapons (o`,

plon) and campaigning (strateuw). Both are military terms, but the 
term for weapons should also be considered as implements or tools. 

The Weapons (o`

plon) of Righteousness 

We will first look at how a saint needs to present themselves and the members of their 
body as a weapon (o`

plon) when dealing with the sin nature (Rom. 6:13). It is quite clear a saint 
is not to present their members (parts of the body) as weapons (instruments) concerning 
unrighteousness pertaining to the sin nature (cp. Rom. 6:16, 19). The readers must have been in 
sin since Paul is telling them to stop presenting or yielding their members as instruments 
concerning a quality of unrighteousness to the sin nature. Here we have (mhde,) meaning to stop 
with (pari,

sthmi) meaning to yield. The verb is a present active imperative, telling them that they 
should stop presenting their members to unrighteous behavior. It was something they were 
presently doing. They were using a member of their body to perform some unrighteous behavior. 
Instead of continuing in this unrighteous behavior, they were to start living a better quality of 
life. They were to immediately present themselves as ones living a higher plane of life and their 
members as weapons of righteousness. The verb (pari,sthmi) is the same in an aorist active 
imperative, telling them to start at a point in time as soon as possible, and that they were 
responsible to do this. They were first to present themselves to the Father and then their members 
or parts of their body. They were to live a higher plane of life (za,w), which is resurrection life, 
reckoning the fact that in their position in Christ they could think this way: “Christ died, I died 
(to the sin nature); Christ is alive, I am alive in Christ (Rom. 6:10-11).” We do not just stop at 

yielding our members to unrighteousness. We continue on and yield to righteous behavior, 
looking around for how God would use us to glorify Him. A saint is not to be offensive in 
anything, but commending (establishing) himself as a minister belonging to God. He is to do this 
through weapons (o[

plon) concerning righteousness (2 Cor 6:7 (3-4)). Paul states the way to act 
righteous is only in our position in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21). If we look at the context, this is so that 
the ministry of reconciliation is not blamed (cp. 2 Cor. 5:18 ff.). In this situation Paul talks of his 
ordeals (6:4-5), as well as his attitude as he went through these ordeals (6:6-7). We also see 
Paul’s reputation (6:8-9a) and the benefits he bestowed and received as he carried out the 
ministry given to him by God (6:9b-10). 

The Weapon (o`

plon) of Light 

A saint needs to put on the armor (o[

plon) of light as he lives out his life among others in 
society (Rom. 13:12). The context of chapter thirteen talks of the civil obligations a believer has 
as a productive member in society. Believers will interact with the unsaved and saved as they 
live their lives. They are to be living in light, a godly life, versus darkness, a carnal way of life. 
Believers are to respect the officials in authority and pay taxes (Rom. 13:1-7). They are also to 
be directing love toward their neighbor (fellow believers) as they await the rapture (Rom. 13:811). 
They are also to walk decently (euv,

schmonw) which means good actions (Rom. 13:13). The 
term is used of ones behaving properly as they lead a quiet life, minding their own business and 
working. This is so they could show forth proper behavior facing the ones on the outside 
(unbelievers) and not be in need of anything (1 Thess. 4:12). In other words, work and don’t be a 
leech, which is not a very good testimony. 

Believers themselves were to put on as an outer garment (ev,

nduw aorist middle 
imperative) the Lord Jesus Christ (Rom. 13:14). They were responsible to do this right now as 
the verb suggests in the aorist middle imperative. A saint is baptized or immersed into Christ 
(Gal. 3:27) and the Body of Christ by the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 12:13-14). The idea here is a 
believer is placed into Christ when first saved and nothing can change that. However, one may or 
may not be showing forth the life of Christ. He may be living in sin or carnal. So instead of 
putting on a lifestyle of darkness, he needs to put on a quality of God’s life when dealing with 
the sin nature. One needs to look at who and what he is in his position in Christ. Since we have 
been raised with Christ, we need to think about the things we have in Christ above and not the 
things that are upon the earth, such as our sin nature and the things that appeal to our sin nature. 
We need to remember that we died and our life is hidden closely with Christ in God the Father 
(Col. 3:1-3). With this in mind the Roman saints were to put off (give it up) works of darkenes 
and put on the weapons of light. The term (av,

potiqhmi) means to put away, and is an aorist middle 
subjunctive telling us they were to do this themselves, but they might not. The works of darkness 
in the context were things lacking in character (kako,j) (Rom. 13:4, 10). There are references to 
the Old Testament Law dealing with adultery, murder, stealing, and coveting (Rom. 13:9, cp. Ex. 
20:13-17, Dt. 5:17-21) to make a point in how one should treat his neighbor. Down further in the 
context there are three pairs of works of the flesh (Rom. 13:13). They are carousing (kw/

moj drinking 
parties) and being drunk (me,

qh), lewdness (koi,th - unlawful sex, “living together”) and 
lasciviousness (av,

selgeia - unbridled lust, do whatever you want with no restraints), and strife 

rij - quaraling or fighting) and zeal (zhloj - competitiveness). Finally, the last thing in the 
chapter is a saint is not to make plans (pro,

noia) for the flesh (sin nature) in regard to its lusts 

(Rom. 13:14). So instead of going after the things of darkness, a believer needs to put on the 
armor of light. 

It was strongly suggested to the Roman believers to put on as an outer garment (ev,

the armor of light (Rom. 13:12). Here the term “to put on” is an aorist middle subjunctive, letting 
us know they may or may not do this. They needed to put on light, a metaphor for God’s quality 
of life, since they were sons of the light and day (1 Thes. 5:5). As a son of the light and day, we 
are to be sober while watching because the works of the flesh, such as drunkenness, go on in 
darkness. (1 Thes. 5:7). One needs to be sober when dealing with the sin nature. Sober means to 
be calm and collected in spirit (1 Thes. 5:6, cp. 5:8) One is sober while “girding up the mind” (1 
Pet. 1:13). People want to hide out and keep things in the dark, or concealed, when they are 
living in the realm of their sin nature. They will do anything to conceal their bad behavior, but 
they will be hard pressed to keep a lid on their attitude. Carnality will show itself no matter how 
hard one tries to fake it. Eventually he will slip up. We are not in darkness, but in God’s life that 
is light. He is the light of men and the light of the world (Jn. 1:4-5, 1 Tim. 6:16). We are called 
out of darkness into His marvelous (wonderful, extraordinary, striking) light (1 Pet. 2:9). We 
used to be in darkness, only living in the realm of our sin nature, but now as believers we are a 
quality of light in the Lord and we need to walk as children of light (Eph. 5:8). In other words, 
let our behavior match who we are in Christ. There can be a stark contrast between the saved and 
the unsaved (2 Cor. 6:14). 

To Arm (o`,

plizw) with the Mind of Christ 

A saint needs to arm himself (o`,

plizw) with the mind of Christ when dealing with the sin 
nature and carnal lusts (1 Pet. 4:1-2). The term to arm is in the aorist middle imperative telling us 
that the saints Peter was writing to needed to put on the armor right now. Christ suffered on 
behalf of us (textual problem- add u`.`/,

per hmwn after paqontoj) in flesh (cp. 1 Pet. 3:18), and we as 
saints have died with Christ and now live with Christ. We have been made to cease and to 
continue to cease (pau,w) from sin. The verb means to restrain or leave off. It is a perfect passive 
indicative, giving us the idea that the ones here were made to cease from sinning and to continue 
in that state. This does not mean we no longer sin though. These saints were to not live (biow,) the 
remaining time here in lusts of men. Fleshly lusts themselves campaign against the soul which is 
unsaved (1 Pet. 2:11, cp. 1 Pet. 1:9). The term for campaining is the term (strateu,w). It is a 
present middle indicative showing these lusts rear their ugly head as we entertain them. In 1 
Peter 4:3 we have a list of the works of the flesh and things pertaining to it, such as lusts. They 
are the following: 

Lasciviousness (av,

selgeia) - unbridled lust, do whatever you want with no restraints, 
Lusts (ev

piqumi,a) - strong burning desire, craving. 
Excess of wine (oivnoflugi,a) - drunkeness. 
Carousing (kw/

moj) - feasts and festivals, drinking parties, Gal 5:21. 
Drinking parties (po,

toj) - banquets. 
Abominable idolatries. 
Abominable (av,

qemitoj) - contrary or prohibited by law. 
Idolatries (eiv

dwlolatri,a) - idol worship, Gal. 5:20, Col. 3:5. 

Carnality does not want the desirous will of God and wants others to join in (1 Pet. 4:4). 
A saint is to avoid the things in the list above. In contrast, a saint is to be spiritual, girding his 
thinking and be calm and collected when dealing with these lusts (1 Pet. 1:13-15). He is also to 
completely hope upon the future grace by Jesus Christ’s appearing, which will be at the rapture. 
He is to live in the desirous will of God. This does not include living in the realm of ones sin 
nature. Remember we were called to freedom.This calling was not so we can live a life of 
carnality, but so we can serve one another by love (Gal.5:13). 

The Waring (strateu,w) 

A saint needs to deal with all three enemies at times when hedonistic pleasures are 
soldiering (strateuw,) in his members (James 4:1-8). In the context there were campaigns 

lemoj) and fights (mach) going on. The campaigns and fights were in or among (en) them. 
These campaigns and fights were out from (evk) hedonistic pleasures. These hedonistic pleasures 
(h`,) were soldiering (strateuw present middle participle) in their members (body parts) (cp. 

1 Pet. 2:11). Here we have our term for soldiering as a pesent middle participle. Hedonism itself 
campaigns againt one who welcomes such desires. These people who were fighting amongst one 
another were judging one another (James 4:11-12). We have all three enemies working against a 
believer in this section of James. The first enemy mentioned is the sin nature (James 4:2-3). 
They were murdering (foneuw, present active indicative) and being zealots (zhlow, present active 
indicative). They themselves were fighting (ma,

comai present middle indicative) and campaigning 
(polemew,present active indicative). They had bad motives for asking, wanting to spend what 
they would hopefully receive on hedonistic pleasures. As a result of this they did not receive 
what they were asking for. The second enemy mentioned is the world system (James 4:4-5). This 
section gives away their character as spiritual adulterers showing where their fondness lies (cp. 
James 4:13). As a result they were deciding to be hostile enemies of God. This affected God the 
Holy Spirit who longed for them, or wanted them. The Holy Spirit wants our attention and seeks 
after us. Thank God for this. Finally the third enemy talked about is Satan who likes to throw the 
thought of pride at us (James 4:6-7). Pride was what got him in the predicament he has lived with 
since he fell. Here we have God’s stance with arrogant (prideful) and humble men (ones in 
reality). Saints are to stand against the Devil. When the fallen cherub is referred to as the devil, it 
is pointing out he is the slanderer. He slanders God and His people. We also have a promise from 
God in this this section, which is if we stand against the Devil, he will flee from us as one 
running away seeking safety. The context of these verses are summed up by the point that James 
addresses them as sinners and ones who are double minded. The term for double minded means 
two souled (di,yucoj). One who is two souled is unstable in all his ways. This is someone who is 
restless (James 1:8). The soul is not saved at this moment, but will be in the future. We will 
receive this at the completion of our salvation (1 Pet. 1:9). So when one is two souled, they 
basically are making a decision to do one bad thing versus another bad thing. One who is in the 
realm of their soul will not be thinking logically. Fleshly lusts wage a war against ones soul 
because that is the area in which the sin nature can get to a person. If one is spiritual (living in 
the realm of ones spirit, which is saved right now) these lusts will not appeal to him. Another 
verse to think about is Galations 5:16 where we are told if we walk by the Spirit, we will not 
fulfill the lusts from the flesh. Logically the works of the flesh, the world sytem and Satan are 
not very appealing compared to God and what he has planned for us. We need to be in the right 
frame of mind to realize this. 

We have looked at different military terms linked to dealing with satanic attack and the 
sin nature. These enemies are very dangerous foes to us as soldiers belonging to Christ. As has 
been stated, there is a spiritual battle going on today like it was in the days of Timothy and the 
writers of the New Testament. God brought revelation to us so we could be prepared for the day 
of battle against Satan and our very own sin nature. We cannot do it on our own. We need the 
Holy Spirit’s help. We have an enemy coming down from the heavenlies attacking us on the 
outside. We have another enemy attacking us from the inside. And to make matters worse we 
have a battleground where we are surrounded by things that appeal to our sin nature and distract 
us. This is the world sytem we live in, which was set up by Satan. 

The World Sytem (The battlefield – no home field advantage for saints) 

The world system cradles the unsaved and keeps them distracted from the fact that they 
are going to spend eternity in hell. It appeals to what one’s sin nature desires and what he sees, 
and brings about a sense of pride in the ones who attain its goods (1 Jn. 2:16). People chase after 
money, education, entertainment and things of that sort instead of pursuing a relationship with 
God. Believers live in the world sytem, but we are not a part of it. We are not to be fond of the 
world system (James 4:4). We are not to love the world sytem or the things in it (1 Jn. 2:15).We 
are not to use it to its full purpose or abuse it (1 Cor. 7:31) We are actually to consider ourselves 
crucified to it and it to us (Gal. 6:14, Col. 2:20). If you are crucified to it, you cannot respond. 
Even though we are citizens of a country as people on earth, we are actully strangers and aliens. 
Our citizenship or politics is in the heavenlies, not here on earth (Phil. 3:20). 

We are sojourners (aliens) in this World (1 Pet. 2:11). The term (pa,

roikoj) is used as one 
who is living without the rights that a citizen has. An illustration of the term is used in Acts 7:6, 
which is referring to Abram’s descendents being strangers in a land that was not theirs (cp. Gen. 
15:13). It is also used of Moses being an alien in the land of Midian (Acts 7:29). Gentile 
Christians are no longer aliens, but co-citizens being in the household of God (Eph. 2:19). We 
are also pilgrims in this world (1 Pet. 2:11). The term for pilgrim (parepi,

dhmoj ) means to come 
from a foreign country or land and live there. It is one who is a stranger. In the scriptures it is 
used metaphorically in regards to heaven as the native country, dealing with Christians. It is used 
literally of ones who were residing in foreign lands though the idea of being strangers on earth as 
elect ones could be considered as well (1 Pet. 1:1). It is also used of Old Testament saints who 
were “pilgrims” (Heb.11:13). Christians are to keep themselves away from carnal lusts as aliens 
and strangers. The term to “keep away from”(av,

pecw) is a present middle infinitive. We are 
responsible, as they were, to abstain from strong desires that are coming from the sin nature. 
These carnal desires, as we stated earlier, are waging a military campaign against our unsaved 
soul. We need to keep in mind that our citizenship is not here but up there, in Heaven with God. 
This will help us in dealing with Satan and the sin nature here in this world system where we are 
aliens and pilgrims. We do not belong here anymore. We are part of something much bigger and 
better. Thinking of who we are in Christ will help us deal with unsavory characters in situations 
that are not very pleasant in a world system that is passing by us. It is constantly changing, but 
we have God who remains constant. 


We have looked at three distinct enemies. Each one needs to be dealt with in a very 
serious manner, and in a proper way depending upon the Lord’s power as we use the proper 
defense. They are separate but work very well together. We saw how Satan and his willing 
accomplices, unsaved and carnal men, can cause all kinds of trouble. Timothy had to deal with 
all kinds of issues at Ephesus such as bad teaching and bad people. There were those wanting to 
teach and be taught doctrine different from what God had provided for them. Timothy was in a 
church that had been taught a great deal by Paul, but they drifted away from it. Ephesus was hard 
on their pastors and Timothy. Timothy had his own issues to deal with, being weak physically 
and troubled spiritually. Satan was getting the best of him. Thankfully God provided two letters 
through Paul to help him through this tough time where he needed to be a fitting soldier. We saw 
that Timothy was to charge or command others to get in line as well. He was to do this with 
authority. He was to war as a soldier a fitting warfare. It was not just a one-time situation. 
Remember that Satan can attack from different angles and will not give up. He was to be a guard, 
putting a garrison around the spiritual things given to him by Paul. He was to be on guard against 
others who were ready to attack. He was to struggle the fitting struggle, contending as Paul did. 
He was to fulfill his ministry as one who is gentle, depending upon God’s power and not his 
own. He needed to put the whole armor from God on, as we should when the evil day arrives 
when Satan, or one of his demons, is allowed to attack. We saw that we do not only battle with 
Satan, but the sin nature within us. 

The sin nature is extremely powerful and we must yield ourselves, then our members to 
the Holy Spirit, Who can wipe out the attack from the sin nature. The saint needs to present his 
members as weapons, or instruments, to righteousness, looking for those opportunities to please 
God. He is not to think about how to please his own desires coming from his sin nature. A saint 
is also not to be offensive in anything so his ministry is not affected in a negative way. Paul was 
careful so the ministry of reconciliation would not be affected. We also saw a saint needs to put 
on the armor of light as he is living out his life among others in society. A saint needs to arm 
himself with the mind of Christ when dealing with the sin nature and carnal lusts. Finally, a saint 
needs to deal with all three enemies at times when hedonistic pleasures are campaining in his 
members. Satan and the sin nature attack believers as they live out their life in the world system. 

The world system can distract and pull believers away from God’s plan for them. We saw 
that one cannot be friends with or love the world system. We are to consider ourselves crucified 
to the world system and it to us. We are sojourners (aliens) and pilgrms in this world. Our 
citizenship is in the heavens, not here on earth. We are only here to soldier for a little while, and 
then go home. And when we go home, we will go home to wait for a victorious return with the 
Lord. God has told us the end before it has ever happened. God will win the war. We as 
believers, who are soldiers, can win in the campagin we are placed in right now. However, as a 
soldier, our weapons are not what one would think. Timothy was told to be gentle as a nurse. We 
do put the armor on as we deal with Satan, but it is a defensive stance. We do not go after him. 
We do not have to. We just stand against him and he runs away. Our weapons when it comes to 
the sin nature are weapons of righteousness, meaning we act right. This can only be done in 
Christ. We must have God’s righteousness, not ours. We have the fruit from the Spirit to throw 
around and not actual swords. If we are to kill anybody, we need to do it with kindness. We are 
to be gentle and meek with others, and patient in situations as we direct faith and love. 
Remember the Lord is the One Who repays and judges others. That is not our place. We are 

actually called to suffer in a similar way that Timothy suffered with Paul. We suffer now but will 
be glorified in the future. We know one day the King of Kings and Lord of Lords will return and 
claim victory wiping out all three enemies. The battle seems long while we are in it, but He does 
give us a reprieve. It will not last forever. One day soon He will return for His people, setting in 
motion the end times with the next prophetic event, which is the rapture of the church. Exactly 
when that is, we do not know, but it is one day closer today than it was yesterday. Come Lord 

Definitions of Terms Related to a Soldier and Warfare 

1. Soldier Terms. (stratoj,, o, ) Stegenga, pg. 714 
a. Magistrate (strathgo,/` ,;
j, strathgou, o(stratoj and agw), 1. the commander of an 
army. 2. In the N. T. a civic commander, a governor, captain of the temple guard. 
Magistrate. Lk. 22:4, 52; Acts 4:1; 5:24, 26; 16:20, 22, 35f, 38. Not used in reference 
to spiritual matters. 

1. The one Enlisting. (stratologew,) to be a stratologoj (and this from stratoj,and 
gw) - to gather (collect) an army, to enlist soldiers: o stratologhsaj (AADat. 
Masc, Pl. Part.) (he that enrolled (him) as a soldier), of the commander. 2 Tim. 

2. Commander of the guard (stratopeda,`,
rchj, stratopedarcou, o) (stratopedon and 

rcw) - the commander of a camp and army, a military tribune. Acts 28:16. 

3. Armies. (strato,,,,
pedon, stratopedonou, to) (stratoj, and pedon a plain) - a military 
camp, soldiers in camp, an army. Luke 21:20. 

b. Warfare (stratei,a) - Campaign, military service, an expedition. 1 Tim. 1:18, 2 Cor. 
c. Army (stra,,,
teuma, strateumatoj, to) - A band of soldiers, men of war. Lk. 23:11, 
Acts 23:10,27, Rev. 9:16, 19:14, 19. Used of men and spirit beings. 

d. Soldiering (strateu,w) - To make war, hence to serve as a soldier. Used in reference 
to ones who are soldiering or making war, ones who are soldiering as Christians, and 
in reference to lusts and members of ones body waging a war against a believer. Lk. 
3:14; 1 Co. 9:7; 2 Co. 10:3; 1 Tim. 1:18; 2 Tim. 2:4; Jas. 4:1; 1 Pet. 2:11 
· Waring against (avw) - Only middle in the NT; strictly take the field 

against, wage war against; figuratively, of sin personified as a ruling, hostile 
force. Rom. 7:23. 

e. Host (stratia,, stratia/j, h` (stratoj,)) - Army, band of soldiers, troops of angels. In 
Septuagint - abc'' - army, war, warfare. Used of spirit beings in heaven. Lk. 2:13, 
Acts 7:42. 
f. Soldier (stratiw,
thj) - One who is in the army. A citizen bound to military service. 

Matt. 8:9; 27:27; 28:12; Mk. 15:16; Lk. 7:8; 23:36; Jn. 19:2, 23f, 32, 34; Acts 10:7; 

12:4, 6, 18; 21:32, 35; 23:23, 31; 27:31f, 42; 28:16; 2 Tim. 2:3. All verses deal with 

actual soldiers except for 2 Tim. 2:3 where it is used for a soldier belonging to Christ. 

A very close fellow soldier (sustratiw,, sun,and stratia) thj, 
sustratiwtou, o`

A fellow-soldier, an associate in labors and conflicts for the cause of Christ. Phil. 

2:25, Philemon 1:2. 

2. Weapons, (o[[,plon, oplou, to) Stegenga pg. 572. 

a. Weapons, arms (o[
plon) - A tool, implement, weapon, instrument. Jn. 18:3, Rom. 6:13 
(2X), 13:12, 2 Cor. 6:7, 10:4. 

Whole armor (panoplia,) (paj/& o[plon) - Complete armor, a complete suit of 
armor, both offensive and defensive, as the shield, sword, spear, helmet, 
breastplate, Green 135. Lk.11:22, (actual soldier), Eph. 6:11, 13 (spiritual). 
b. To Arm (o`
pli,zw) - Literally to arm, furnish with arms; universally, to provide; 
metaphorically take on the same mind. 1 Pet. 4:1. 

To fully arm (kaqopli,zw) (kata, and oplizw ). Lk. 11:21. 

3. To Command, Charge, Order (paragge,;llw, from agw), Stegenga pg. 12. 

a. To command, charge (paragge,
llw) - To come along side and announce. Mt. 10:5; 

15:35; Mk. 6:8; 8:6; 16:8; Lk. 5:14; 8:29, 56; 9:21; Acts 1:4; 4:18; 5:28, 40; 10:42; 

15:5; 16:18, 23; 17:30; 23:22, 30; 1 Co. 7:10; 11:17; 1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:4, 6, 

10, 12; 1 Tim. 1:3; 4:11; 5:7; 6:13, 17 

b. Command (paraggeli,a, paraggeli,aj, h` ,
(paraggellw)) - Announcement, a 

proclaiming or giving a message to. A charge. Acts 5:28; 16:24; 1 Thess. 4:2; 1 Tim. 

1:5, 18. 

4. Fight (ma,comai), Stegenga pg. 482. 

a. To fight (ma,
comai) - Properly, of armed combatants, or those who engage in a hand

to-hand struggle. Also used of those who engage in a war of words, to quarrel, 

wrangle, dispute. Acts 7:26, Jn. 6:52, 2 Tim. 2:24; Jas. 4:2 

1. Not a brawler (a;,
macoj&on). 1 Tim. 3:3, Tit.3:2. 

2. Protest violently (diama,
comai) - To fight it out; contend fiercely, Acts 23:9. 

3. To fight with wild beasts (qhriomacew,) - These words some take literally, 
supposing that Paul was condemned to fight with wild beasts; others explain them 
topically of a fierce contest with brutal and ferocious men. 1 Cor. 15:32. 
Highly displeased (qumomace,,,,
w, qumomacw;(qumoj and macomai)) - To carry on 
war with great animosity; to be very angry, be exasperated. Acts 12:20. 

b. To fight against God (qeomace,,,
w) (Qeoj and macomai)). Acts 23:9. 

· Fighting against God (qeoma, 
` (Qeo,comai)) - Resisting 
coj, qeomacou, oj and ma,

God. Acts 5:39. 

c. Strive about words (logomace,,,,
w, logomacw; logoj and macomai) - To contend about 
words; contextually, to wrangle about empty and trifling matters. 2 Tim. 2:14. 

Strife of words (logomaci,a, logomaci,aj, h` (logomacew,)) - Dispute about words, 
war of words, or about trivial and empty things. 1 Tim. 6:4. 
d. Sword (ma,`
caira, h) - A large knife, used for killing animals and cutting up flesh or a 
small sword, distinguished from the large sword ( r`,

omfaia). Mt. 10:34; 26:47, 51f, 

55; Mk. 14:43, 47f; Lk. 21:24; 22:36, 38, 49, 52; Jn. 18:10f; Acts 12:2; 16:27; Rom. 

8:35; 13:4; Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12; 11:34, 37; Rev. 6:4; 13:10, 14. 

Large sword (r`a, r``) - A large sword; properly, a long Thracian 
omfai,omfai,aj, h

javelin, also a kind of long sword usually worn on the right shoulder. Lk. 2:35; 

Rev. 1:16; 2:12, 16; 6:8; 19:15, 21. 

e. Fights (ma,
ch) – Battles. 2 Cor.7:5, 2 Tim. 2:23, Tit. 2:23, James 4:1. 

5. War (po,,`lemoj polemou, o) Stegenga pg. 657. 

a. War (po,,`
lemoj polemou, o) - A campaign, a series of battles. Matt. 24:6; Mk. 13:7; Lk. 

14:31; 21:9; 1 Co. 14:8; Heb. 11:34; Jas. 4:1; Rev. 9:7, 9; 11:7; 12:7, 17; 13:7; 16:14; 

19:19; 20:8. 

b. To war (poleme,,|
w, polemw) - Carry on war; to fight, equivalent to to wrangle, quarrel, 
Jas. 4:2; Rev. 2:16; 12:7; 13:4; 17:14; 19:11. 

6. To Guard (fula,ssw, - omai) Stegenga, pg. 803. 

a. To Guard (fula,
ssw) - 1. Active, to guard i. e., a. to watch, keep watch, have an eye 

upon. To guard, i. e. to care for, take care not to violate; to observe. 2. Middle. to 

observe for oneself something to escape, i. e. to avoid, shun, flee from. Mt. 19:20; 

Mk. 10:20; Lk. 2:8; 8:29; 11:21, 28; 12:15; 18:21; Jn. 12:25, 47; 17:12; Acts 7:53; 

12:4; 16:4; 21:24f; 22:20; 23:35; 28:16; Rom. 2:26; Gal. 6:13; 2 Thess. 3:3; 1 Tim. 

5:21; 6:20; 2 Tim. 1:12, 14; 4:15; 2 Pet. 2:5; 3:17; 1 Jn. 5:21; Jude 1:24. 

· To Guard Carefully (diafulassw), Luke 4:10 (Ps 91:11 – rm;v, to keep, watch, 

guard, preserve). 

b. Prison (fulakh,/`
, fulakhj, h) - A guard, watch, in an active sense, a watching, keeping 
watch. Equivalent to persons keeping watch, a guard, sentinels. The place where 
captives are kept, a prison, confinement. Matt. 5:25; 14:3, 10, 25; 18:30; 24:43; 
25:36, 39, 43f; Mk. 6:17, 27, 48; Lk. 2:8; 3:20; 12:38, 58; 21:12; 22:33; 23:19, 25; 
Jn. 3:24; Acts 5:19, 22, 25; 8:3; 12:4ff, 10, 17; 16:23f, 27, 37, 40; 22:4; 26:10; 2 Co. 
6:5; 11:23; Heb. 11:36; 1 Pet. 3:19; Rev. 2:10; 18:2; 20:7. 

· Treasury (gazofula,kion, gazofulaki,ou, to,) -Mk. 12:41, 43; Lk. 21:1; Jn. 8:20. 
c. Imprison (fulaki,
zw) - To cast into prison. Acts 22:19. 

d. Garrison (fulakth,,) - A fortified place provided with a garrison, 
rion, fulakthriou, to

a station for a guard or garrison, a preservative or safeguard. Mt. 23:5. 

e. Guard (fu,,`
lax, fulakoj, o) - A guard, keeper. Acts 5:23; 12:6, 19. 

· Jailor (desmofulax, desmofulakoj, o`
,) - A keeper of a prison, a jailer. Acts 

7. To Guard (froure,,w, frourw:) Stegenga, pg. 573. 

To guard, protect by a military guard, either in order to prevent hostile invasion, or to 
keep the inhabitants of a besieged city from flight. Metaphorically: under the control of 
the Mosaic Law, that we might not escape from its power; to protect by guarding. 
Watching and guarding to preserve one for the attainment of something. 2 Co. 11:32; 
Gal. 3:23; Phil. 4:7; 1 Pet. 1:5 

8. Terms dealing with the spiritual armor of a Christian. 
a. To prepare or gird up (av,
nazwnnumi) - A metaphor derived from the practice of the 
Orientals, who in order to be unimpeded in their movements were accustomed, when 
about to start on a journey or engage in any work, to bind their long and flowing 
garments closely around their bodies and fasten them with a leathern girdle. 1 Pet. 

b. Gird about (perizw,
nnumi) - As preparation for work or activity gird about, from the 
custom of shortening a garment by tightening the cloth belt around the waist. Lk. 
17:8, Eph. 6:14. 

c. Breast-plate (qw,
rax) -The breast, the part of the body from the neck to the navel, 
where the ribs end. A breast-plate or corselet consisting of two parts and protecting 
the body on both sides from the neck to the middle. Eph. 6:14; 1 Thes. 5:18; Rev. 9, 

d. Helmet (perikefalai,a). Eph. 6:14, 1 Thes. 5:8. 
e. Shield (qureo,j) - A long shield, Eph. 6:16 
f. Preparation of feet (e`,
toimasia) - Put on sandals basically, Eph. 6:16. 

g. Sword (ma,
caira) - Large knife or small sword, Jn. 18:10-11, Eph 6:17; Heb. 4:12 
(word of God sharper than). 

9. To Guard (froure,,w, frourw:) Stegenga, pg. 573. 

To guard, protect by a military guard, either in order to prevent hostile invasion, or to 
keep the inhabitants of a besieged city from flight. Metaphorically: under the control of 
the Mosaic Law, that we might not escape from its power; to protect by guarding. 
Watching and guarding to preserve one for the attainment of something. 2 Co. 11:32; 
Gal. 3:23; Phil. 4:7; 1 Pet. 1:5 

10. Terms dealing with different ranks or positions in a military setting or office. 
a. Centurian (e`,
katontarchj) - Commander of 100 men. Only used of military men, Lk. 
23:47, Acts 27:1. 

b. Cohort (spei/ra) - Anything wound up or rolled, a body or band of soldiers, company 
or troop. Mt. 27:27; Mk. 15:16; Jn. 18:3, 12; Acts 10:1; 21:31; 27:1. 
c. Commander (cili,
arcoj) - Chiliarch, commander of a thousand soldiers; in Roman 
military organization tribune, commander of a Roman cohort of about 600 soldiers; 
generally high-ranking officer, chief captain, equivalent to a major or colonel today. 
Acts 23:17, Rev. 6:15, 19:18. 

d. Executioner (spekoula,
twr) - A looker-out, spy, scout; under the emperors an 
attendant and member of the body-guard, employed as messengers, watchers, and 
executioners. Mk. 6:27. 

e. Quarternion (tetra,,
dion, tetradiou, to, (tetraj, the number four)) - A guard consisting 
of four soldiers (for among the Romans this was the usual number of the guard to 
which the custody of captives and prisons was entrusted; two soldiers were confined 
with the prisoner and two kept guard outside). Acts 12:4.