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Arno Clement Gaebelein

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     The books of the Chronicles are called in the Hebrew "Dbri-Hayyomim"
which means "words of the days," that is the events of the times. In the
Greek translation they are known by the name "Paraleipomena," that is
"things omitted." Our English title "Chronicles" is adopted from the Latin
translation, the Vulgate, because the title there is "Liber Chronicorum."

     In the English Bible the Chronicles occupy a different place from that
in the original Hebrew Bible. As stated before, the Hebrew Scriptures are
divided into three main divisions; the law, the prophets and the writings.
This last section of the Hebrew Scriptures contains the following books:
Psalms, Proverbs, Job; the five books known as Megilloth, Canticles, Ruth,
Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. These are followed by Daniel, Ezra,
Nehemiah and Chronicles. The Chronicles therefore stand at the close of the
Hebrew Scriptures. That this arrangement is not without meaning in
connection with the New Testament, has been pointed out by others. "The
genealogies with which Chronicles begins lead up to the genealogy of
Matthew 1 and the commencement of the New Testament. They end with the
ending of the kingdom, and the question of Cyrus, 'who is there?' (2 Chron.
36:23) is followed by another 'Where is He?' (Matthew 2:2) and the
proclamation of the kingdom by the true King and His forerunner. Chronicles
begins with the first Adam and leads on to the last Adam."

                            Authorship and Date

     Ezra has been mentioned as the possible author of Chronicles, which,
however, cannot be proven. Nothing whatever is known of the instrument who
was used to write these historical books. From the prominence which is
given to the history and organization of the Levitic priesthood and the
deep interest shown in the minor officials of the temple, especially the
singers, it has been surmised that the author may have been a Levite.
Beyond this nothing definite can be said. The author used by the Spirit of
God must remain unknown to man, but he is known to God. In the books are
mentioned repeatedly other books and histories to which the author of
Chronicles refers. These include the following: a book of the kings of
Israel and Judah, (2 Chron. 27:7; 35:27; 36:8); a book of the kings of
Judah and Israel (2 Chron. 16:11; 25:26; 28:26; 32:32); a book of the kings
of Israel (2 Chron. 24:27); a commentary of the books of Kings (2 Chron.
24:27); a history of the prophets Samuel, Nathan and Gad (1 Chron. 29:29);
a history of the prophets Nathan, Abijah, the Shilonite, and Iddo (2 Chron.
9:29); a history of the prophets, Shemaiah and Iddo (2 Chron. 12:15); a
history of the prophet Jehu (2 Chron. 20:34); a commentary of the prophet
Iddo (2 Chron. 13:22); Isaiah's history of Uzziah (2 Chron. 26:22); a
history of the prophet Isaiah (2 Chron. 32:32) and a history of the prophet
of Manasseh's day (2 Chron. 33:19). It will be seen that there are just
twelve sources mentioned. It will be seen that the first four are
historical and the remaining eight are prophetic. While some of these
references must have been books and histories now unknown to us, the main
references are to the preceding books of the kings and to the first part of
the prophet Isaiah.

     The date of Chronicles is fixed by the first book. 1 Chron. 6:15 shows
that the book was written after the captivity. We find also the names of
the descendants of Zerubbabel given in 1 Chron. 3:19-24. Inasmuch as
Zerubbabel was one of the leaders of the exile, who returned from the
captivity, and his descendants are given, Chronicles must have been written
some time after the return from Babylon. The diction of the books of
Chronicles also bears witness to this. The Hebrew is substantially the same
which is employed in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, which were
written immediately after the captivity. It is mixed with Aramaeisms, which
marks the corruption of the pure Hebrew by the Chaldaean language which the
captives learned in Babylon. The pure Hebrew had been lost in Babylon. Even
the orthography bears witness to it as every Hebrew scholar knows.

                         Rationalistic Objections

     Rationalists, the so-called higher critics, speak much of the
discrepancies and contradictions contained in Chronicles. That there are
variations from previous records cannot be denied, but variations are not
contradictions. That there are certain corruptions in the text must be
acknowledged, and some of them will be pointed out in the annotations. But
the charge that the writer of Chronicles contradicts himself, is wholly
unfounded. The following passages have been used to demonstrate this
supposed contradiction: 2 Chron. 14:1 and 2 Chron. 15:19; 2 Chron. 14:2 and
2 Chron. 15:17; 2 Chron. 17:6 and 2 Chron. 20:33; 2 Chron. 30:26 and 35:18.
A careful perusal will show that there is nothing contradictory between
these passages. Higher criticism is often superficial and we fear just as
often wilfully blind and even ready to cast doubt upon the inspired

                         The Marks of Inspiration

     The omissions and additions we find in the Chronicles in comparison
with the books of Samuel and Kings are not the marks of an imperfect human
hand. They are the marks of inspiration. We found that the books of Kings
contained the history of God's government in Israel. Kings omits much of
the history of the house of Judah and only touches upon that which relates
to the connection of Judah with the house of Israel during that period.

     "The books of the Chronicles give us the history of the same period
under another aspect, that is, that of blessing and of the grace of God:
and, more particularly, they give us the history of the house of David with
respect to which this grace was manifested. We shall see this verified in a
multitude of instances.

     "These books preserve God's history of His people, recorded by the
Holy Ghost, as He loved to remember it, exhibiting only such faults as
require to be known in order to understand the instructions of His grace"
(Synopsis of the Bible).

     It is in these distinctions we discover the supernatural guidance of
the penman.

                             Parallel Passages

     A comparison with the books of Samuel, Kings and certain chapters in
Isaiah is necessary in the study of Chronicles. To assist in this, we give
a complete list of the parallel passages with which Chronicles should be

  -- 1 Sam. 27 - 1 Chron. 12:1-7
     1 Sam. 29:1-3 - 1 Chron. 12:19-22
     1 Sam. 31 - 1 Chron. 10

  -- 2 Sam. 5:1-5 - 1 Chron. 11:1-3
     2 Sam. 5:6-10 - 1  Chron. 11:4-9
     2 Sam. 5:11-16 - 1 Chron. 14:1-7
     2 Sam. 5:17-25 - 1 Chron. 14:8-17
     2 Sam. 6:1-11 - 1 Chron. 13
     2 Sam. 6:12-23 - 1 Chron. 15 and 16
     2 Sam. 7 - 1 Chron. 17
     2 Sam. 8 - 1 Chron. 18
     2 Sam. 10 - 1 Chron. 19
     2 Sam. 11:1-27 - 1 Chron. 20:1
     2 Sam. 12:29-31- 1 Chron. 20:1-3
     2 Sam. 23:8-39 - 1 Chron. 11:10-47
     2 Sam. 24:1-9 - 1 Chron 21:1-6
     2 Sam. 24:1-9 - 1 Chron. 27:23, 24
     2 Sam. 24:10-17 - 1 Chron. 21:7-17
     2 Sam. 24:18-24 - 1 Chron. 21:18-22:1

  -- 1 Kings 2:1 - 1 Chron. 23:1
     1 Kings 2:1- - 1 Chron. 28:20, 21
     1 Kings 2:10-12 - 1 Chron. 29:23-30
     1 Kings 2:46 - 2 Chron. 1:1
     1 Kings 3:4-15 - 2 Chron. 1:2-13
     1 Kings 5 - 2 Chron. 2
     1 Kings 6 - 2 Chron. 3:1-14; 4:9
     1 Kings 7:15-21 - 2 Chron. 3:15-17
     1 Kings 7:23-26 - 2 Chron. 4:2-5
     1 Kings 7:38-46 - 2 Chron. 4:6, 10, 17
     1 Kings 7:47-50 - 2 Chron. 4:18-22
     1 Kings 7:51 - 2 Chron. 5:1
     1 Kings 8 - 2 Chron. 5:2; 7:10
     1 Kings 9:1-9 - 2 Chron. 7:11-22
     1 Kings 9:10-28 - 2 Chron. 8
     1 Kings 10:1-13 - 2 Chron. 9:1-12
      1 Kings 10:14-25 - 2 Chron. 9:13-24
     1 Kings 10:26-29 - 2 Chron. 9:25-28; 1:14-17
     1 Kings 11:41-43 - 2 Chron. 9:29-31
     1 Kings 12:1-19 - 2 Chron. 10
     1 Kings 12:21-24 - 2 Chron. 11:1-4
     1 Kings 12:25 - 2 Chron. 11:5-12
      1 Kings 12:26-31 - 2 Chron. 11:13-17
     1 Kings 14:22-24 - 2 Chron. 12:1
     1 Kings 14:25-28 - 2 Chron. 12:2-12
     1 Kings 14:21, 29-31 - 2 Chron. 12:13-16
      1 Kings 15:1 - 2 Chron. 13:1, 2
      1 Kings 15:6 - 2 Chron. 13:2-31
      1 Kings 15:7, 8 - 2 Chron. 13:22; 14:1
     1 Kings 15:11, 12 - 2 Chron. 14:1-5
      1 Kings 15:13-15 - 2 Chron. 15:16-18
      1 Kings 15:16-22 - 2 Chron. 16:1-6
     1 Kings 15:23, 24 - 2 Chron. 16:11-14
     1 Kings 22:1-40, 44 - 2 Chron. 18
     1 Kings 22:41-43 - 2 Chron. 17:1; 20:31-33
     1 Kings 22:45 - 2 Chron. 20:34
     1 Kings 22:47-49 - 2 Chron. 20:35-37
     1 Kings 22:50 - 2 Chron. 21:1

  -- 2 Kings 1:1; 3:4, 5 - 2 Chron. 20:1-3
     2 Kings 8:16-19 - 2 Chron. 21:2-7
     2 Kings 8:20-22 - 2 Chron. 21:8-15
     2 Kings 8:23, 24 - 2 Chron. 21:18-20
     2 Kings 8:25-27 - 2 Chron. 22:1-4
     2 Kings 8:28, 29; 9:1-28 - 2 Chron. 22:5-7, 9
     2 Kings 10:11-14 - 2 Chron. 22:8
     2 Kings 11:1-3 - 2 Chron. 22:10-12
     2 Kings 11:4-20 - 2 Chron. 23
     2 Kings 11:21; 12:1-3 - 2 Chron. 24:1-3
     2 Kings 12:6-16 - 2 Chron. 24:4-14
     2 Kings 12:17, 18 - 2 Chron. 24:23, 24
     2 Kings 12:19-21 - 2 Chron. 24:25-27
     2 Kings 14:1-6 - 2 Chron. 25:1-4
     2 Kings 14:7 - 2 Chron. 25:11-16
     2 Kings 14:8-14 - 2 Chron. 25:17-24
     2 Kings 14:17-20 - 2 Chron. 25:25-28
     2 Kings 14:21, 22; 15:1-4 - 2 Chron. 26:1-15
     2 Kings 15:6, 7, 27, 28 - 2 Chron. 26:22, 23
     2 Kings 15:32-35 - 2 Chron. 27:1-8
     2 Kings 15:38 - 2 Chron. 27:9
2 Kings 16:1, 2 - 2 Chron. 28:1, 2
     2 Kings 16:3, 4, 6 - 2 Chron. 28:3-8
     2 Kings 16:7 - 2 Chron. 28:16-19
     2 Kings 15:29 - 2 Chron. 28:20
     2 Kings 16:8-18 - 2 Chron. 28:21-25
     2 Kings 16:19, 20 - 2 Chron. 28:26, 27
     2 Kings 18:1-3 - 2 Chron. 29:1, 2
     2 Kings 18:13 - Isa. 36:1
     2 Kings 18:14-16 - 2 Chron. 32:2-8
     2 Kings 20:1-11 - 2 Chron. 32:24; Isa. 38
     2 Kings 20:12-19 - Isa. 39:1-8
     2 Kings 18:17-37 - 2 Chron. 32:9-19; Isa. 36:2-22
     2 Kings 19:1-5 - 2 Chron. 32:20; Isa. 37:1-4
     2 Kings 19:6, 7 - Isa. 37:6, 7
     2 kings 19:8-19 - 2 Chron. 32:17; Isa. 37:8-20
     2 Kings 19:20-37 - 2 Chron. 32:21; Isa. 37:21-38
     2 Kings 20:20, 21 - 2 Chron. 32:32, 33
     2 Kings 21:1-16 - 2 Chron. 33:1-9
     2 Kings 21:17, 18 - 2 Chron. 33:18-20
     2 Kings 21:19-26 - 2 Chron. 33:21-25
     2 Kings 22:1, 2 - 2 Chron. 34:1-7
     2 Kings 22:3-20 - 2 Chron. 34:8-28
     2 Kings 23:1-3 - 2 Chron. 34:29-32
     2 Kings 23:21-23 - 2 Chron. 35:1-19
     2 Kings 23:24-26 - 2 Chron. 34:33
     2 Kings 23:28-30 - 2 Chron. 35:20-27
     2 Kings 23:30-33 - 2 Chron. 36:1-3
     2 Kings 23:34-37 - 2 Chron. 36:4, 5
     2 Kings 24:8, 9 - 2 Chron. 36:9
     2 Kings 24:15-17 - 2 Chron. 36:10
     2 Kings 24:18, 19 - 2 Chron. 36:11, 12
     2 Kings 24:20 - 2 Chron. 36:13-16
     2 Kings 25:8-21 - 2 Chron. 36:18-21

     The reader should look up these parallel passages. Especially should
the previous annotations in Samuel and Kings be read in connection with

             The Division of the First Book of the Chronicles

     The first book of the Chronicles begins with genealogies which start
with Adam and lead up to the time of the restoration from the captivity and
sometime after. The tables do not mention all the names; many are omitted.
This makes clear at once the object of these long lists of names. Only
those are recorded who were related to the accomplishment of the purpose of
God and who were the divinely chosen channels through whom the Lord carried
out His purpose. Many lessons may be gathered from these genealogies, so
often considered unprofitable. Even to those opening chapters of
Chronicles, applies the statement in 2 Timothy 3:16, "All Scripture is
given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof,
for correction, for instruction in righteousness." The main part of the
book begins with the miserable end of Saul, the crowning of David at Hebron
and the establishment of his kingdom. Especially is that made prominent
which is passed over in the books of the Kings, David's relation to the
public worship of God and to the building of the temple, which his son
Solomon built after him.

     We divide the first book of the Chronicles into four parts:

          1. From Adam to the Edomites (1: 1-54)
          2. The Sons of Israel and the Tribe of Judah (2:1-4:23)
          3. Simeon, Reuben, Gad and Manasseh (4:24-5:26)
          4. Levi (6:1-81)
          5. Issachar, Naphtali, half Manasseh, Ephraim and Asher (7:1-40)
          6. Benjamin (8:1-40)
          7. The Record of the Inhabitants of Jerusalem after the Return



          1. David in Hebron (11:1-47)
          2. David's Warriors and Friends (12:1-40)
          3. The Ark removed from Kirjath-jearim (13:1-14)
          4. David's Increase and Blessing (14:1-17)
          5. The Ark Brought to Jerusalem (15:1-16:3)
          6. The Great Celebration (16:4-43)
          7. The Covenant and the Promise (17:1-27)
          8. David's Wars and Successful Reign (18:1-17)
          9. The Wars with Ammon, Syria and the Philistines (19-20)
          10. The Numbering of the People and the Punishment (21:1-30)

          1. The Preparations and Charge to Solomon (22:1-19)
          2. The Numbering and Arrangement of the Levites (23:1-32)
          3. The Twenty-four Courses of the Priests (24:1-31)
          4. The Singers and Musicians of the Temple (25:1-31)
          5. The Porters and other Temple Officers (26:1-32)
          6. The Captains, Princes, and Various Officers and Counsellors
          7. The Last Acts of David and His Death (28-29)

                         Analysis and Annotations

                            I. THE GENEALOGIES

                       1. From Adam to the Edomites

                                 CHAPTER 1

     1. Adam to Noah (1:1-4)
     2. The sons of Japheth (1:5-7)
     3. The sons of Ham (1:8-16)
     4. The sons of Shem (1:17-23)
     5. From Shem to Abraham (1:24-27)
     6. Ishmael and his sons (1:28-31)
     7. Abraham's sons from Keturah (1:32-33)
     8. The sons of Isaac (1:34)

     9. The sons of Esau (1:35-42)
     10. The kings and dukes of Edom (1:43-54)

     The nine chapters of genealogical tables is the largest collection of
Hebrew names in the Bible. These names are full of the deepest interest, as
they often bear in their meaning a message. We have pointed out this fact
many times in the annotations of the preceding books. Here is
unquestionably a mine of great wealth for the diligent searcher: many
lessons connected with these names have been but little understood. (A good
concordance or dictionary of these names and their meaning is needed for
such research.) The names given in this chapter are all found in the book
of Genesis (chapters 5, 10, 11, 25 and 36.) The ten generations before the
flood, ending with Noah begin the list. The descendants of Cain are not
mentioned. Then follow the names of the offspring of Noah's sons, Japheth,
Ham and Shem. Fourteen nations descended from Japheth; thirty-one from Ham
and twenty-six from Shem. No person is able to trace all these races in
history, but He who has recorded their names knows also their history and
their wanderings. And so He knows all His creatures. But above all does He
know His own people by name.

     Shem's line is followed to Abraham, the father of the nation. The sons
of Abraham are mentioned first as Isaac and Ishmael, not in their right
order, Ishmael preceding Isaac. The sons of Ishmael are therefore given
first, as well as the sons which Abraham had from Keturah. Then follows the
statement, "And Abraham begat Isaac. The sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel"
(verse 34). Esau's sons and descendants are given before the sons of
Israel; those we find in the second chapter. Then follows the list of the
kings and dukes (or chiefs) of Edom. King Jobab (verse 44) is considered by
some to be Job and that he ruled in Dinhabah (Genesis 36:32).

       2. The Sons of Israel and the Descendants of Judah (2:1-4:23)

                                 CHAPTER 2

                           From Israel to Caleb

     1. The sons of Israel (2:1-2)
     2. The sons of Judah (2:3-12)
     3. The offspring of Jesse (2:13-17)
     4. The descendants of Caleb (2:18-24)
     5. The descendants of Jerahmeel (2:25-41)
     6. Other descendants of Caleb (2:42-55)

     After the twelve sons of Israel (Jacob) are named, Judah and his sons
are mentioned. The entire chapter is devoted to the descendants of Judah.
Judah is given the prominent place, because from this tribe the promised
Messiah was to come (Gen. 49:8-12). The sons of Jesse (verses 13-17) are
given, seven in number. In 1 Sam. 16:5-11 and 17:12-14 eight are mentioned.
This is not a discrepancy. one of these sons probably died childless and
his name would therefore have no place in this genealogy. Prominent in this
chapter are the sons of Hezron, Jerahmeel, Ram (the Aram of Matt. 1:3) and
Chelubai. The latter is Caleb. Caleb is here given as a son of Hezron. Is
this the same Caleb who was one of the spies, the son of Jephunneh (Num.
13:6, 30; 14:6, 24, etc)? Critics claim that he is the son of Jephunneh and
pointed this out as one of the inaccuracies. However, it is impossible that
Caleb the son of Hezron, could be identical with Caleb, the son of
Jephunneh. Caleb the son of Hezron was the great-grandfather of Bezaleel
(verses 19-20), who was selected with Aholiab to do the work in connection
with the tabernacle (Exod. 31:2). He must therefore have been the ancestor
of Caleb the son of Jephunneh. And furthermore, Caleb the son of Jephunneh
is mentioned in Chapter 4:15. That in verse 49 a daughter of Caleb (Achsah)
is mentioned is not sufficient proof that the son of Jephunneh is meant.

                                 CHAPTER 3

                          From David to Zedekiah

     1. The sons of David (3:1-9)
     2. David's line to Zedekiah (3:10-15)
     3. The sons of Jeconiah (3:16-24)

     Six sons were born to David during his reign in Hebron. Four are
mentioned as the offspring from Bath-shua, another name for Bath-sheba (2
Sam. 11:3). Then follow the names of other nine sons. As the name Elishama
appears twice, it has been suggested that one is Elishua (2 Sam. 5:15).
Eglah is called David's wife. Some claim that it is Michal, who became
childless after her mockery when David danced before the ark. Then the line
of Solomon is traced up to Zedekiah. The usurping Queen Athaliah (2 Kings
11:3) is omitted, for she was not of the house of David. Then follows the
list of the sons of Jeconiah. The name "Assir" which follows Jeconiah in
verse 17 means "the captive." "Jeconiah, the captive," is the proper
rendering. His son Salathiel was therefore born in the captivity (Matt.
1:12). Jeconiah was written "childless," which does not mean that he was to
have no sons, but that no son of his should sit upon the throne of David
(Jer. 22:30). The son of Salathiel was Zerubbabel (Matt. 1:12; Ezra 3:2,
5:2; Hag. 1:1, 12). It seems that, in some way, the different names as they
appear in the Hebrew text were dislocated. The following arrangement has
been suggested to remove the difficulty.

     "And the sons of Jeconiah, the captive, Salathiel, his son. And the
sons of Salathiel; Zerubbabel and Shimei; and the sons of Zerubbabel;
Meshullam, Hananiah and Shelomith their sister. And Hashubah, and Ohel, and
Berechiah, and Hasadiah, jushab-hezed. And Malchiram, and Rephaiah, and
Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. The sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah
and Jesiah; the sons of Rephaiah; his son Arnan, his son Obadiah, his son

                              CHAPTER 4:1-23

                      Additional Genealogies of Judah

     1. The sons of Judah (4:1-8)
     2. Jabez more honorable (4:9-10)
     3. Further descendants of Judah (4:11-20)
     4. Descendants of Shelah (4:21-23)

     Hur and Shobal, mentioned in the first verse, were the sons of Caleb
the son of Hezron. The families of the Zorathites sprang from Reaiah, the
son of Shobal. Jabez is especially mentioned. Jabez means "He causes pain."
"And Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, Oh that Thou wouldest bless
me indeed, and enlarge my coast, and that Thine hand might be with me, and
that Thou wouldest keep me from evil, that it may not grieve me! And God
granted him that which he requested." The occasion when this prayer-vow was
uttered is not given; probably it was made in connection with the expulsion
of the Canaanites from the land and the acquisition of their territory. It
was a simple prayer of childlike faith. For blessing, for increase, for
companionship and for preservation Jabez cast himself upon the God of
Israel, and He granted him his request. Blessing came to Jabez's soul; his
coast was enlarged; the hand of the Lord was with him and kept him from
evil. God never disappoints faith.

     Then we have mentioned in this chapter the craftsmen; Geharashim
(verse 14) means "valley of the craftsmen"; the workers in fine linen
(verse 21); and those who were potters (verse 23).

                   3. Simeon, Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh

                            CHAPTERS 4:24-5:26

     1. The sons of Simeon (4:24-43)
     2. The sons of Reuben (5:1-10)
     3. The children of Gad and half Manasseh (5:11-26)

     The account of the Simeonites is interesting. Some of their families
had increased so much that they had no pasture for their flocks. Some went
then to Gedor and found fat pasture and quietness. Others went to Mount
Seir, and five hundred of them smote the Amalekites.

     Reuben was the firstborn, and the Chronicles state briefly why Reuben
was not mentioned first in these genealogies. His birthright was given to
the sons of Joseph. Judah, however, had the preeminence, "of him came the
prince." This refers to David and to Him who came from him after the flesh,
Messiah the Prince. The Syriac version makes this paraphrase, "of Judah is
the King, the Messiah." In verse 6 Tiglath-pileser is mentioned. (Not
Tiglath-pilneser; it is an erroneous spelling.) He carried away Beerah, the
Prince of the Reubenites.

     The Hagarites, mentioned in verse 10, were no doubt the descendants of
Hagar through Ishmael. They were nomads, who wandered over the desert lands
of the trans-Jordan territory. The tribe of Gad occupied the lands north of
Reuben and eastward from the Jordan to the desert. The genealogies of the
chiefs mentioned here were compiled during the reign of Jotham of Judah and
Jeroboam of Israel (verse 17). Another war with the Hagarites is recorded
in verses 18-22. (Some take that this is the same war mentioned in verse
10.) Here prayer is mentioned again. "They cried to God in the battle, and
He was entreated of them; because they put their trust in Him." The Lord
delights to record those who trust in Him.

                                  4. Levi

                                 CHAPTER 6

     1. The high-priestly line (6:1-15)
     2. Levitical genealogies (6:16-30)
     3. David's chief musicians (6:31-48)

     The high-priestly line is first given, starting with Levi, and
followed down to the exile. From Eleazar the son of Aaron, twenty-two
generations are named. Moses is not mentioned in this list. With Aaron his
brother he is called a priest (Psalm 99:6), yet he was chosen as the great
leader of the people before the consecration of the levitical priesthood.
This is the reason why his name is not found here. The last priest named
before the captivity is Jehozadak (also called Jozadak). He was carried
into captivity and was the father of Joshua, the high-priest, who returned
from Babylon (Ezra 3:2; 5:2; Neh. 12:26; Hag. 1:1, 12; Zech. 6).

     After the genealogies of the sons of Levi, who were not priests, the
list of the names of David's singers and musicians is given. "These are
they whom David set over the service of song in the house of the LORD,
after that the ark had rest. And they ministered before the dwelling place
of the tabernacle of the congregation with singing, until Solomon had built
the house of the LORD in Jerusalem, and then they waited on their office
according to their order." Heman stands first. He was Samuel's grandson.
Psalm 88 is by Heman, the Ezralite. Asaph, the son of Berachiah (verse 39),
was the poet-prophet. Psalms 50 and 73-88 bear his name. The sons of Asaph
are later mentioned as choristers of the temple (1 Chron. 25:1-2; 2 Chron.
5:12; Ezra 2:41, etc.). Two other prominent persons bore the name of Asaph;
Asaph, the recorder to King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18; Isaiah 36:3), and
Asaph, the forester under Artaxerxes (Neh. 2:8). Ethan or Jeduthun (1
Chron. 9:16, 16:41, 25:1; 2 Chron. 35:15) is the author of Psalm 89.

         5. Issachar, Naphtali, half Manasseh, Ephraim, and Asher

                                 CHAPTER 7

     1. Issachar (7:1-5)
     2. Of Benjamin (7:6-12)
     3. Naphtali (7:13)
     4. Half Manasseh (7:14-19)
     5. Ephraim (7:20-29)
     6. Asher (7:30-40)

     The other tribes are given except Dan and Zebulun, which are missing.
Issachar's had the territory between the highlands and the Jordan valley.
Their warriors numbered 87,000 taken most likely from David's census. Only
three sons of Benjamin are mentioned in verse 6; five are given in chapter
8:1. What became of the other five? In Genesis 46:21 we find ten names. The
others had most likely become extinct in the awful slaughter recorded in
Judges (Judges 20). All these tables are more or less imperfect. This does
not in any way affect the question of inspiration. No doubt there are
deeper lessons connected with many of these names and arrangement of them,
which we do not know.

     "These genealogies were imperfect. The condition of Israel bore the
impress of the ruin which had befallen them; but also that of the goodness
of God who had brought back a remnant, and who had preserved all that was
needful to place those who formed it in the record of His people. If the
needful proof to give them a title to this were wanting, such as were of
the people ceased to enjoy their proper privileges, and the priests their
sacerdotal position, until a priest stood up with Urim and with Thummim.
For these genealogies served as a means to recognize the people. Happy he
who had preserved his own, and who had so appreciated the heritage of
Jehovah as to attach value to it! It was a proof of faith; for it might
have been said, Of what use are these genealogies in Babylon?" (Synopsis of
the Bible)

                                6. Benjamin

                                 CHAPTER 8

     1. The genealogies of Benjamin (8:1-28)
     2. The house of Saul (8:29-40)

     In comparing this list with Gen. 46:21 we find some differences. The
names of Benjamites include many who were born in the captivity and who
returned to the land and dwelt in Jerusalem. Twice we read "those dwelt in
Jerusalem" (verses 28, 32). Some of the names are found in the list of
restored exiles in Ezra (chapter 2). Benjamin being brought back from the
exile, their loyalty to Judah and the temple was rewarded by God. The
following passages will give further light on Benjamin's connection with
Judah and sharing the blessing of the return from Babylon (Ezra 1:5;
chapter 2; 4:1; Neh. 7; 11:4, 7, 31; 12:34).

     The genealogy of Saul stands last in this chapter. The overthrow of
Saul in chapter 10 forms the beginning of the historical records in
Chronicles. The son of Jonathan mentioned in verse 34 as Merib-baal is
Mephibosheth (2 Sam. 4:4).

      7. The Record of the Inhabitants of Jerusalem after the Return

                                 CHAPTER 9

     1. The restoration (9:1-2)
     2. Different residents in Jerusalem (9:3-9)
     3. The priests (9:10-13)
     4. The Levites (9:14-16)
     5. Porters and Levites; their duties (9:17-34)
     6. The house of Saul (9:35-44)

     All Israel was reckoned by genealogies, which means that from the
beginning of the nation, public records were kept. The name of every
individual and the family and tribe to which they belonged were carefully
registered. This complete registry was contained in the book of the kings
of Israel and Judah, which does not mean the two books of Kings. The
genealogies contained in the preceding chapters were condensed from the
larger registry in the archives of Israel and Judah. Such genealogical
registers were likewise kept during the captivity. The names registered in
the rest of this chapter are the names of the inhabitants of Jerusalem
after the exile. Almost all the names are also found in Nehemiah 11 with
some marked differences. The genealogy of the house of Saul is repeated
once more (see 8:29-38), evidently, as the connecting link with the next

     It is beyond the scope of our work to follow these genealogical
registries at greater length, or to attempt the solution of many supposed

                     II. THE OVERTHROW AND END OF SAUL

                                CHAPTER 10

     1. The overthrow and death of Saul (10:1-7)
     2. The burial of Saul and his sons (10:8-12)
     3. The cause of Saul's failure (10:13-14)

     1 Samuel 31 contains the same record of Saul's miserable end and
trial. The writer of Chronicles uses the departure of Saul to introduce the
history of the king after God's own heart, why God had dealt with Saul in
judgment, and that the kingdom was turned unto David, the son of Jesse. The
fatal battle between the Philistines and Israel took place in Mount Gilboa.
Gilboa is south-east of the plain of Esdraelon which runs from Carmel to
the Jordan valley. The cause of this war is unknown. Saul suffered a great
defeat and many were the slain of Israel which fell in Gilboa. Among them
were Saul's three sons, Jonathan, Abinadab, also called Ishui (1 Sam.
14:49), and Melchi-shua. Then Saul himself was hit by an archer and
wounded. Fearing abuse and insults from the Philistines, he requested his
armor bearer to draw his sword and to kill him, but he was afraid, because
Saul was the Lord's anointed. Then the unhappy king took his own sword and
fell upon it. The armor bearer also committed suicide. The reader will find
in annotations on 2 Samuel 1 the story of the Amalekite explained.

     The victory of the Philistines was complete. The people forsook their
cities and these were occupied by the Philistines. When the plunderers came
searching for the slain, in order to strip them of their belongings, the
bodies of Saul and his sons were found. Then the body of Saul was stripped
and beheaded and the armor was brought into the house of their gods,
(Ashtaroth, the Phoenician Venus) and the gory head fastened as a trophy in
the house of Dagon. 1 Sam. 31:10 tells us that the body was fastened to the
wall of Beth-shan, but here we read that only the head was fastened in the
house of Dagon. Beth-shan was a mountain fortress, and here the bodies of
Saul and his unfortunate sons were fastened.

     "And now night with her dark mantle once more covered these horrible
trophies. Shall the eagles and vultures complete the work which, no doubt,
they had already begun? The tidings had been carried across the Jordan, and
wakened echoes in one of Israel's cities. It was to Jabesh-gilead that
Saul, when only named but not yet acknowledged king, had by a forced
night-march brought help, delivering it from utter destruction (1 Sam. 11).
That had been the morning of Saul's life, bright, and promising as none
other; his first glorious victory, which had made him king by acclamation,
and drawn Israel's thousands to that gathering in Gilgal, when, amidst the
jubilee of an exultant people, the new kingdom was inaugurated. And now it
was night; and the headless bodies of Saul and his sons, deserted by all,
swung in the wind on the walls of Beth-shan, amid the hoarse music of
vultures and jackals.

     "But it must not be so; it cannot be so. There was still truth,
gratitude, and courage in Israel. And the brave men of Jabesh-gilead
marched all the weary night; they crossed Jordan; they climbed that steep
brow, and silently detached the dead bodies from the walls. Reverently they
bore them across the river, and ere the morning light were far out of reach
of the Philistines. Though it had always been the custom in Israel to bury
the dead, they would not do so to these mangled remains, that they might
not, as it were, perpetuate their disgrace. They burned them just
sufficiently to destroy all traces of insult, and the bones they reverently
laid under their great tamarisk tree, themselves fasting for seven days in
token of public mourning. All honor to the brave men of Jabesh-gilead,
whose deed Holy Scripture has preserved to all generations!" (Bible

     Sad and solemn is the final record of King Saul in these historical
books. "So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the
LORD, even against the Word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for
asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it" (1 Sam.
28:6-7). He had disobeyed God, rejected His Word and then turned to the
agency of Satan, to a demon instrument for help and advice. This is the
road of apostasy. The road of the apostasy in Christendom so prominent in
the closing days of our age is the same. It is departure from the faith and
giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons (1 Tim. 4:1). It is
a turning away from the truth, the Word of God, and turning to fables (2
Tim. 4:4).


                            1. David at Hebron

                                CHAPTER 11

     1. David crowned king (11:1-3)
     2. Jerusalem becomes David's capital (11:4-9)
     3. The record of David's mighty men (11:10-47)

     From the second book of Samuel we learned that the crowning of David
in Hebron occurred after the death of Ishbosheth (2 Sam. 5). The previous
reign of David for seven and a half years and his failures are here
omitted. We shall find that Chronicles does not record all the failures and
sins of David and Solomon. The blessing and the grace of God toward the
house of David are made prominent throughout. Acknowledged by all Israel as
belonging to them, a great leader, Jehovah's choice to feed His people
Israel and to be their prince, all the elders came to Hebron before the
Lord and anointed David king.

     The conquest of Jerusalem (Jebus) followed. It was still in the hands
of the Jebusites, but David took the stronghold of Zion. Joab distinguished
himself and became chief. This is unmentioned in 2 Sam. 5. He built the
city from Millo. Millo means "filling up" so that it may have been a big
embankment which connected the city of David with the Temple mount. See 1
Kings 9:15 and 2 Chron. 32:5.

     The record of David's mighty men are mentioned here in the beginning
of his reign. In Second Samuel we read of them at the end (2 Sam. 23:8-39),
preceding Solomon's reign. When the true King begins His reign, typified by
both David and Solomon, those who were loyal to the Lord and faithful to
Him will be remembered. The first name mentioned is Jashobeam, a
Hachmonite. In Samuel his name is given as Josheb-basshebeth, the
Tachmonite. They were probably alternative names for the same person.
Jashobeam means "the people shall return" and his other name in Samuel
means "one who sits in a seat." Hachmonite means translated "the wise."
According to Samuel he slew 800 and here in Chronicles he slew 300 at one
time. Probably these are both correct; he slew 800 at one occasion and 300
at another. The second name is Eleazar (help of God) the son of Dodo (his
beloved). His deed is more fully given in 2 Sam. 23:9. Shammah, the third
one of the three mighties is omitted here (2 Sam. 23:11).

     Bethlehem shows the deepest devotion to David from the three who broke
through the line in response to David's wish. It was not a command but only
a desire expressed, yet they were ready to give their lives, for they were
ambitious to please David. May we think here of Him who is greater than
David. He, who sat on Sychar's well said to the woman "give me to drink."
He longs for the refreshment from His own and we must be ambitious to
please Him. It means to break through the hostile ranks of our enemies, as
the three men did.

     Abishai (father of gift) the younger brother of Joab and nephew of
David slew 300 men. Benaiah's deeds include the slaying of an Egyptian
giant almost eight feet tall. In the list of the mighty men Uriah, the
Hittite (verse 41) is included. He was a brave and devoted warrior which
makes David's deed so much more abhorrent (2 Sam. 11).

                      2. David's Warriors and Friends

                                CHAPTER 12

     1. The Benjamite warriors with David at Ziklag (12:1-7)
     2. The other warriors (12:8-22)
     3. Those who came to make him king (12:23-40)

     And now those are given by name who stood by David, when he was an
outcast, rejected and persecuted by Saul. They were mighty men, his helpers
in war. The leading company were of Benjamin, the tribe to which Saul
belonged. These joined him when he was at Ziklag. In the wilderness of
Judah certain of the Gadites separated themselves unto him, "whose faces
were like the faces of lions and they were as swift as the roes upon the
mountains." May we remember again that all this is written for our
learning. Our Lord is rejected and we can stand by Him, as these mighty men
stood by David. Men with faces like lions, bold and courageous, are needed,
as well as those as swift as the roes upon the mountains, in doing His
bidding in true service. They braved the floods of Jordan and swept all
hindrances out of the way to reach David, and when David spoke to them to
ascertain why they had come, the Spirit of God sent through Amasai a
message which must have greatly cheered his heart. "Thine are we, David,
and on thy side, thou son of Jesse." May we say to Him whose we are and
whom we serve, "Thine we are, O Lord, and on Thy side, Thou Son of God."
Other valiant men of Manasseh also joined him and helped him greatly.

     Then a wonderful gathering took place. From everywhere they gathered
to make David king. Even from the most northern parts of the land, from
issachar, Zebulun and Naphtali they came for one of the greatest events
which happened in Israel's history. If we tabulate the figures given in
verses 23-37 we have the following results:

     Of Judah ................ 6,800
     Of Simeon ............... 7,100
     Of Levi ................. 4,600
     With Jehoiada, the
       "prince" (not high-
       priest of Aaron) ...... 3,700
     Zadok and his
       father's house ........ 22 chiefs.
     Of Benjamin ............. 3,000
     Of Ephraim .............. 20,800
     Of half Manasseh ........ 18,000
     Of Issachar ............. 200 leaders.
     of Zebulun .............. 50,000
     Of Naphtali ............. 37,000 ... 1,000 chiefs.
     Of Dan .................. 28,600
     Of Asher ................ 40,000
     Of the 2-1/2 tribes
       east of Jordan ........ 120,000
     Total ................... 339,600 ... 1,222 chiefs.

     This immense company of people came and they had all one desire and
one thought, "to make David king." They were not of a double heart. There
was no dissenting voice; they were of one heart, they came with a perfect
heart to make David king.

     A great feast was kept. They brought bread on asses and on camels and
on mules and on oxen, and meat, meal, cakes of figs, and bunches of
raisins, and wine and oil and oxen and sheep abundantly. There was joy in
Israel. But how much greater will be the joy, and what a feast will be
made, when He is made King, not alone over Israel, but when He will be
enthroned as King of kings and Lord of lords!

                  3. The Ark Removed from Kirjath-jearim

                                CHAPTER 13

     1. The consultation about the ark (13:1-5)
     2. The attempt and the failure (13:6-14)

     The first thing after the coronation which concerned David was the
ark. This reveals the fact that the king had the things of the Lord upon
his heart. He at once consulted with the captains about bringing the ark
from Kirjath-jearim. The ark is mentioned forty-six times in the two books
of Chronicles. (The titles are the following: ark, 15 times; the ark of
God, 12 times; the ark of the Covenant of the LORD, 11 times; the ark of
the LORD, 4 times; the ark of the Covenant of God, of Thy Strength, of our
God and Thy holy ark, each once.)

     In Chronicles David's gracious words are recorded, which he addressed
to the assembly of Israel, "if it seem good unto you and that it be of the
LORD our God ... let us bring again the ark of our God to us; for we
inquired not at it in the days of Saul." The whole scene manifests a true
religious enthusiasm and deep concern to follow the ways of Jehovah. David
and all Israel went up to Kirjath-jearim and carried the ark upon a new
cart. David and all Israel played before God with all their might, even
with songs and with harps and with psalteries, with cymbals and trumpets.
But in all this great and human rejoicing, David did not conform to
Jehovah's ways. According to God's laws covering the handling of the ark,
only the Levites were to touch it. They were to carry it on their shoulders
and not to place it in a cart (Num. 4:5, 15). All this had been violated.
The divine displeasure was fully manifested when Uzza put forth his hands
to hold the ark, because the oxen had stumbled. Uzza was stricken with
sudden death. He forgot that the ark was the emblem of Jehovah's presence
in the midst of His people. See annotations on 2 Samuel 6.

                     4. David's Increase and Blessing

                                CHAPTER 14

     1. Hiram (14:1-2)
     2. David's family (14:3-7)
     3. The Philistines defeated (14:8-17)

     The reader is referred to 2 Sam. 5:11-16 for the comment on verses
1-7. Beeliada is called in 2 Sam. 5:16 Eliada. Beeliada was probably
changed to Eliada. David's great victory over the Philistines is also
recorded in 2 Sam. 5:17- 25. He inquired of God and being permitted to go,
he smote them at Baal-perazim, where also the idol images were burned with
fire (in obedience to Deut. 7:5, 25). It was a great victory. Baal-perazim
means "possessor of breaches." In Isaiah the victory over the Philistines
is used as a prophecy of the coming future judgment of the earth. "For the
LORD shall rise up as in mount Perazim, He shall be wroth as in the valley
of Gibeon, that He may do His work, His strange work, and bring to pass His
act, his strange act" (Isaiah 28:21). A second time the Philistines came,
and David, obedient to the divine instructions, gained another great
victory. His fame went into all lands and the fear of him was brought by
the LORD upon all nations.

                      5. The Ark Brought to Jerusalem

                             CHAPTER 15:1-16:3

     1. The true preparation to fetch the ark (15:1-15)
     2. The great procession (15:16-24)
     3. The ark brought back (15:25-16:3)

     The ark rested in the house of Obed-edom for three months. During that
time David prepared a place for the ark of God and pitched a tent.  Warned
by what had happened, his conscience aroused, David said, "None ought to
carry the ark of God but the Levites: for them hath the LORD chosen to
carry the ark of God, and to minister unto Him forever."

     It is to be observed, that, although the death of Uzza had its origin
in the guilty forgetfulness of David, it nevertheless gave occasion through
grace to his being set in his true position for the regulation and
appointment of all that concerned the Levites' service. It is always thus
with regard to faith, for the purposes of God are fulfilled in favor of it.
Man in his zeal may depart from the will of God, and God will chasten him,
but only to bring him into more honor, by setting him more completely in
the position which God has purposed, and in the understanding of His ways,
according to which He will magnify His servant (Synopsis of the Bible).

     All Israel and especially the Levites were gathered together. All is
now done according to the divine directions. The former failure was owned
and the priests and Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark. They
carried the ark of God upon their shoulders with the staves as God had

     A great procession was also requested by David and arranged by the
Levites. David loved singing and music as the expression of praise unto the
Lord. The instruments mentioned are the psaltery, which was like a long box
with a convex sounding board, over which wire strings were stretched; the
harp and the cymbal. The latter was a brass instrument with a ball
attached. The great procession was headed by a choir of singers and
musicians under the leadership of Heman, Asaph and Ethan. In the middle of
the procession was the ark, preceded by Chenaniah (established by the
LORD), the chief of the Levites. Then there were the two door-keepers of
the ark, Berechiah (blessed of the LORD) and Elkanah (God has purchased)
and seven priests, who sounded the trumpets before the ark, and two more
door-keepers. "Alamoth" in verse 20 must have been a choir of virgins
(Alamoth means virgins). Such is the meaning of the word in the inscription
of Psalm 46. In Psalm 58, where a great procession is mentioned in
connection with the removing of the ark (no doubt commemorating the return
of the ark to Jerusalem) we read of women publishing the tidings (verse 11
marginal reading) and there we hear also of the damsels in the procession.
(Read also Psalm 132 and notice its connection with the event of this
chapter.) "The singers went before; the players of the instruments followed
after, among them were the damsels playing with timbrels" (Psalm 68:25).
But the sixty-eighth Psalm describes prophetically another great procession
and celebration, when He comes in great power and glory. "Sing unto God, ye
kingdoms of the earth; O sing praises unto the Lord--to Him that rideth
upon the heaven of heavens" (Psalm 68:32-33).

     And so the ark was brought to Jerusalem and set in the midst of the
tent. It was a time of great rejoicing and feasting. But what will it be
when not an ark, the symbol only of the divine presence, is in the midst of
the people, but when the once rejected King appears in the midst and
receives the homage and praise of Israel!

     (Comment on Michal and her mockery is made in the parallel passage in
2 Samuel. We omit in annotation in Chronicles all which has been previously
mentioned in Samuel and Kings.)

                      6. The Great Thanksgiving Psalm

                              CHAPTER 16:4-43

     1. David's appointment (16:4-6)
     2. The Psalm of praise and thanksgiving (16:7-36)
     3. The Levites and the public worship (16:37-43)

     A great thanksgiving Psalm was then delivered by David into the hand
of Asaph and his brethren. The view of modern critics, that this Psalm is
post-exilic, does not call for any refutation, for the text declares that
David himself delivered the hymn to Asaph. The Psalm is made up of portions
of different Psalms. See Psalm 105:1-15; 96:1-13; 106:47-48; 107:1; 136. A
careful study will show the far reaching meaning of this composite Psalm.
It is a great prophecy. It begins with the celebration and praise of what
Jehovah has done. Israel is called to remember His covenant. It is not the
covenant at Sinai, with its conditional promises, but the unconditional,
the grace-covenant, made with Abraham, an everlasting covenant that his
seed is to have the land. But prophetically the Psalm points to the time
when "His judgments are in all the earth"; it is at that time when the
covenant made with Abraham will be remembered. Such a time will come
according to the prophetic Word. Verse 22, "Touch not Mine anointed, and do
My prophets no harm," speaks of Israel's preservation; for Israel is His
anointed, a kingdom of kings and priests. The day must come when the
covenant made with Abraham will be realized and when Israel shall possess
the land, after their wanderings from nation to nation (verse 20). Then
there will be a throne in Zion and a King shall reign in righteousness,
even Christ (Psalm 2).

     Then Psalm 96 is quoted. It is a Psalm which looks forward to the
kingdom on earth, when the nations acknowledge Jehovah and bow in His
presence. The blessed age of glory, of which the prophets have so much to
say, the unreached goal of the glorious future of the earth, the
millennium, is pictured in this Psalm.

          Fear before Him, all the earth
          The World is established, it cannot be moved,
          Let the heavens be glad,
          And let the earth rejoice.
          And let them say among the nations,
          The LORD reigneth.
          Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof,
          Let the fields rejoice and all there is therein;
          Then shall the trees of the wood sing out,
          At the Presence of the LORD,
          Because He cometh to judge the earth.

     The praise of Israel concludes the thanksgiving Psalm. We repeat, it
is prophetic. It looks onward to the time when the Lord will deliver His
people, when the promises made to the fathers will all be fulfilled, when
the nations of the earth will know the Lord and when He will reign over
all. Such is Israel's future. When He has been merciful to His land and to
His people, the nations will rejoice (Deut. 32:43).

     At the close of this chapter we notice how King David regulates
everything that was to be done before the ark.

     "The placing of the ark in the capital of Israel, thus making it 'the
city of God,' was an event not only of deep national, but of such typical
importance, that it is frequently referred to in the sacred songs of the
sanctuary. No one will have any difficulty in recognizing Psalm 24 as the
hymn composed for this occasion. But other Psalms also refer to it, amongst
which, without entering on details that may be profitably studied by each
reader, we may mention Psalms 15, 68, 78, and especially Psalm 101, as
indicating, so to speak, the moral bearing of the nearness of God's ark
upon the king and his kingdom."

     "Faith, apprehending the counsels and the work of God, could see in
the establishment of the ark in Zion, the progress of God's power and
intervention towards the peaceful and glorious reign of the Son of David.
The sure mercies of David were as bright to the eye of faith as the dawn of
day, in that the ark of the covenant had been set up by David in the
mountain which God had chosen for His everlasting rest" (Synopsis of the

                      7. The Covenant and the Promise

                                CHAPTER 17

     1. David's plan to build a house (17:1-6)
     2. The covenant and the promise (17:7-15)
     3. David's praise and prayer (17:16-27)

     After the ark had found its resting place in a tent the king became
deeply concerned about the building of a house. He contrasted his own house
of cedars with the humble dwelling place of the ark of the covenant. The
desire to build a house for the Lord was expressed to Nathan, who told
David, without having consulted the Lord, "Do all that is in thine heart,
for God is with thee." That night the message came to Nathan, "Go and tell
David my servant, Thus saith the LORD, Thou shalt not build Me a house to
dwell in, for I have not dwelt in a house since the day that I brought up
Israel unto this day, but have gone from tent to tent, and from one
tabernacle unto another. Wheresoever I have walked with all Israel, spake I
a word to any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to feed My people,
saying, Why have ye not built Me a house of cedars?" What condescension and
what identification with His people these words reveal!

     When Israel was a slave, God became his Redeemer; when he dwelt in
tents, God abode in one also; when in conflict, God presented Himself as
captain of Jehovah's host; when settled in peace, God establishes Himself
in the house of His glory. The interval was the probation of His people on
earth. God abode in the tent, and even His ark is taken. He interposes in
grace for deliverance.

     "Christ also, since we were born of woman, is born of a woman; since
His people were under the law, He is born under the law; now that He will
have a heavenly people, He is on high for us; when He comes in glory, we
shall come with Him, and reign when He reigns, but in these last we are
with Him." (Synopsis of the Bible).

     As we have already considered the great Davidic covenant and its
meaning (2 Sam. 7) as well as David's worship and prayer, we refer the
reader to the annotations of that chapter. Solomon, David's son, is first
in view, but he is only a type of Christ, David's greater Son and David's
Lord as well. In Christ alone, this great covenant-promise is to be
fulfilled. It is still all future, for the Son of David, rejected of His
own, does not sit and rule upon the throne of His father David. He has gone
to heaven, occupying the throne of God, sitting at His right hand up to the
time when His enemies will be made His footstool. Then, when He appears the
second time, the angelic announcement will come true, "and the Lord God
shall give unto Him the throne of His father David."

     And what words David spoke to Him, whose grace had made such promises!
Humility, faith and confidence answered grace.

                   8. David's Wars and Successful Reign

                                CHAPTER 18

     1. War with the Philistines (18:1)
     2. War with Moab (18:2)
     3. War with Zobah (18:3-4)
     4. War with Damascus (18:5-11)
     5. Wars with Edom (18:12-13)
     6. David's administration (18:14-17)

     After such glorious experiences David went forth as the victorious
warrior-king to conquer the enemies of Israel. He first smote the
Philistines, subdued them and took Gath and her towns. Gath, the chief city
of the Philistines, is called in 2 Sam. 8:1 "Metheg-aminah," which means
"the bridle of the mother city." Then he smote Moab and they became his
servants and brought presents. Great are the conquests and victories of
David recorded in this chapter. From Hadarezer, King of Zobah, he took
1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen and 20,000 footmen. (2 Sam. 8:4 has 700,
which is a copyist's error.) Then the Syrians came to help the King of
Zobah and lost 22,000 men. Then the Syrians also became his servants and
brought presents. "And the LORD gave victory to David whithersoever he
went." In all this we see foreshadowed the triumphs of our Lord Jesus
Christ, when He comes as the victorious King and His enemies shall all be

     All the spoil taken, the shields of gold, were brought to Jerusalem.
From Tibhath and from Chun, cities which belonged to Hadarezer, David took
very much brass. The brazen sea, the pillars and the vessels of brass for
the temple were made by Solomon out of this material. Silver and gold which
he carried away from all the conquered nations were all dedicated unto the
Lord. And in a future day shall the silver and the gold of the Gentiles be
brought to Jerusalem (Isa. 60:6, 17; Psalm 72:10). So David reigned over
all Israel, and executed judgment and justice among all his people.

         9. The Wars with Ammon, Syria and the Philistines (19-20)

                                CHAPTER 19

     1. Hanun's insult to David's servants (19:1-5)
     2. Joab's victory (19:6-16)
     3. David's victorious campaign (19:17-19)

     See annotations on 2 Samuel chapter 10. The occasion of the war with
the Ammonites was the insult to the messengers of David whom he had sent to
the son of King Nahash. Nahash had died and David sent the messengers to
comfort Hanun concerning his father. It gives a little glimpse of the
tenderness of David. "But the princes of the children of Ammon said to
Hanun, Thinkest thou that David doth honor thy father, that he hath sent
comforters unto thee? Are not his servants come unto thee for to search and
to overthrow and to spy out the land?" When the Ammonites realized the
insult to David's messengers, they spent 1,000 talents of silver (about
$375,000) to hire chariots and horsemen. Joab was victorious. Then the king
himself took charge and gathered all Israel. A great victory was the

     In 2 Samuel the great sin of David follows the victory over the
Syrians. In our comment on the fall of David, we have pointed out the
connection between the victory of David and his sin. David's fall is
omitted in Chronicles because the grace of God is the prominent feature and
grace had completely covered David's great sin.

                                CHAPTER 20

                        Joab and David take Rabbah

     1. Rabbah destroyed (20:1-3)
     2. The Philistine giants slain (20:4-8)

     Rabbah was the capital of Ammon (Deut. 3:11; josh. 13:25) and was
taken by Joab. David tarried in Jerusalem (so fatal to him, 2 Sam. 11:1)
and Joab smote Rabbah and destroyed it. Then David appeared also upon the
scene. Joab had summoned David to help in the overthrow of the city (2 Sam.
12:27, etc). The crown mentioned was probably the crown of Milcom, their
idol-king. It was of solid gold set with precious stones. David received
the crown and precious stones, even as our Lord Jesus receives the glory
and will appear crowned with many crowns (Rev. 19:12). On verse 3 see
annotations 2 Sam. 2:31. The overthrow of the giants followed. First
Sibbechai slew Sippai of the children of the giants; in 2 Sam. 21 his name
is given as Saph. Elhanan slew Lahmi of Goliath. (The words "the brother
of" are in italics and must be omitted. It was another giant who had the
same name as the giant of 1 Sam. 17.) Then David's nephew Jonathan, the son
of Shimea, David's brother, slew the last of the giants. He had six fingers
on each hand and six toes on each foot and was of great stature. These
giants were the special instruments of the power of darkness. They have a
typical significance.

     The notion of a giant in Scripture is always connected with evil, the
lifting up of man against God, the symbol of pride and self-sufficiency, as
well as of oppressive power. He is the opposite of the little and the
lowly, the humble in heart, with whom God delights to dwell; but thus may
stand for the tyranny of a lust, as in the case of Og, or of a Satanic
delusion, as with Goliath himself. In those before us we must see, what we
have seen in their kinsman, the monstrous delusions which abide in a system
of error such as Philistinism depicts, the ecclesiastical "mystery of
lawlessness" of Christian times (Numerical Bible).

     And in the last one overcome by Jonathan (gift of the LORD), we see a
type of the final ecclesiastical leader of the apostasy, the man of sin.
The number "six" points to this (Rev. 13:11-18).

            10. The Numbering of the People and the Punishment

                                CHAPTER 21

     1. David's failure in numbering the people (21:1-7)
     2. David's confession and the message of God (21:8-12)
     3. David's answer and the punishment (21:13-17)
     4. The altar in the threshing floor of Ornan (21:18-30)

     On the alleged discrepancy between the statement in 2 Sam. 24:1 "And
again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and He moved
(literal: He suffered him to be moved) David against them to say, Go,
number Israel and Judah," and 1 Chron. 21:1 "And Satan stood up against
Israel and provoked David to number Israel"; see annotations on 2 Sam. 24.
Israel had committed some sin and deserved punishment. This is clear from
the statement in 2 Sam. 24:1. The direct cause of the visitation, however,
was David's pride, and may have been connected with the desire of
constituting his kingdom as a great military power. He wanted to know the
strength of the nation and glory in it, and the king forgot that the Lord
had increased Israel and all he was and had was of God. What a difference
between David here and David sitting in the presence of the Lord after
hearing Nathan's message! (17:16). Nothing humbles so as being in the
presence of the Lord. The lust of the flesh in self-indulgence had led to
his awful sin with Bathsheba, and now the lust of the eyes and the pride of
life had entangled him. Satan stood behind it all and the sin committed,
pride and self-exaltation, was according to Satan's character. Then David
confessed (verse 8) and the Lord sent the prophet Gad to him announcing the
modes of punishment from which he was to make his choice. The recovery of
David, his real knowledge of God and the working of His grace in his heart
are manifested by the fact that he committed himself to God, choosing
rather to fall into the hands of God than into the hands of his enemies.
The Lord sent the pestilence. David saw the angel of the Lord. Then David
and the elders clothed in sack cloth were on their faces. At the sight of
the angel with his drawn sword stretched over Jerusalem, David confessed
again, but his prayer becomes an intercession; he takes the sin upon
himself and prays "let Thine hand, be on me, and on my father's house; but
not on Thy people that they should be plagued." This prayer was speedily
followed by mercy. The site of the future house of the Lord was then
acquired. (See comment on 2 Sam. 24.) Ornan and his four sons had also seen
the angel and they were afraid (verse 20). And the Jebusite was willing to
give the threshing-floor and all within it. And when the site had been
acquired by purchase and the altar was built, burnt-offerings and
peace-offerings were brought. Heaven answered by fire. "And the LORD
commanded the angel; and he put up his sword again into the sheath
thereof." All is blessedly typical of Him who is the true burnt-offering,
as well as the peace-offering.

     It is interesting to see the order unfolded here in the establishment
of the sovereign grace: first of all, the heart of God and His sovereign
grace in election, suspending the execution of the deserved and pronounced
judgment (verse 15); next, the revelation of this judgment, a revelation
which produces humiliation before God and a full confession of sin before
His face. David, and the elders of Israel, clothed in sackcloth, fall upon
their faces, and David presents himself as the guilty one. Then,
instruction comes from God, as to that which must be done to cause the
pestilence judicially and definitively to cease, namely, the sacrifice in
Ornan's threshing-floor. God accepts the sacrifice, sending fire to consume
it, and then He commands the angel to sheathe his sword. And sovereign
grace, thus carried out in righteousness through sacrifice, becomes the
means of Israel's approach to their God, and establishes the place of their
access to Him.


                 1. The Preparations and Charge to Solomon

                                CHAPTER 22

     1. The material (22:1-5)
     2. The charge to Solomon (22:6-16)
     3. The charge to the princes (22:17-19)

     God had accepted the sacrifice. The judgment had passed. Prayer had
been answered and David, therefore, could truthfully say "this is the house
of the LORD God, and this is the altar of the burnt-offering for Israel."
The place had therefore been pointed out on which the temple was to be
reared. And from now on up to the twenty-eighth verse of chapter 26 all
concerns the house which is to be built. The temple is from now on
prominently in the foreground and that which the book of Kings does not
mention, David's great interest in making preparations for it, is recorded
in these chapters. And so we see David with great energy making vast
preparations. It shows again how grace had worked in his heart. All else
seems to have been forgotten by him. Only one desire controls the king, to
make provision of everything necessary for the construction of the Temple.
And the house, according to David's conception "must be exceeding
magnificent, of fame and of glory throughout all countries." His heart
burned with zeal to glorify Jehovah, whose mercy and grace he knew so well
and who had kept and prospered him in all his ways. "I will therefore now
make preparation for it," David said. Then he prepared abundantly before
his death. David, making preparation for the temple his son was to put up,
is not without a very striking typical meaning. Both David and Solomon are
types of our Lord Jesus Christ. David typifies Him in His humiliation and
suffering, Solomon in His exaltation and glory. What Christ has done in His
grace results in the coming glory. This is foreshadowed in the preparations
David made for the house and the glorious reign of his son. If this is kept
in mind these historical statements will take on a blessed meaning.

     He gathered the strangers (the descendants of the Canaanites) and he
set them at work. Stones, iron and timber all were prepared before hand on
a large scale. Then he called for Solomon, young and tender in years, and
addressed him. First he restated the reason why he had been barred from
building the house. Then he recited the promise made to him that his son
should have rest and build a house for His name. "For his name shall be
Solomon, and I will give peace and quietness unto Israel in his days. He
shall build a house for my name." David believed all the Lord had spoken
through Nathan, and, believing the promise, he had made all preparations
and was telling his son about it.

     Then he exhorted him to build the house, to keep the law of the Lord
and to take heed. "Be strong, and of good courage and dread not nor be
dismayed." Once more he speaks of all he had done in preparation of the
house of the Lord. Even in the days of trouble and adversity he had
prepared for the house and remembered the claims of Jehovah. Immense
amounts of gold and silver, the spoils of wars, had been stored up by him.
Many millions of dollars in gold and silver were in his possession and
devoted for the one object. And Solomon was to add unto it. Then he told
him to arise and to be doing. In the same way he commanded the princes of
Israel to help his son Solomon.

     May this teach us who know the riches of the grace of God in Christ
Jesus our Lord, to be as devoted to Him, as zealous to glorify Him, as
David was in making these preparations for the building of the temple.

              2. The Numbering and Arrangement of the Levites

                                CHAPTER 23

     1. Solomon made king (23:1)
     2. The number of the Levites (23:2-6)
     3. The Gershonites (23:7-11)
     4. The sons of Kohath (23:12-20)
     5. The sons of Merari (23:21-23)
     6. The service of the Levites (23:24-32)

     David, in his seventieth year, made Solomon king. It is the first
time, and afterwards (29:22) he was made king the second time.

     "The first time Solomon was made king, when grace was fully
established in the altar built on the threshing-floor of Ornan, where the
son of David, as the prince of peace, was to build the temple. Solomon is
introduced as the head of all that was being established, and as holding
the first and supreme place in the mind of God--the one on whom all the
rest depended, which could not even exist now without him. The house, the
whole order of the house, and its government, all referred to Solomon; and
thus his identification with David, in that both were on the throne at the
same time, makes it much easier to understand the type of Christ in this.
It is one person, whom His sufferings and victories place on the throne of
glory and of peace. For at this moment, although the result of the glory
was not yet manifested, God had given rest unto His people, that they might
dwell at Jerusalem" (Synopsis of the Bible).

     After he had made Solomon king, David devoted himself still more to
the house of the Lord. He ordered and arranged everything. So when the
temple was built, Solomon had only to carry out the plans his father in
divine wisdom had made. All is typical of Him who has ordered all things in
His infinite grace.

     The census of the Levites gave their number from thirty years and
upwards, at 38,000. Of these 24,000 were appointed to attend, set forward
the work of the house of the Lord; 6,000 were officers and judges; 4,000
were porters and 4,000 praised the Lord with the instruments David had made
to praise therewith (Amos 6:5).

                 3. The Twenty-four Courses of the Priests

                                CHAPTER 24

     1. The twenty-four courses (24:1-19)
     2. The organization of other Levites (24:20-31)

     In the previous chapter we read of 24,000 Levites set apart for the
service. In the next chapter we find twenty-four leaders of song and music
appointed, and here David instituted twenty-four courses of priests. Each
of these ministered a full week, from one sabbath to the next. These
courses were not only continued by Solomon, but also by Hezekiah and
Josiah. From Luke 1:5, we learn the same order was still followed in the
days our Lord was born. Zecharias belonged to the eighth course, that of

     In the book of Revelation (chapter 4, etc.) we read of twenty-four
elders clothed in white raiment, crowned and seated upon twenty-four
thrones. They represent symbolically all the redeemed brought into glory.
This number is obviously an allusion to the arrangement of the priesthood
made by David for the service of the temple under the glorious reign of
Solomon, the blessed type of the reign of Christ in glory. As these
twenty-four courses of Priests were to minister during Solomon's glorious
reign, they are typical of the redeemed, the holy and royal priesthood,
associated with the Lord Jesus Christ when He occupies His throne of glory.

                4. The Singers and Musicians of the Temple

                                CHAPTER 25

     1. Sons of Asaph, Jeduthun and Heman (25:1-7)
     2. Their division by Lot into twenty-four (25:8-31)

     As we have seen before, Asaph, Jeduthun (Ethan) and Heman were the
master leaders in song and music; their service was eminently spiritual,
for we read "they should prophesy." Heman especially is called the king's
seer in the words of God. This is a significant expression. How much there
is in what is termed "worship", which has nothing whatever of the words of
God in it. In most of the songs used in our times there is little of the
words of God and many contain unscriptural and sentimental phrases.
Israel's worship in song and music was to be spiritual, prophesying and in
the words of God. Christian worship is not less. It is to be in spirit and
in truth. "Let the Word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;
teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual
songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord" (Col. 3:16). Asaph
had four sons, Jeduthun six, and Heman fourteen, equal to twenty-four. They
were divided into twenty-four courses of twelve men each, equal to 288, who
served a week in turn. The names of six of the sons of Heman form, in the
Hebrew, a complete sentence. Giddalti, Romamti-ezer, joshbekashah,
Mallothi, Hothir and Mahazioth (verse 4) may be rendered in English:

          I have magnified and I have raised up help;
          Sitting in trouble, I have spoken oracles plentiful.

     This fact has aroused the suspicion of the critics regarding the
genuineness of this entire list of names. "Now this sentence," saith a
critic, "is either an obscure and ancient prayer which hath been mistaken
for a list of names by the compiler, or else the compiler has purposely
strung together those significant names in such order as to form a
sentence" (W.R. Harvey-Jellic). But it is not the mistake of the compiler
or an invention. We read that God gave to Heman these sons and the pious
Israelite named his sons so as to produce this meaning. There are many such
messages in names throughout the Bible. (See annotations on Genesis 5.)

                 5. The Porters and other Temple Officers

                                CHAPTER 26

     1. The porters (26:1-12)
     2. The keepers of the gates (26:13-19)
     3. The Levites over the treasures (26:20-28)
     4. Officers and judges (26:29-32)

     Ninety-three porters are mentioned, which held the position of chiefs.
The whole number of porters was 4,000 (23:5). Asaph in verse 1 must be
changed to Ebiasaph (9:19), for Asaph was not a Korahite, but a Gershonite.
Obed-edom is especially mentioned. God blessed him (verse 5). He had
sheltered the ark (8:14), "and the LORD blessed the house of Obed-edom, and
all that he had." And here the blessing is seen in a remarkable increase.
"All these of the sons of Obed-edom; they and their sons and their
brethren, able men for strength for the service, were three score and two
of Obed-edom" (Psalm 127:3). How faithful the Lord is. He did not forget
Obed-edom's service and rewarded him richly.

     Then there were the gate keepers. The temple was still unbuilt, no
plans had been drawn by man, but the Lord had revealed the plan to David
(28:11-13), and he ordered the keepers of the gates according to the divine
plan. Then follows the appointment of the Levites who had charge over the
treasures and the appointment of officers and judges. Their number was
6,000 (Chap. 23:4). They were divided into three classes: 1. For the
outward business of Israel (verse 29). 2. Those who had the oversight of
Israel beyond Jordan westward, 1,700 persons, for all the business of the
Lord, and for service of the King (verse 30). 3. The third class consisted
of 2,700 who were rulers for every matter pertaining to God, and affairs of
the king (verses 31-32). All was divinely planned and arranged through
David in anticipation of the glorious reign of his son. And even so all is
planned and appointed for the coming reign of the King of Righteousness and
the King of Peace.

              6. The Captains, Princes, and Various Officials

                                CHAPTER 27

     1. The twelve captains (27:1-15)
     2. The princes of the twelve tribes (27-16-22)
     3. The unfinished numbering (27:23-24)
     4. Various officers (27:25-34)

     We have here the military organization of David's kingdom. The army
comprised all males over twenty years of age. The host had twelve divisions
each of 24,000. It is remarkable how the number twenty-four occurs again
and again. Twelve is the governmental number and twice twelve, that is,
twenty-four, would indicate a perfect and complete government such as will
be established when Heaven's King of Glory is enthroned. In the list of the
Princes of Israel the tribe of Dan is numbered last. There is something
significant about this. Dan, as we have seen, is not mentioned in the
chronological register, nor is this tribe mentioned in Rev. 7. Dan is
called a serpent (Genesis 49:17); it may be that the coming false Messiah
will come out of Dan. Gad and Asher are not mentioned in the list.

                  7. The Last Acts of David and His Death

                                CHAPTER 28

                            The Great Assembly

     1. The Address of David to the assembly (28:1-10)
     2. The patterns, the gold and the silver delivered to Solomon
     3. His encouraging words to Solomon (28:20-21)

     The events in this chapter connect with Chapter 23:1. There we find
the brief statement that David was old and full of years and that Solomon
his son was made king over Israel. Then follow the chapters which acquaint
us with the preparations David had made for the building of the temple and
the arrangements of the Levites, etc., for the temple service. And now the
threads of the narrative which were dropped are taken up again. A great and
representative audience was called by David when he made Solomon king. All
the princes of Israel and the captains and mighty men in Jerusalem came
together. As we know from the book of Kings the aged monarch was weak in
his body. But when the hour came to address the great assembly he arose and
stood upon his feet. The three attitudes of David are suggestive. He was,
on his face, a penitent, (2 Sam. 1:12; 1 Chron. 21:16); he sat in His
presence as a worshipper (1 Chron. 17:16), and now he stood on his feet as
a servant. The words he spoke before the assembly are similar to those he
addressed to his son Solomon in private (1 Chron. 22). After he had spoken
all these words, in which he once more traced the gracious dealings of the
Lord with him, he admonished his son to know the God of his father, to
serve Him with a perfect heart and a willing mind. "If thou, seek Him, He
will be found of thee; but if thou forsake Him, He will cast thee off
forever." Then he exhorted him again to build the house. "Be strong and do

     After this David handed over the patterns of the porch, the temple
houses, the treasuries, the upper chambers and the inner rooms and of the
place of the mercy seat. How did the king obtain these patterns? He had
them by the Spirit. The authorized version prints Spirit with a small "s."
It was not his own spirit who planned it. A certain commentator says it
means that these patterns had been "floating in his mind." The sentence
"the pattern of all that he had by the Spirit" means that the Holy Spirit
had revealed it all to him. It was given to him by inspiration as the
pattern of the tabernacle and all belonging to it had been given to Moses
also by revelation. Then he turned over to Solomon the immense quantities
of gold and silver and other materials he had so faithfully collected for
the construction of the Temple.

                                CHAPTER 29

            The Final Words and Actions of David and His Death

     1. The exhortation (29:1-5)
     2. The response (29:6-9)
     3. David's praise and prayer (29:10-20)
     4. The sacrifices and enthronement of Solomon (29:21-25)
     5. The reign of David and his death (29:26-30)

     Then David spoke once more to the assembled princes and captains. What
tenderness and concern as well as devotion his words reveal! "Solomon my
son, whom alone God hath chosen, is yet young, and tender, and the work is
great, for the palace is not for man, but for the LORD God." Once more the
aged king speaks of the vast preparations he had made for the house of God.
He would also contribute largely from his own treasures. The gold and
silver, precious and glistening stones amounted in value to many million
dollars. The gold of Ophir mentioned was the purest and finest known in
that day (Job 22:24; 28:16; Isaiah 13:12). And all he had done was "because
I have set my affection to the house of my God." He loved it so much and
therefore he gave and consecrated such vast treasures. And here we may
remember Him who was richer than David, who gave more than David ever could
give. "For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was
rich, yet for your sakes He became poor that ye through His poverty might
be rich" (2 Cor. 8:9). After he had told of his own devotion he said, "And
who then is willing to consecrate his service this day unto the LORD?" The
Hebrew is "to fill his hand today to Jehovah." It means that whosoever gave
willingly, as he himself had done, would fill his hand with a free will
offering unto the Lord. Christian giving should always be looked upon in
this light. It is giving unto the Lord. And David's great liberality and
example brought a great response. An immense offering was given.

     "Drams" is in Hebrew "daric," a Persian gold coin weighing about 130
grains. The word is found also in Ezra 8:27. It was probably called "daric"
after Darius and therefore shows that Chronicles was written after the

     "Then the people rejoiced, for that they offered willingly, because
with perfect heart they offered willingly to the LORD, and David, the King,
also rejoiced with great joy." The joy of giving took hold of all. "It is
more blessed to give than to receive" (Acts 20:35). How great must have
been the joy of the king as he beheld the fruits of his own devotion in the
willingness of his people! And here again we must think once more of our
Lord. It is His gracious example in giving Himself for us, His people,
which will lead us on to sacrifice, to give, to spend and be spent. And how
great His joy if His people follow thus after Him.

     It is a great inspired outburst of David which follows. How He
praises! Verses 10-13 are one of the greatest outbursts of praise and
worship found in the Old Testament. Then what humility! "But who am I, and
what is my people that we should be able to offer so willingly after this
sort? for all things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee ...
all this store that we have prepared to build thee a house for thine holy
name cometh of thine hand, and is all thine own." A most beautiful sight is
an aged saint whom God hath used and honored and who is humble. Alas! how
many become lifted up and walk in pride. Then David prayed for the people
and for his son Solomon. "And all the congregation blessed the LORD God of
their fathers, and bowed down their heads, and worshipped the LORD, and the
King" (verse 20). All foreshadows that day of which we read in Psalm 110:3,
"Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power." That will be when
the King, the Prince of Peace, will take His glorious throne, when He
begins to rule.

     After the large number of sacrifices had been brought and they had
eaten before the Lord on that day with great gladness, Solomon was made
king the second time, even as his father David passed through the same
experience. This double event has no doubt a definite typical meaning in
connection with our Lord in as much as both, David and Solomon, are types
of the Lord Jesus Christ. When Solomon was made king the first time he was
but anointed with oil (1 Kings 1:39) and acclaimed as king, but he did not
occupy the kingly throne. But when he was made king the second time he sat
upon the throne "and all Israel obeyed him." "The LORD magnified Solomon
exceedingly in the sight of all Israel and bestowed upon him such royal
majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel." We see therefore
(though no commentaries mention it) that these two occasions are typical of
the first and the second coming of our Lord. Our Lord was anointed king
when He came the first time, but He received not the throne. When He comes
the second time He receives the throne and God will bestow upon Him "royal
majesty" and "all Israel" will obey Him.

     Then follows the record of the reign and death of David. There is no
clash between the account of David's last days in the closing chapters of
the second book of Samuel and the opening chapters of First Kings. The
record in Chronicles is in fullest keeping with the purpose and object of
this book. Blessing and grace is manifested to the end, and David's
failings are passed over.


                            Chronological Table
         from the Exodus to the building of the Temple by Solomon
                total of 480 years With Dates B.C. by Keil

    (Compare Judges 11:26 and 1 Kings 6:1)

1492 years B.C.:
The Exodus, duration 40 years 

1492 to 1491 years B.C.:
Giving of the Law on Mount Sinai

1453 years B.C.:
Death of Moses and Aaron

1452 to 1445 years B.C.:
Conquest of Canaan by Joshua, duration of 7 years

1445 to 1435 years B.C.:
Division of Canaan to the invasion of Chushan Rishathaim, duration of 10

About 1442 years B.C.:
Death of Joshua

>From 1442 years B.C.:
Wars of Israel against the Canaanites

About 1436 years B.C.:
Expedition against Benjamin (Judges)

1435 to 1427 years B.C.:
Oppression by Chushan Rishathaim, duration of 8 years

1427 to 1387 years B.C.:
Othniel, and the rest of Israel, duration of 40 years

1387 to 1369 years B.C.:
Oppression by the Moabites, duration of 18 years

1369 to 1289 years B.C.:
Ehud, and the rest of Israel, duration of 80 years

Around 1289 years B.C.:
Victory of Shamgar over the Philistines

1289 to 1269 years B.C.:
Oppression by Jabin, duration of 20 years

1269 to 1229 years B.C.:
Deborah and Barak, and the rest of Israel, duration of 40 years 

1229 to 1222 years B.C.:
Oppression by the Midianites, duration of 7 years

1222 to 1182 years B.C.:
Gideon, and rest, duration of 40 years

1182 to 1179 years B.C.:
Abimelech, duration of 3 years

1179 to 1156 years B.C.:
Tola, duration of 23 years

1156 to 1134 years B.C.:
Jair, duration of 22 years

1134 to 1116 years B.C.:
Oppression by the Ammonites, duration of 18 years

1116 to 1110 years B.C.:
Jephthah, duration of 6 years

1116 to 1096 years B.C.:
Samuel's deeds

About 1114 years B.C.:
Loss of the Ark by the Philistines

From 1114 years B.C.:
Samuel as a prophet

1110 to 1103 years B.C.:
Ibzan, duration of 7 years

1103 to 1093 years B.C.:
Elon, duration of 10 years

1094 to 1075 years B.C.:
Samuel as judge, duration of 19 years

1093 to 1085 years B.C.:
Abdon, duration of 8 years

1075 to 1055 years B.C.:
Saul as king, duration of 20 years

1055 to 1048 years B.C.:
David at Hebron, duration of 7 years

1048 to 1015 years B.C.:
David at Jerusalem, duration of 33 years

1015 to 1012 years B.C.:
Solomon to the building of the Temple

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