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The Person and Work of Christ
Volume One
By Ruth Paxson

This is volume one in a three volume series
Believed to be in the Public Domain

Vol. I. The Person and Work of Christ
Vol. II. The Relation Between Christ and the Christian
Vol. III. The Believer's Response to the Holy Spirit's Inworking

                    Life On the Highest Plane
                  The Person and Work of Christ

                         Volume One

                         By RUTH PAXSON

          A Study of the Spiritual Nature and Needs of Man


     To my friend and co-worker EDITH DAVIS, who, through her 
faithful intercession, helpful suggestion, constructive criticism, 
painstaking correction and selfless expenditure of time and strength, 
has given invaluable assistance, this book is lovingly and gratefully



     EVERY Christian has inherited untold riches. As a child of the 
King and a joint heir with Christ he is a spiritual multi-millionaire. 
But comparatively few Christians bear the marks of spiritual 
affluence. Their conversation, character and conduct give the 
impression rather of spiritual impoverishment. Throughout the Church 
of Christ there is a universal complaint of dearth and deadness.

     Many Christians do not seem to be conscious of their lack or 
their need. They are indifferent and self-satisfied. But, on the other 
hand, there are many whose lives are characterized by a humiliating 
consciousness of defeat and failure, by a growing unrest, and by a 
perpetual striving for something never attained. Their hearts cry out 
insistently, "Lord, is there nothing better than this for me in the 
Christian life?"

     The purpose of these studies is to teach what are the Christian's 
possessions in Christ and how they may be appropriated, enjoyed and 

     These Bible studies were first given in embryo to pastors, 
evangelists, teachers and other Christian leaders in Conferences held 
in China. Later they grew into full-size as they were taught in weekly 
Bible classes stretching over a period of six months. In response to 
many requests from both Chinese and missionary friends that this 


message might be made available for their use, it has been prepared 
for publication.

     God is building a spiritual house for His own glory and use. This 
house is composed of a foundation, a superstructure and furnishings. 
These studies attempt to furnish the plan of such an habitation and to 
show step by step the process of its building. Each chapter is, as it 
were, a story complete in itself yet connected both with the story 
underneath it and the one above it. The work is divided into three 
volumes as here indicated:

  Volume I: Christ Jesus --
    The Foundation

  Volume II:  The Believer in Christ --
    and Christ in the Believer --
    The Superstructure

  Volume III:  The Holy Spirit --
    The Furnishings

     Every architect has blue prints which visualize the construction 
to be erected... The fourteen diagrams used in this book furnish blue 
prints of God's spiritual house which He is in the process of 
building. (diagrams omitted)


     It is the hope of the author that these Studies may be used by 
groups. For such the Bibliography will suggest additional material.

     The author wishes to acknowledge her indebtedness to Mrs. Mary 
McDonough for the use of Charts II, III and IV which are in her book 
God's Plan of Redemption; to the many authors whose books have been 
consulted for inspiration and confirmation and to the many friends who 
have had a large share in the sending forth of this message in print 
through their faithful and believing intercession.

     This book is now given back to God with the prayer that He will 
use it to lift many to Life on the Highest Plane.

                         Ruth Paxson


                 CONTENTS, VOLUME I

  I. Human Life on Three Planes - 13
  II. God's First Man--The First Adam - 21
  III. Life on the Lowest Plane: The Entrance of Sin into Man - 40
  IV. Life on the Lowest Plane: The Rule of Sin over Man - 70
  V. God and Satan in Conflict - 85
  VI. False and Futile Attempts for Salvation - 115
  VII. The Chasm Bridged - 146
  VIII. God's Second Man--The Last Adam - 154
  IX. Four Spans in the Bridge of Salvation: Incarnation - 167
  X. Four Spans in the Bridge of Salvation: Crucifixion - 194
  XI. Four Spans in the Bridge of Salvation: Resurrection - 229
  XII. Four Spans in the Bridge of Salvation: Ascension and Exaltation - 241
  XIII. The Crowning Work of Jesus Christ in Salvation - 251
  Bibliography - 262

  DIAGRAMS: Facing Page (omitted in this file)

  I. Life on Three Planes - 20
  II. Uncreated and Created Life - 27
  III. The Sinless Adam - 35
  IV. The Sinful Adam - 84
  V. God--Manifest in the Flesh: Crucified, Risen, Ascended - 166
  VI. The God-Man - 228
  VII. The Holy Spirit - 261


                    I. HUMAN LIFE ON THREE PLANES

     THE Bible is a mirror in which man may see himself just as he is. 
Any person who wishes a true picture of himself will find it there. 
The Bible is God's studio in which will be found the picture of each 
of His created beings. Your photograph is there. It has been taken by 
the Divine Photographer, therefore it is flawlessly accurate. Do you 
wish to see your photograph?

     The Holy Spirit through the Apostle Paul has divided the human 
race into three clearly distinguished groups and every member of the 
human family, irrespective of racial or natural inheritance, belongs 
to one of these groups. God's description of each is so accurate and 
so true that every person may know with certitude in which class he 

     This classification presents a study of human life on three 
planes, the lowest, the highest, and a middle plane: or the natural 
man, the spiritual man, and the carnal man.

     We will start with the study of life on the lowest plane, that of

                         The Natural Man

     i Cor. 2:14, "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know 
them, because they are spiritually discerned."


     Rom. 8:9, "But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so 
be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ, he is none of his."

     1 Cor. 12:3 R.V., "No man can say, Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy 

     John 14:6, "Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth and the 
life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me."

     Is the natural man a Christian? No one can be called a Christian 
who is not rightly related to God. Is the natural man then rightly 
related to God? To get our answer let us begin with John 14:6 and work 
backward to 1 Cor. 2:14.

     Jesus says that no one can get into right relationship with God 
the Father except through Himself. The Bible shows us with 
unmistakable clearness that this necessitates receiving Jesus Christ 
into the life as Saviour and as Lord. Paul tells us that no one can 
truly call Jesus Lord, except "in the Holy Spirit," and that if the 
Holy Spirit does not dwell in one he cannot belong to God as one of 
His own. It is the Holy Spirit alone who knows the things of God which 
He desires to give us freely in Christ. But 1 Cor. 2:14 tells us that 
the natural man refuses to receive the things of the Spirit, they 
appear mere foolishness unto him. More than that, he cannot know them 
because it takes a spiritual mind to discern spiritual truth and he is 
without the Holy Spirit. So it is very clear that the natural man is 
not in the right relationship to God. Consequently from God's 
viewpoint, no matter how exemplary a life he may live on the plane of 
the natural, he is not a Christian.


          The Attitude of the Natural Man to God.

     Let us study what Scripture says of the attitude of the natural man to God:

     Gal. 4:8 He does not know God.
     Rom. 1:21 He has no gratitude to God.
     Rom. 3:11 He has no desire for God.
     1 John 4:10 He has no love for God. 
     John 3:18 He has no faith in God. 
     Rom. 3:18 He has no fear of God. 
     Rom. 1: 21, 25 He does not worship God.
     2 Tim. 3:8 He resists the truth.
     1 Cor. 2:14 He receives not the things of God.
     2 Thess. 2:12 He rejects God's truth.
     2 Thess. 1:8 He disobeys God's Gospel.
     Rom. 5:10 He is an enemy of God.

          The Relationship of the Natural Man to God.

     The attitude of the natural man to God determines his 
relationship to God. Rom. 5:10 and Col. 1:21 make it quite clear that 
the natural man is an open and avowed enemy of God. This attitude on 
his part determines what God's relationship to him must be.

     Eph. 2:17 He is far from God.
     Rom. 3:19 He is guilty before God.
     John 3:18 He is condemned by God.
     John 3:36 He is under God's wrath.
     Eph. 4:18 He is alienated from the life of God.
     Eph. 2:12 He is without God in this life.
     2 Thess. 1:9 He is without God in the life to come.

          The Condition of the Natural Man.

     The natural man is without the Lord Jesus Christ as his 
Saviour, therefore he lives wholly and only unto


himself. "The old man" is the center of his life and has undivided 
control over his whole being. Self dominates his thoughts, affections, 
speech, will and actions. His nature is sinful, therefore his conduct 
is sinful.

     The natural man is dead to God but alive to sin, self and Satan. 
He is under the dominion of "the prince of the power of the air," and 
is the bondservant of sin. He is a lost man, helpless and hopeless. 
The tragic part of it is that "the god of this age" has so blinded his 
mind that he does not comprehend the seriousness of his condition and 
consequently he has no power within himself to know God, to love God, 
to receive God, nor even to seek God. Surely this brief sketch of the 
natural man reveals life lived on the lowest plane.

     Let us next study life on the highest plane, that of

     The Spiritual Man
     i Cor. 2:15, "But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he 
himself is judged of no man."

     Gal. 6:1, "Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which 
are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; 
considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted."

     The spiritual man is the exact antithesis of the natural man. 

          The Relationship of the Spiritual Man to God.

     The spiritual man is rightly related to God through faith in 
Jesus Christ. This relationship has been brought about by the Holy 
Spirit who has convicted him of the sin of unbelief in God's way of 


salvation and of the necessity of a righteousness not his own, if he 
would ever have fellowship with a holy, righteous God. He has revealed 
Jesus Christ to him as a Saviour from sin and as the Saviour he needs. 
The Holy Spirit has so wrought upon the mind, heart and will of the 
natural man that he has been convinced of the truth of the Gospel, 
convicted of the sin of his own heart, and has been led to put his 
faith in the Crucified One as his Saviour, and so has been "born of 
the Spirit" into the Kingdom of God.

     The spiritual man has the Holy Spirit dwelling in him, filling 
him, leading him, teaching him, empowering him. Through the new birth 
God's own life, eternal and uncreated, has been imparted to him and 
now Jesus Christ is his very life.

     The spiritual man has a threefold relationship to the Lord Jesus 
Christ which is manifested in his character, in his conversation, and 
in his conduct.
     The spiritual man has accepted Christ as his Saviour.
     The spiritual man has yielded to Christ as his Lord.
     The spiritual man has appropriated Christ as his Life.

     Jesus Christ and he are one as the vine and the branch are one. 
Christ is the supreme need of his life and has the supreme place in 
his affections. Christ is all and in all to him. 

          The Condition of the Spiritual Man.

     The spiritual man having taken the crucified, risen, glorified 
Christ as Saviour, Lord and Life, lives his life wholly unto God. The 
Lord Jesus is the center of his life and has undivided control over 


his whole being. Jesus Christ dominates his thoughts, affections, 
speech, will and actions. He has become a partaker of the nature of 
God so that there are two natures in the spiritual man but the divine 
nature is sovereign.

     The spiritual man is habitually alive to God and dead to sin and 
self. He is a bondservant to God and gladly, joyously, acknowledges 
and submits to the sovereign Lordship of Jesus.

     Jesus Christ is intensely real and precious to the spiritual man, 
and he considers, loves, serves, adores and worships Him. This 
condition is not due to anything in himself but is true because of his 
yielding himself unreservedly to the influence and operation of the 
Holy Spirit, through whom he has been enabled to seek, to receive, to 
love and to know Christ Jesus as his Saviour and through whom he is 
filled with His life. Surely this brief sketch of the spiritual man 
reveals life lived on the highest plane.

     Let us lastly study life on the middle plane, that of

     The Carnal Man
     1 Cor. 3:1-4, "1 And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as 
unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ. 2 I 
have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not 
able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able. 3 For ye are yet carnal: 
for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are 
ye not carnal, and walk as men? 4 For while one saith, I am of Paul; 
and another, I am of Apollos; are ye not carnal?"


     The carnal man is an hyphenated man, belonging to two spheres. 

          The Relationship of the Carnal Man to God.

     The carnal man is a Christian because he has obtained sonship 
through faith in Jesus Christ as his Saviour. Therefore he is rightly 
related to God. But he has entered into neither the possessions nor 
the privileges of a son and his practices are not those becoming his 
position in the family of God.

     The carnal man has the Holy Spirit dwelling in him but He is 
constantly being grieved and quenched so that He has restricted power 
in and dominion over the life.

     The carnal man has been renewed through the new birth but he is 
still a "babe in Christ." He sits at the table of the Lord to partake 
of His bounties but he has no appetite nor capacity for "strong meat." 
He subsists on "milk." He is not a full grown man. He actually has 
been united to the Lord Jesus but he is an "adulterer" loving the 
world and caring far more for its people and pleasures than for Jesus 
Christ (James 4:4).

     The carnal man has accepted Christ as his Saviour but he has 
little or no apprehension of a life of complete surrender to, and of 
full appropriation of, Jesus Christ as his Lord and his Life. He feels 
a need of Christ and desires some relationship with Him but he is not 
satisfied in Him. Christ has a place in his heart but not the place of 
supremacy and preeminence. 
          The Condition of the Carnal Man.

     The carnal man lives his life partly unto God and


partly unto himself. The Lord Jesus is really at the center of his 
life but "the old man" is usually on the throne. There is a divided 
control over his life. Sometimes Christ dominates his thoughts, 
affections, speech, will and action but more often they are under the 
dominion of self. Two natures are side by side in the carnal man, the 
divine and the fleshly, and he is under the sway of each in turn 
according as he yields to one or to the other. He is alive to God 
spasmodically but he is equally alive to sin, self and Satan. He 
attempts to live in two spheres, the heavenly and the earthly--and he 
fails in both.

     The carnal man is in a miserable condition and his life is always 
one of defeat and discouragement, often one of despair. This condition 
is due to ignorance of the deep things of God, unwillingness to yield 
himself unreservedly to the Lord Jesus Christ, and unbelief in 
appropriating Christ with all His graces and gifts. Surely this brief 
sketch of the carnal man reveals life lived on a middle plane. 
(Diagram I. omitted)

     We have looked into God's mirror. Have you seen yourself? We have 
been in God's studio. Have you seen your photograph? We have seen 
human life on three planes. On which plane are you living?


                 II. GOD'S FIRST MAN--THE FIRST ADAM

     AS we daily observe the lives of men and women we see a vast 
difference in the quality of those lives. We readily admit that people 
are living, on totally different planes with a consequent vast 
divergence in character and conduct. We must seek the cause of such 
disparity. What or who is to blame?

     If we acknowledge God to be the Creator of all things in His 
universe, then we are compelled to place the responsibility for such 
inequality either upon Him or upon man. It must be the result either 
of God's fiat or of man's choice. To say that it is due to the 
difference in the heredity, circumstances, environment or 
opportunities of people, is to beg the question altogether. Countless 
ones have come up out of the depths of poverty, illiteracy, 
superstition, affliction and persecution to heights of nobility in 
character and conduct. Many have fallen from heights of wealth, 
education, ease, opportunity and privilege to the lowest depths of sin 
and shame. Upon whom then should the blame rest for such inequality in 
human life?

     Is God responsible for it? The only fair way to answer this 
question is to turn to His own record of creation and to read what He 
says of His first man, and to determine upon what plane He intended 
him to live.


     Gen. 1:26, 27, "26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, 
after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the 
sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all 
the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he 
him; male and female created he them."

     Gen. 1:31, "And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, 
it was very good."

     If language has any power whatever to express thought, these 
words clearly teach us five things regarding God's first man:
  (1) That he was created by Someone who already existed.
  (2) That his creation was the result of God's deliberate, direct, 
creative will.
  (3) That he was created in the image of God.
  (4) That he was pronounced "very good."
  (5) That he was given dominion over all the earth and made the head 
of the entire terrestrial creation.

          God Created Man in His own Image.

     God's first man was made just as God wanted all men to be. He was 
made after a pattern. God's first man came direct from God's own hand 
and bore a definite resemblance to his Creator. "The root idea of the 
Hebrew word translated 'image' is that of a shadow." God's first man, 
then, was God's shadow. He was like God.  But in what respect?

     To answer this question we are forced to ask another.


"What was God like?" "GOD created man." The statement is made without 
any previous explanation of God Himself; He appears upon the first 
pages of revelation as a Being acting independently in the creation of 
a universe and of man with no explanation of Himself and with no 
reference whatever to His origin.

     "Who, then, created God?" How many mothers have had to answer 
that query! It is, likewise, the first and greatest issue that 
confronts the philosopher as he studies into the secrets of the 
universe. In answering this question correctly one takes his first 
step in knowing who God is.

     Scripture gives to men and women of faith an absolutely 
satisfying and final answer in the simple but sublime words, "In the 
beginning GOD." God never became for He always was. God is the great 
"I AM." "And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM; and he said, Thus 
shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto 
you." God had no beginning and will have no end. From everlasting to 
everlasting He is God. "For with thee is the fountain of life." "For 
as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to 
have life in himself." God is the Uncreated: the Always-Existent. He 
is the Eternal, Infinite One. He is the Beginning of all beginnings.

     This, then, is what God is. But if this is what God is in what 
respect could God's first man ever be said to resemble Him? Let us 
press on in our search for an understanding of this great truth. While 


God never explains Himself in Scripture He does reveal Himself. He 
wants men to know who and what He is, for if we did not have this 
knowledge we could never know God's original intention for man who was 
made in His image.

     Let us turn to the first twenty-five verses of the opening 
chapter of God's Word and see if we find any revelation of Himself 
that throws light upon the kind of resemblance God's first man bore to 
God. We read:

     "God said ..."      "God made ..."
     "God saw ..."       "God set ..."
     "God divided ..."   "God created ..."
     "God called ..."    "God blessed ..."

These phrases each record something which God did. Outward action is 
the expression of inward being. What one does reveals what one is.

     "God said," therefore God must have thought. 
     "God blessed," therefore God must have loved. 
     "God created," therefore God must have willed.

Genesis 1:1-25 reveals personality. God is a Person. He is a Person 
who thinks, loves, and wills.

     We have now found out two things about God. We have learned that 
God is the Uncreated, the Eternal, the Infinite, the Fountainhead of 
all life. And we have learned that He is a Person who thinks, loves 
and wills. The deduction which we may make from this twofold 
revelation is that God is a Person who thinks, loves 


and wills on the plane of uncreated, unlimited, eternal, divine Life.

     Are we ready now to answer the question, "In what respect was 
God's first man like God?" Perhaps we might clarify our thinking on 
one very fundamental point by first saying in what respect God's first 
man was not like Him.

     Gen. 2:7, "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, 
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a 
living soul."

     1 Cor. 15:47, "The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second 
man is the Lord from heaven."

     God was man's Creator. Man became a living soul. Man was formed 
from the dust of the ground. He is of the earth, earthy. It will be 
clearly seen from these verses that God and God's first man Adam were 
not in the same order of beings nor did they live on the same plane of 

     God is uncreated, man is created. God is infinite, man is finite. 
God is heavenly, man is earthy. God is divine, man is human. Between 
what God is in His uncreated, essential, divine being and what man is 
in his created, finite, human being there is an absolutely impassable 
gulf, an immeasurable distance. God is not superman, man is not 
inferior God.

     In what respect then did God's first man resemble God? Wherein was 
man God's shadow? It was in the wondrous gift of personality. Man is a 
person as God is a person. Let us trace this likeness in the opening 
chapters of Genesis.


     As a person God thought and expressed His thought in words thus 
revealing the truth that intelligence is inherent in personality. God 
made Adam in His image.

     Gen. 2:19, 20, "And out of the ground the Lord God formed every 
beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto 
Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every 
living creature, that was the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all 
cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field."

     Adam was created with the power to think and to express thought 
in words. Adam had intelligence.

     As a person God loved and expressed His love in blessing thus 
revealing the truth that emotion is inherent in personality. God made 
Adam in His image.

     Gen. 2:18, "And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man 
should be alone; and I will make him an help meet for him."

     God gave Eve to Adam to be his wife and God said, "Therefore 
shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his 
wife: and they shall be one flesh" (Gen. 2:24).

     Adam was created with the power to love and to express that love 
in fidelity. Adam had emotion.

     As a person God willed and expressed His will in action thus 
revealing the truth that will is inherent in personality. God made 
Adam in His image.


     Gen. 3:6, "And when the woman saw that the tree was good for 
food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired 
to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave 
also unto her husband with her; and he did eat."

     Adam was created with the power to will and to express that will 
in choice. Adam had volition.

     God's first man was made in God's image in the sense of having a 
personality patterned after God's in its power to think, to love and 
to will; but with this difference, that God thought, loved and willed 
on the plane of uncreated, unlimited, eternal, divine life, while Adam 
thought, loved and willed on the plane of created, limited, finite, 
human life. The intellectual, emotional and volitional life of God's 
first man was perfect within a limited sphere. Above and beyond this 
was the perfection of God's personality within an unlimited sphere. 
(Diagram II. omitted)

     The resemblance which God's first man bore to God through 
likeness in personality made communion and cooperation between them 
possible; while the difference of plane on which each lived determined 
the basis of their relationship. God was the Creator, Adam was the 
created. God was the Sovereign, Adam was the subject. It also set the 
boundaries of Adam's intellectual, emotional and volitional life; all 
must lie within the realm of divine sovereignty. The sovereignty of 
God expressed in His divine will was to be the circumference of Adam's 
human life. Unlimited liberty in thinking, loving and willing was 


given him. But one condition had to be met. He must think, love and 
will within the circle of God's will.

     Such a limitation was not for the purpose of making God a 
glorified despot: a Sovereign who ruled arbitrarily with no thought 
for the well being of His subject. On the contrary the limitation was 
wholly beneficent. It was purely for the purpose of keeping man in the 
only sphere in which he could remain perfect, in which he could come 
into the fullest and most complete realization of the possibility of 
his being, in which, in fact, he could remain in communion and 
cooperation with God.

     That God intended man to become even more than we see him to be 
in the unfallen first man of Eden the whole trend of the Bible shows. 
Adam was made in the image of God plus the capacity for sonship. "Man 
as originally created, was not only in the image of God, he was also 
made to live in union with God, so that all his limitation might find 
its complement in the unlimited life of the Eternal. It is a great 
mistake to think of man as made, and then as put into some position 
where he might rise or fall, according to the capacity of his own 
personality. It is rather to be remembered that he was created in the 
image of God, and then put into a probationary position through which 
he was to pass unharmed to some larger form of existence, if his life 
were lived in union with the God who had created him. If however he 
chose a separate existence, and cut himself off from union, in that 
act he would fall."--(The Crises of the Christ, G. Campbell Morgan, 
page 28.)


     What would God's first man do? Would he accept the limitation and 
live his life in union with God, content to let it be kept wholly 
within the circle of God's will, or would he exercise his will in a 
choice contrary to the will of God and so cut himself off from the 
life of God? There would be but one way to know--the way of a test. 
God gave the test.

     Gen. 2:8, 9, "And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; 
and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground 
made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, 
and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, 
and the tree of knowledge of good and evil."

     Gen. 2:16, 17, "And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of 
every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the tree of 
the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the 
day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."

     "Of every tree thou mayest freely eat"--unlimited freedom of 
choice within the will of God. "But of the tree of the knowledge of 
good and evil thou shalt not eat of it"--limitation of choice bounded 
by the will of God. "The Lord God commanded the man saying, Thou shalt 
not" Here was the Great Divide. This was the watershed between the 
sovereignty of the Creator and the subjection of the created. All on 
one side was within the circle of God's will: all on the other side 
was without the circle of God's will. All on one side meant union with 
God: all on the other side meant separation 


from God. All on one side spelled life: all on the other side spelled 
death. God gave the test. Adam was to make the choice. God gave the 
command. Adam could obey or disobey.

     Just here we must pause to penetrate a bit deeper into the study 
of Adam's personality to see if there was anything within him to 
hinder or to help him in the making of his choice. Did God make Adam 
so that he could will to live wholly within the circle of God's will 
and have every other part of his being in active sympathy with such a 
decision? In the very constitution of Adam's being did God place 
anything that would favour and foster such complete and continuous 

     Scripture does not say a great deal about the threefold nature of 
man but what it does say is very illuminating and indubitable. It does 
tell us how man came to be what man now is.

     Gen. 2:7, "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, 
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a 
living soul."

     Scripture names for us the component parts of man as thus created 
by God.

     1 Thess. 5:23, "And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; 
and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body may be preserved 
blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ."

     In Gen. 2:7 God gives us the divine order in the creation of the 
component parts of man. 


     The Formation of the Human Body. "And the Lord God formed man out 
of the dust of the ground." "The first man is of the earth, earthy." 
The earth was to be man's dwelling place. In order that it might have 
communication with the external world in which it dwelt, the body of 
man was formed of earth, and then equipped with five senses, sight, 
hearing, taste, touch and smell. Because of its connection with the 
earthly, the body is the lowest part of man. Yet it has the exalted 
privilege of being the home of the spirit and of being its only outlet 
to the world of sense. The body is the port city of the human 

     The Emanation of the Human Spirit. "And breathed into his 
nostrils the breath of life." The divine Potter formed the human frame 
and then breathed into it the breath of life. This life principle 
which came as a direct emanation from God became the human spirit. 
Some one has aptly said, "Man is dust inbreathed by Deity."

     God Himself defines the human spirit in these words, "The spirit 
of man is the lamp of Jehovah, searching all the innermost parts." The 
spirit is the crowning part of man's being. It is God's masterpiece in 
human creation. It is the part of man which has relationship to the 
unseen, spiritual world, which has fellowship with God. Through the 
spirit man apprehends, loves and worships God. Dr. A.T. Pierson says, 
"The spirit receives impressions of outward and material things 
through the soul and the body, but it belongs itself to a higher level 
and realm, and is capable of a direct knowledge of God by relation to 

its own higher senses and faculties. In an unfallen state it was like 
a lofty observatory with an outlook upon a celestial firmament." (The 
Bible and Spiritual Life, page 116.) The spirit is the capital city of 
the human personality.

     The Creation of the Human Soul. "And man became a living soul." 
Above the body and beneath the spirit stands the soul, the medium 
between the two. It has been said that in its relationship to the body 
and bodily senses it might be likened to the photographer's dark room. 
The impressions regarding the external world received through the 
senses are gathered up and conveyed to this dark room where they are 
developed into distinct expressions of thought, emotion or will.

     In its relationship to the spirit and the spiritual world the 
soul might be likened to the judge's bench. The evidence regarding God 
and spiritual realities which the spirit finds in its research in the 
spiritual realm is brought to the bar of the soul and there either 
accepted or rejected.

     Man, then, is a trinity; spirit, soul, and body are the integral 
parts of his triune being. In the constitution of God's first man two 
independent elements were used; the corporeal and the spiritual; the 
material and the immaterial. Each was essential because man was to be 
related to two worlds; the seen and the unseen; the material and the 
spiritual. He was made primarily for God and in order to have 
intercourse with God he must have a spirit capable of communion and 
fellowship with the Divine Spirit. But man was to be placed in


God's material universe that he might have tangible relationship with 
the external world of people and things. So he must have a body 
capable of such contact and communication. Man was to be in close, 
continuous touch with both heaven and earth; with the external and the 
temporal; with the spiritual and the material.

     When God placed the spirit within the body its home on earth, the 
union of these two produced a third part and man became a living soul. 
The soul uniting spirit and body gave man individuality, it was the 
cause of his existence as a distinct being. The soul, consisting of 
intellect, emotion and will became the central part, the seat, as it 
were, of man's being.

     The soul acted as the middleman between the spirit and the body; 
it was the bond which united them and the channel through which they 
acted upon each other. The soul stood thus midway between two worlds: 
through the body it was linked to the visible, material and earthly; 
through the spirit it was linked with the unseen, spiritual and 
heavenly. To it was given the power to determine which world should 
dominate man.

     The very great importance of this theme in its relationship to 
succeeding lessons and the intense desire that each reader may have a 
clear understanding of it leads me to quote at length from Andrew 
Murray's book, The Spirit of Christ:

     "The Spirit quickening the body made man a living soul, a living 
person with the consciousness of himself. The soul was the meeting 
place, the point of union between body and spirit. Through the body, 


man, the living soul, stood related to the external world of sense; 
could influence it, or be influenced by it. Through the spirit he 
stood related to the spiritual world and the Spirit of God, whence he 
had his origin; could be the recipient and the minister of its life 
and power. Standing thus midway between two worlds, belonging to both, 
the soul had the power of determining itself, of choosing or refusing 
the objects by which it was surrounded, and to which it stood related.

     "In the constitution of these three parts of man's nature the 
spirit, as linking him with the Divine, was the highest; the body, 
connecting him with the sensible and the animal, the lowest; 
intermediate stood the soul, partaker of the nature of the others, the 
bond that united them, and through which they could act on each other. 
Its work as the central power was to maintain them in due relation; to 
keep the body, as the lowest, in subjection to the spirit; itself to 
receive through the spirit, as the higher, from the Divine Spirit what 
was waiting for its perfection; and so pass down even to the body, 
that by which it might be the partaker of the Spirit's perfection, and 
become a spiritual body.

     "The wondrous gifts with which the soul was endowed, specially 
those of consciousness and self-determination, or mind and will, were 
but the mould or vessel into which the life of the Spirit, the real 
substance and truth of the Divine life, was to be received and 
assimilated. They were a God-given capacity for making the knowledge 
and will of God its own. In doing this the personal life of the soul 


would have become filled and possessed with the life of the Spirit, 
the whole man would have become spiritual. 

     "To gather up what has been said, the spirit is the seat of our 
God-consciousness; the soul of our self-consciousness; the body of our 
world-consciousness. In the spirit God dwells: in the soul self, in 
the body sense."

     It is clear from all this that God's original intention was that 
the human spirit through which alone man can be related to the Spirit 
of God and to the spiritual world should be the dominant element in 
the human personality. The spirit was to be sovereign and as long as 
it remained so the whole being would be kept spiritual.

     But while the human spirit was to be sovereign in the realm of 
the human personality with both soul and body yielded to its 
dominance, yet it was to be subject in turn to a higher power. Dr. 
A.T. Pierson says, "One obvious lesson in this Biblical psychology is 
that God evidently designed that the human spirit, indwelt and ruled 
by the Holy Spirit, should keep man in constant touch with Himself, 
and maintain in everything its proper preeminence, ruling soul and 
body." (The Bible and Spiritual Life, page 123) (Diagram III. omitted)

     Thus we see that the human spirit was to be a sovereign under a 
Sovereign. It was also to be the middleman between the eternal and the 
temporal; the unseen and the seen; the divine and the human; the 
heavenly and the earthly. The spirit had its windows opened heavenward 
and Godward and through spiritual perception, insight and 


vision it was constantly receiving spiritual impressions which were to 
be sent outward by way of the soul to the body. The spirit through 
unbroken fellowship with the Holy Spirit was to be the channel through 
which the whole being of God's first man would be linked to the life 
of God and so made and kept spiritual.

     This brief study of the threefold nature of God's first man, 
Adam, shows us that his human personality was so constituted that he 
could always think, love and will within the circle of God's will. He 
could choose to live under the authority of his divine Sovereign. 
There was nothing within himself to hinder perfect obedience to the 
will of God.

     One other question remains to be answered. Was there anything 
without his life to hinder? Was Adam's environment conducive to 
complete and continuous obedience to God's will?

     God placed His perfect man in a perfect environment. The picture 
given in Genesis of the garden of Eden is that of a place in which 
there was satisfaction and sufficiency for every need of man's spirit, 
soul and body. The Creator had made Himself responsible for meeting 
bountifully every need of His creature. Even the brief account given 
of the life of Adam in Eden reveals perfect adjustment to his 
environment. Righteousness ruled; therefore, peace resulted. There was 
nothing within his environment to hinder perfect obedience to the will 
of God.

     God not only placed this perfect man in a perfect environment but 
His own relationship with Adam was perfect. It was 


a relationship both of communion and cooperation.

     Adam had communion with God. Man was made for God. There is ample 
Scriptural authority for this statement in such verses as Isa. 43:7, 
21; Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11. The fact that man was made in the image of 
God in his intellectual, moral and volitional life shows that God 
desired fellowship with him and made him with the capacity for such 
fellowship which was not given to any other of His creatures. The 
beautiful words in Gen. 3:8, "And they heard the voice of the Lord 
God walking in the garden in the cool of the day," reveal God even 
taking the initiative in seeking communion and comradeship with Adam 
and Eve. So God's first man walked and talked with God as friend with 
friend; he was able to know and to enjoy God as a kindred nature; he 
was in inner, spiritual harmony with God.

     God's first man also had cooperation with God in His governmental 
activities. Adam was God's vice-regent, as it were, over all His 
works: he was the executive instrument by divine appointment to carry 
out the divine purpose. God made Adam His representative as the 
visible monarch of all living things. "He had dominion over the fish 
of the sea, over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over 
all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the 
earth." Within his own sphere he was made a sovereign, subordinate 
only to God.

     One thing more remains to be said concerning God's first man. 
Adam was not only an individual but he was the federal head 


of the human race. God made His first man the head and representative 
of man. Bishop H.C.G. Moule in his Outlines of Christian Doctrine, 
says: "Adam was a true individual, as truly as Abel. But, unlike his 
son, he was, what only one other Being has ever been, the moral, 
intelligent Head of a moral, intelligent race; not only the first 
specimen of a newly created Nature, but in such a sense the Spring of 
that nature to his after-kind that in him not only the individual but 
the race could, in some all important respects, be dealt with." (Page 
168.) Adam by God's appointment was the source of human life of all 
mankind: the head of the human family. He was God's first 
representative man. Through him in creation God established a union 
with the whole human race. Then He commanded Adam to be fruitful and 

     God's first man, then, was perfect; he was put in a perfect 
environment and he had perfect fellowship with God. Harmony reigned 
within himself, within all his relationships both with the inferior 
creatures beneath him and with the sovereign Creator above him. There 
was everything within and without his life to foster complete 
submission to the sovereignty of God and perfect obedience to His 
will. Would he be content to remain a sovereign under a Sovereign? 
Would he choose continuously to live within the circle of God's will? 
Would his whole personality be kept under the control of the Divine 
Spirit and so maintain its life on the spiritual plane? If so, then 


through this first man, made in His own image and controlled by His 
divine Spirit, God would people the earth with beings who would also 
bear His likeness, yield to His sovereignty, serve Him with 
fruitfulness, and live together in righteousness and peace.

    G. Campbell Morgan in The Crises of the Christ states Adam's 
position before God in the following paragraph, "Finite will is to be 
tested, and it will stand or fall as it submits to or rebels against 
the Infinite Will of the Infinite God. Thus unfallen man was a being 
created in the image of God, living in union with God, cooperating in 
activity with God, having the points of limitation of his being marked 
by simple and definite commands laid upon him, gracious promises 
luring him to that which was highest on the one hand, and a solemn 
sentence warning him from that which was lowest on the other. He was a 
sovereign under a Sovereignty, independent, but dependent. He had the 
right of will, but this could only be exercised in perpetual 
submission to the higher will of God." (Page 32.)

     Gen. 2:16-17, "And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, ... 
of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it."

     Here is God's will expressed in concrete form. Through this 
command God puts the test to His first man. Adam had the right to will 
and he had the power to will God-ward.


               III. The Entrance of Sin Into Man

     IT must be evident to every thoughtful person that life on the 
spiritual plane is God's intention for man. In God's first man the 
divine Spirit had direct relationship with the human spirit and 
through it as a channel could so control the whole being as to make 
and keep it spiritual. That which was God's intention for His first 
man was also His purpose for all mankind.

     But candidness compels us to admit that the overwhelming majority 
of the human race today is living on the lowest plane of life--that of 
the natural man. In all parts of the world we see man out of 
adjustment with God, with his fellowmen and with himself. Hatred, war, 
discontent, restlessness, crime, lawlessness, anarchy, prevail.

     What then is the reason for such a terrible and tragic fall? Was 
God's human creation a colossal failure? Did He initiate something 
which He could not execute? Or must we find a reason for the present 
condition of humanity in something outside of God? Does the Bible tell 
us how that which God created without sin and pronounced "very good" 
became sinful and was denounced by Him as "no good"? A


Scriptural study of the history of the natural man gives a clear and 
full explanation.

          The Condition of the Natural Man.

     Eph. 2:12, "That at that time ye were without Christ, being 
aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the 
covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world."

     The Apostle Paul is writing to those in the church at Ephesus who 
were then living on the spiritual plane but who previously had lived 
on the plane of the natural. Paul says, "At that time"--when you were 
living on the lowest plane--"ye were without God, without Christ, and 
without hope."

     1 John 5:11, 12, "And this is the record, that God hath given to 
us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son 
hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life."

     Eternal life is in Jesus Christ, the Son of God. But Eph. 2:12 
says that the natural man is "without Christ," therefore he must be 
without eternal life. God offers unto every man the gift of eternal 
life which he has power to accept or to refuse. To accept it opens the 
way for him to the highest plane of life, that of the spiritual man; 
to refuse it leaves him on the lowest plane of life, that of the 
natural man.

     Eph. 2:1, "And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses 
and sins."


     The natural man refuses the gift of eternal life, therefore he is 
"dead." Every person who has not accepted from the Father the gift of 
eternal life bestowed upon him in Christ Jesus, the Son, is described 
by God as "dead."

     Perhaps the reader will think instantly of some unsaved relative 
or friend who seems to have abounding life and he will challenge, nay, 
even resent this statement regarding his condition. This person may be 
a perfect specimen of physical strength and energy. He may be an 
intellectual giant, perchance a fine classical scholar, abounding in 
worldly wisdom and knowledge. He may be a model of morality, living 
his personal, family and civic life on a high plane. He may even be 
religious, occasionally attending divine service and contributing 
toward the maintenance of church or temple. Surely God's description 
of the natural man does not fit him for he is abounding in life! How 
can such a man be described as "dead"? There seems to be abounding 
life in his whole being.

     But let a test be made in the realm of his spirit. We have seen 
that the human spirit is the seat of God-consciousness and that in 
God's first man there was a direct and vital relationship between the 
divine Spirit of God and the human spirit of Adam. God's first man 
responded to God in communion and cooperation. A spiritual man 
delights to respond to every outreaching of God's grace and love 
toward him. Does your unsaved friend respond to God?

     Talk with him about God and spiritual things and your very 
language is foreign and unintelligible to him,


to say nothing of the truth you are attempting to convey. Invite him 
to go to  God's house and he frankly tells you he prefers the club, 
the cinema or the guild. Give him a Bible to read and it seems 
insufferably dull and insipid to him and in no measure compares in 
interest with the newspaper or the latest novel. Invite him to spend 
an evening in your home in company with God's people and he is 
fearfully bored and out of place, not knowing how to act or what to 
say, and longing for the time to depart. Speak to him of his personal 
spiritual need, explain to him his condition and danger, urge him to 
accept Christ as his personal Saviour and to ally himself openly with 
God's people, and he either ridicules the idea or resents it.

     Something somewhere seems wrong with the man. Something is wrong 
with him in the realm of his spirit for there is no response 
whatsoever to God. There is apparently no God-consciousness. There is 
no sense of need of God; no desire for God. Something in the man 
seems dead. Something in the man is dead. Death reigns in his spirit. 

          Adam, the Channel of Sin's Entrance into the Human Race.

     God is the Author of all life and after His creation of living 
things "He saw everything that he had made, and, behold it was very 
good." But today death reigns everywhere. No living thing is exempt 
from its touch or its toll. It has wrought ruin everywhere. Surely God 
is not the author of death. From whence then did it come? God does not 
leave us in darkness on this question but in language simple enough 


for a child to understand He tells how death came into the world of 
living things.

     Rom. 5:12, "By one man sin entered into the world, and death by 
sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned."

     This clearly teaches that death is a result; that sin is the 
cause. Death came because of sin.

     But how did sin come into the world? Sin entered by one man. The 
blame then for the entrance of sin and death into His beautiful world 
cannot be placed upon God, for in His own Word He absolutely clears 
Himself from such a charge.

     But who could the man be through whom such terrible havoc, such 
awful disaster to the whole human race, was wrought? God never leaves 
an honest, truly seeking soul without an answer that satisfies. In 
Romans 5:12 God plainly says that all mankind was involved in the 
disaster caused by one man's sin so he must have been a representative 
man, one in whom the human race was latent. The context, Romans 
5:13-23, sets in sharp contrast sin and death, salvation and life, and 
traces each to its source in the only two representative men of all 
history: Adam and Christ. A study of this passage clearly reveals 
Adam, God's first man, to have been the one through whom sin and death 
came, and Christ, God's second Man, to have been the One through whom 
came salvation and life.

     But if one has any question in his mind regarding


this passage God states the case boldly and unmistakably in 1 Cor. 
15:22, "For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made 

     Adam is the man through whom sin entered into the human race. The 
consequence of sin was death. But we have seen in our previous study 
that Adam was created without sin and that he was put into an 
environment and enjoyed a fellowship with God both of which were 
conducive to a continuance in such a state of innocence and 

     So the question forces itself upon one, "How could sin enter into 
such a man with its blighting curse? How was the tragedy of death ever 
enacted in that beautiful garden?" The story is told in the second and 
third chapters of Genesis. This portion of God's Word spiritually 
apprehended and humbly accepted gives an answer which satisfies every 
true and sincere believer.

     To answer the question we need to define sin. What could Adam do 
that could be called sin? The answer is simple. The only sin that Adam 
could commit was to transgress God's divine law, to will to disobey 
the clearly revealed will of God. As long as Adam continued to will to 
live his whole life within the circle of God's revealed will he could 
not sin. Adam had the right to will but he could remain without sin 
only as he exercised his will in perpetual submission to the higher 
will of God. Sin, then, is known disobedience to the clearly revealed 
will of God. Sin is the wilful, deliberate, resistance of a subject 


to the rightful authority of a Sovereign. "Sin, in the Biblical view, 
consists in the revolt of the creature will from its rightful 
allegiance to the sovereign will of God, and the setting up a false 
independence, the substitution of a life-for-self for life-for-God." 
(The Christian View of God and the World, James Orr, p. 172.) 

     Sin as God Himself defines it is "transgression of the law" 
(1 John 3:4). God called Adam's sin "transgression."

     Let us see from God's own record how sin entered into Adam with 
its curse of death.

     Gen. 2:16-17, "And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of 
every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:
  But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shall not 
eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely 

     Gen. 3:6, "And when the woman saw that the tree was good for 
food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired 
to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave 
also unto her husband with her; and he did eat."

     God gave Adam well-nigh unlimited liberty. But one commandment 
was imposed. But one transgression was possible. Of every other tree 
he could freely eat. Of only one tree was he forbidden to eat and even 
for this prohibition God had a beneficent reason. Adam was on trial. 
He ate of the forbidden fruit. He willed to have something which God 
for a loving and beneficent reason had willed that he should not have. 
By that one act he sinned for sin is the transgression of the law. By 
his own volition Adam deliberately transgressed a divinely marked


boundary; he overstepped a clearly revealed divine limitation.

          Satan, the Originator of Sin in God's Universe.

     But some one may ask, "When Adam was a perfect man with a 
sinless nature, living in a perfect environment and having perfect 
fellowship with God how could he be tempted to disobey?" With all in 
his own personality and all in his environment favouring his complete 
and continuous obedience to the will of God, from what source could 
temptation to disobedience and self-will come? It is a legitimate 
question and demands an answer which God gives.

     Gen. 3:1, "Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the 
field which the Lord God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, 
hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?"

     "Now the serpent was more subtil ... and he said ..." Here we 
have words used which can be used only in characteristics, attitudes 
and acts which belong to personality, either natural or supernatural. 
But was there any other person in the garden besides the Lord God and 
His two created beings, Adam and Eve? There evidently was. But it was 
some one who apparently desired to conceal his identity, so he came 
under the deceiving cover of impersonation. Who then was this other 

     The conversation between the serpent and Eve recorded in Genesis 
three reveals the twofold fact that this person is an enemy of God and 
that he is there in the garden for an evil purpose. Does Scripture 


give us any clue by which this cunning, wicked impersonator may be 
identified? It does. His name identifies him.

     Rev. 12:9, "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, 
called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: and he 
was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him."

     Holy Scripture is a unity and Scripture interprets Scripture. 
"The serpent" of Genesis 3:1 is none other than "that old serpent, 
called the Devil, and Satan" of Revelation 12:9 and 20:2.

     In Revelation 12:9 he is revealed as a deceiver. His nature 
identifies him. The Bible tells us clearly that is the part he was 
playing in the garden of Eden in his first dealings with humanity. The 
finger prints of the arch deceiver are clearly discerned in Genesis 

     1 Tim. 2:14, "And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being 
deceived was in the transgression."

     2 Cor. 11:3, "But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent 
beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted 
from the simplicity that is in Christ."

     There is evidence then that before the creation of Adam and Eve 
there was in God's universe a being who was both a sinner and a 
traitor. Does God's Word give us any light upon who he is and how he 
came into such a condition?

     Ezekiel 28:11-19 and Isaiah 14:12-20 seem to give this clue. 
A careful study and comparison of these two passages 


with other Scriptures seem to indicate very clearly that the one 
referred to is none other than Satan.

     The passage in Ezekiel reveals the truth regarding the person and 
position of Satan originally. It states that Satan was a created being 
and that he was created perfect. He was "full of wisdom," "perfect in 
beauty," "perfect in thy ways," "the sum of perfection was found in 

     Not only was he perfect as regards his person but he held a very 
exalted position in the service of God. He was "the anointed cherub 
that covereth" and served "in the holy mountain of God." Perhaps no 
other created being held so exalted a position or was so intimately 
connected with God.

     That he also had some relationship to and power over God's 
created universe given to him by God Himself is seen in the two 
titles, "the prince of this world" (John 14:30) and "the prince of the 
power of the air" (Eph. 2:2).

     That he had been given a high position of trust to which he had 
been a traitor is very certain. He was a prince over a kingdom for 
three times the Lord Jesus called him "the prince of this world," and 
when he took the Lord into a high mountain and offered Him all the 
kingdoms of the world with their glory Jesus did not dispute his claim 
to their disposal.

     But with all Satan's perfection and power, he was still a created 
being and, as such, he must be subservient to his Creator and remain 
dependent and obedient. Scripture, however, from beginning to end


reveals Satan as God's arch-enemy. He is an open and avowed rebel. He 
is not a subject of the kingdom of light but is a sovereign over the 
kingdom of darkness.

     When and how did this rebellion toward God take place? "The 
anointed cherub" who was "in the holy mountain" sinned.

     Eze. 28:15-16, "Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that 
thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee. Thou hast sinned: 
therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God."

     The sin that led to Satan's downfall is intimated in the words, 
"Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted 
thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness" (Eze. 28:17). Pride led to 
self-exaltation which expressed itself in self-will.

     Let us now examine Isaiah 14:12-20 and see to what lengths 
self-exaltation carried Satan in rebellion against his Creator and 

     Isa. 14:12-14, "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son 
of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst 
weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend 
into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit 
also upon the mount of the congregation ..., I will ascend above the 
heights of the clouds; I WILL BE LIKE THE MOST HIGH."

     Self-exaltation led to self-will, self-will led to rebellion 
against God, and Lucifer, son of the morning, became


Satan, father of the night. The moment "the anointed cherub" said in 
his heart "I will" as opposed to God's will sin began. The moment the 
subject sought to dethrone the Sovereign by saying "I will be like 
the Most High" sin's work in the universe commenced. But it did not 
end there. The sin that began in the holy mountain of God was carried 
into the garden of Eden. 

          Satan, the Deceiver and the Tempter, in Eden.

     Satan, God's avowed enemy, is there. This apostate spirit is the 
fourth person in the garden of Eden. And what is his mission? He is 
there with the definite, deliberate, diabolical purpose of tempting 
Adam and Eve to do just what he himself had done--through an act of 
self-will to step outside the circle of God's will, to dethrone God by 
enthroning self. He is there to gain recruits for his rebel ranks; to 
win subjects for his kingdom of darkness and death.

     It is instructive to follow the cunning machinations of this 
diabolical strategist as he succeeds in tempting Adam and Eve into 
doubt, disobedience and disloyalty. God grant that it may throw needed 
illumination upon the path of temptation some reader may be treading.

     Let us ask and answer three questions:
     What was Satan's aim in tempting Adam and Eve?
     What was Satan's method of approach to them?
     How did he achieve his success?

     Satan's aim, let us remember, was to exalt himself to God's place 
of sovereignty and authority and to secure for himself the worship 
from God's created beings which belonged to God alone. So he was in 


Eden to draw Adam and Eve away from God, to persuade them into 
disobedience and disloyalty, which would automatically cast them out 
of God's kingdom into his own. To accomplish this he did not need to 
incite them to gross sin or vice; one act of disobedience would carry 
out his purpose. He needed only to destroy confidence in God and to 
lead them to disbelieve and disobey Him.

     Satan's method of approach was very cunning and subtle. It was 
not the method of open warfare against God but that of undermining 
faith in God by malicious propaganda. Satan did not come out into the 
open and contest God's sovereignty over His created beings but he 
sought to discredit God in their sight by creating within them 
discontent with their circumstances and by holding before them a false 
Utopia, thus hoping to instigate a revolt against God.

     His method has not changed from that day to this. He is 
attempting the same thing and using the same method now that he did 
6,000 years ago. The seed germ of discontent and disorder sown in the 
garden of Eden has borne fruit and is reaping a terrible harvest in 
all parts of the world today. Churches and chapels are being 
demolished; Bibles are being torn to pieces; anti-Christian 
demonstrations are being staged; threats are being made of dethroning 
God in His own universe. Back of all this subtle, efficient, 
destructive propaganda is the master mind of the first spiritual 
Bolshevik who began his world revolution in the garden of Eden.

     To accomplish his purpose there he put before Eve


the lure of a far better condition of life than they enjoyed under 
God's beneficent, loving rule, and urged securing it by illegitimate, 
revolutionary means. Satan must reach the spirit of Adam and Eve and 
in some way break the connection between the divine and the human. He 
did this by the proffer of a knowledge even such as "the gods" 
possessed. Through the human spirit illumined by the divine Spirit 
they did know God, which knowledge was the "summum bonum" of benefit 
and blessing. But Satan intimated that there was more to be known 
which God was willfully and wrongfully withholding from them. They 
were not having their due.

     To reach the spirit to which Satan had no means of access he must 
get at the soul. The emotions must be stimulated to desire this tree 
of the knowledge of good and evil which could make one wise. Their 
eyes must be opened to see how pleasant was this tree that they might 
covet its fruit.

     So an indirect appeal was made to the soul through the senses. 
Satan gained his entrance to the innermost being of Eve through the 
body. The tree was good for food so he tempted Eve to eat of the 
forbidden fruit.

     Every part of the human personality had been undermined by this 
Satanic propaganda. Satan had appealed to the whole man, spirit, soul 
and body but his method of approach had been from circumference to 
center; from body through soul to spirit.

     Let us examine God's Word to see how Satan achieved his success.


     Gen. 3:1, "And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye 
shall not eat of every tree of the garden?"

     A subtle insinuation is couched in these words which was intended 
by the tempter to arouse suspicion of God's goodness. "Did God really 
tell you that you couldn't eat of every tree in this garden? Wasn't 
the garden made for you? Are you not labouring to dress it? Then 
haven't you a right to its fruit?" The devil did not come to Eve at 
once with a glaring accusation of God's unkindness but merely with a 
subtle insinuation. He knew that harmony reigned in the garden of Eden 
and that Adam and Eve were perfectly adjusted to each other, to their 
environment and to God. Satan laid hold upon the only thing he could 
in their external environment and used it to cause disruption in their 
relationship with God. Satan's aim was to create doubt first and thus 
gain a foothold by disturbing the inner harmony of Eve's moral being.

     The reply of Eve showed that the devil's insinuating question had 
had the desired effect. She acknowledged God's goodness in granting 
them the liberty to eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden and 
admitted the one and only restriction. But in so doing she omitted 
from God's gracious promise the words "every" and "freely" and added 
to the prohibition the words "neither shall ye touch it," thus 
revealing a secret acquiescence in the serpent's insinuation against 
God's goodness. Doubt of God's goodness was at work in her heart so 
the devil grew bolder.

     Eve not only stated the restriction made upon their


liberty but also God's explicit warning of the penalty of death in 
case of disobedience, varying it however by changing God's Word "thou 
shalt surely die" to "lest ye die." Then Satan made a bold, shocking 
assertion, an out-and-out denial of God's Word, "Ye shall not surely 
die." This was immediately followed by his final and fatal appeal.

     Gen. 3:5, "For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, 
then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good 
and evil."

     The bold blasphemy, the cunning deception, the seductive 
allurement of his sugar-coated lie, were worthy of the source from 
which they came. Satan implied in this diabolical statement that God 
was maliciously robbing man of knowledge which he not only had a right 
to possess but which would raise him to an exalted position hitherto 

     "Your eyes shall be opened and ye shall know." Was not the desire 
to know a lawful one? Was not the ambition for self-improvement 
through the pursuit and acquisition of knowledge a legitimate one? Eve 
had been daily coming into a larger and fuller knowledge of God and 
His universe no doubt and now, if by merely eating of the fruit of the 
tree of the knowledge of good and evil she could at once obtain a 
knowledge as limitless as God's own and be assured God's penalty of 
death would not be enacted why should she not eat of it?

     Satan had reached the acme of evil when he had said, "I will be 
like the Most High," and now in some modified 


form suited to the innocence of the sinless pair he tempted them to a 
similar aspiration, "Ye shall be as gods." He held out to them the 
luring possibility of advancement in knowledge even to the plane of 
the divine and unseen.

     In the appeal of Genesis 3:5 the tempter assailed the whole 
personality of the woman; intellect, emotion, and will. "Do not be 
such fools as to believe God's word when it is so evidently against 
all right and reason; do not be such dupes as to be cheated out of 
something you rightfully should have; do not be such cowards that you 
fear to assert your own will in this matter."

     "Thus it is seen that at the back of the method of the devil is 
an aspersion cast upon the character of God. Man was made to question 
the goodness of law. Appealing to the intelligence of man, the enemy 
created an aspersion, which was calculated to change the attitude of 
his emotion, and so capture the final citadel, that namely of his 
will. He declared that man's intellectual nature was prevented from 
development by this limitation. By this declaration he created in the 
mind of man a question as to the goodness of the God who had made the 
law, and thus imperilled the relation of the will to God, as he called 
it into a place of activity outside, and contrary to the will of God." 
The Crises of the Christ, G. Campbell Morgan, p. 33.)

          The Sin of Adam and Eve and its Effect upon Themselves.

     Some response had to be made to such an appeal. The will must 
function in acceptance or rejection of such an 


accusation against God. There was no neutral ground. Eve must take 
sides either with or against God. "God said" and "the serpent said," 
and they said totally contradictory things. Eve listened to Satan's 
voice rather than to God's. She believed the devil's lie rather than 
God's truth. "The serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty" (2 Cor. 
11:3), and she ate of the forbidden fruit. Adam listened to Eve's 
voice rather than to God's. Eve enticed her husband through his 
affections and he ate of the forbidden fruit. He was the one to whom 
God had given the command. To eat of the fruit was a deliberate 
transgression of the divine law.

     Gen. 3:6, "And when the woman saw that the tree was good for 
food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired 
to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave 
also unto her husband with her; and he did eat."

     Gen. 3:17, "And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened 
unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I 
commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground 
for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy 

    Adam and Eve had the God-given right to will and the power to will 
Godward. They exercised the right to will and they chose to will 
Satanward. The moment they so chose they stepped outside the circle of 
God's will and into the realm of self-will. They dethroned God and 
enthroned self. That one act, that one choice, that one decision, was 
sin. Satan triumphed, sin entered, ruin ensued.


     Sin penetrated to the innermost part of Adam's being, the spirit, 
the meeting place of God and man. And with what result? The very 
result which God had predicted--DEATH. To apprehend the magnitude of 
sin, one must know the meaning of death.

     And what is death? Mrs. McDonough in God's Plan of Redemption 
gives a clear and helpful answer. "The scientific definition of death 
helps us to perceive His meaning. It is as follows, 'Death is the 
falling out of correspondence with environment.' The following 
illustration will help to better understand the subject. Here is an 
eye of a human being, apparently able to see any object placed before 
it; the objects of nature, bathed in the bright sunshine surround it, 
but there is no response from the eye. It does not see; for the optic 
nerve is severed. It is dead to the beauty before it.

     "Here is a person whose ears are completely deafened. Birds are 
singing, bells are ringing, voices speaking, but those ears do not 
respond to the sound waves that are carrying melody to other ears 
which are open to receive the same. They are dead to sounds.

     "Upon the very day of Adam and Eve's disobedience sin severed the 
delicate intuitive knowledge of God in the spirit of Adam and Eve. 
They failed to respond to Him who was their Environing Presence. They 
were dead to God ... the death process established in the spirit of 
our first parents was quickly manifested throughout the whole of the 
inner man and after a time the possibility of dissolution of the body, 
which had been held in abeyance while man remained


obedient and dependent before the Fall, became an actuality."--(Page 33.)

     Death in its twofold aspect, spiritual, the separation of the 
human spirit of man from the divine Spirit of God, and physical, the 
separation of the spirit and the body of man, came by sin. A grain of 
truth was mixed with the lie of the serpent.

     Gen. 3:7, "And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew 
that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made 
themselves aprons."

     Gen. 3:8, "And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in 
the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid 
themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the 

     Their eyes had indeed been opened but to behold what? Their own 
nakedness. They both acquired knowledge but of what? Their own sin and 
shame. They had come into a new self-consciousness but in that one act 
of sin they had lost God-consciousness. Their newly acquired knowledge 
served only to produce such a sense of shame that they counted 
themselves unfit for God's presence and were afraid to meet Him. The 
twilight hour of communion with God was robbed of all its sweetness 
and satisfaction by the sense of shame and sin. Eager response to God 
was changed into seeking refuge from God. Sin separated man from God 
and separation from God, who is Life, is death. Physical death was the 
certain, even though more


remote, result of sin. The judgment upon Adam included the curse of 
physical death.

     Gen. 3:19, "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till 
thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust 
thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."

     From the day Adam sinned the seed of physical death was in his 
body and finally reaped its harvest in full.

     Gen. 5:5, "And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and 
thirty years: and he died."

     Thus we see God's sentence of death, both spiritual and physical, 
meted out as a result of sin. 

          The Effect of Adam's Sin upon the Human Race

     We have seen the disastrous effect of Adam and Eve's sin upon 
themselves. The question naturally arises, "Did it affect any one 
else? Can we trace the sin in the human family back to the first sin 
in the first man, its federal head?"    Let us reason backward.

     Sin is a fact. Man is a sinner. One needs only to be closeted 
with himself for a single day to have sufficient proof of this 
statement. But if he should be loath to admit the evidence given in 
his own thoughts, feelings, desires, words and acts, let him listen to 
the gossip of a small town, or read in the daily paper of doings in 
town or city. Man is a sinner. To deny the reality of sin is not only 
to disbelieve God's Word and


to make Him a liar but it is to discredit one's own experience and 

     1 John 1:8, 10, "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive 
ourselves, and the truth is not in us....
  If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word 
is not in us."

     Sin is a universal fact. Every man is a sinner. There are no 
exceptions to this rule except the Man, Christ Jesus. God's Word says, 
"There is no man that sinneth not."

     Rom. 3:10, "As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not 

     Rom. 3:12, "They are all gone out of the way, they are together 
become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one."

     Every truly honest man knows and admits that he is a sinner. At 
one time self-righteous Scribes and Pharisees brought to the Lord 
Jesus a woman taken in the act of adultery. To tempt Him that they 
might accuse Him, they asked if they should fulfil the law of Moses by 
stoning her. In reply the Lord Jesus said, "He that is without sin 
among you, let him first cast a stone at her." And "being convicted by 
their own conscience, they went out one by one." Who among the readers 
of this book is "without sin"? Men differ in the degree of sin in the 
life but not in the fact of sin. Many men are naturally kind, 
generous, genial and loving but "there is none righteous."


     Every man is a sinner before he sins. Sin is far more than an 
act; it is a state, a nature, a disposition, a tendency. Sin is an 
inner reality before it is an outer manifestation. Sin is a desire 
before it is a deed.

     James 1:15, R.V., "Then the lust, when it hath conceived, 
beareth sin; and the sin when it is fullgrown, bringeth forth death."

     Who has not seen a baby give vent to temper, self-will, 
stubbornness and anger before it could talk or walk! Men were born in 
sin. We are all of us "by nature the children of wrath." Humanity 
inherited a sinful nature.

     By God's appointment Adam was the federal head of the human 
family. He was the seed of the race, and all the coming generations 
were in him. Adam was not only man but he was the womb of mankind. As 
forerunner of the human race, he was also its representative.

     Therefore Adam's sin was not his sin alone. All mankind was 
vitally affected by it. Adam's sin put the poison of sin in the human 
germ; the result was the moral and spiritual ruin of the race, 
collectively and individually. Adam was created without sin. By an act 
of his own will he became a sinner. "What man thus became, men are."

     "Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean?" (Job 14:4). 
"That which is born of the flesh is flesh" (John 3:6). Adam fell and 
by that fall received a corrupt nature. Then he begat sons in his own 
likeness (Gen. 5:3). They inherited his sinful nature and


so the poison of sin went on down through the human race until all men 
are involved.

     Rom. 5:12, "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, 
and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have 

     Rom. 5:19, "For as by one man's disobedience many were made 
sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous."

     By Adam's disobedience all men were made sinners and the death 
sentence rested upon all.

     Spiritual deterioration and death began immediately upon Adam's 
fall and the depths into which the human race soon sank are revealed 
in the following words.

     Gen. 6:3, R.V., "And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always 
strive with man, for in this going astray they are _flesh."

     Gen. 6:5, 6, "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in 
the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was 
only evil continually.
  And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it 
grieved him at his heart."

     Physical deterioration began immediately upon Adam's fall and 
death and decay were the final outcome. Adam lived and died. The sad 
record of Genesis five shows that the seed of death implanted in Adam 
was transmitted to his posterity until each human being has to pay the 
death toll. 

          The Effect of Adam's Sin upon the Social Order

     In the garden of Eden before the tempter entered it


we see the social order as God intended it to be. Adam and Eve were 
perfect and were living in perfect adjustment with God; therefore 
there was perfect adjustment between themselves. Godliness and 
holiness were followed by righteousness and peace.

     But sin entered the human spirit and severed its relationship 
with the divine Spirit. Immediately man was thrown out of adjustment 
with God and ungodliness was the result.

     Sin entered the human personality and reigned over every part of 
it. Man's whole being was thrown into confusion and conflict. Man was 
thrown out of adjustment with himself and unholiness was the result.

     Sin entered the human relationship God had established between 
his first man and woman and produced friction. They were thrown out of 
adjustment with each other and unrighteousness was the result. Each 
had sinned in eating of the forbidden fruit but each was unwilling to 
bear the blame for it. Eve had tempted Adam but Adam had of his own 
free will hearkened unto the voice of his wife and disobeyed God's 
command. When brought face to face with his sin Adam played the part 
of a churlish coward blaming both God and Eve for his own misdoing.

     Gen. 3:12, "And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be 
with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat."

     The sin that had introduced disorder into man's relations with 
God and into his own personality now introduced it into the 
relationship of fellow beings. Friction 


between man and man began in God's social order. "The break upward 
brought the break crosswise. That is the tragic Eden crisis. It 
touches us all most intimately today. The gloom and blight of the Eden 
crisis has cast its inky shadow over all the race, and over all life, 
ever since."--(Quiet Talks on the Crisis and After, S.D. Gordon; page 

     Its inky shadow cast gloom over that first home. The sin of the 
first parents was visited upon the first children. The eldest son Cain 
killed his brother Abel. Friction between parents bore fruit in murder 
between brothers. The maladjustment in God's social order begun in 
Eden has continued and grown apace into personal, family, civic, 
national and international frictions until the whole world today is 
one seething, struggling mass of discontent, envy, greed, suspicion, 
jealousy, hatred and revenge. 

          The Effect of Adam's Sin upon the Material Universe.

     The blighting, withering effect of sin was felt in the material 
universe for even the earth was cursed because of the sin of Adam.

     Gen. 3:17-19, "And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened 
unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I 
commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground 
for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;
Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou 
shalt eat the herb of the field; In the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
eat bread."

     The soil should henceforth be comparatively barren, man would no 
longer be blessed by its spontaneous, prodigal abundance but would 
have to coax from it by the sweat of his face and much suffering the 
necessities of life. 

          The Effect of Adam's Sin upon God.

     While the sin of Adam brought incalculable suffering and sorrow 
to himself and to his posterity yet the One most wounded and wronged 
by sin was God. The defeat of His purpose in the human race and the 
dethronement of Himself in His own universe was the twofold aim of 
Satan in Eden's tragedy. Behind the temptation was the tempter. "The 
fall began in heaven. Sin entered into God's house before it invaded 
man's. Christ felt its sting before man felt its stab."--(The Greater 
Life and Work of Christ, Patterson, page 82)

     The sin enacted in Eden immediately created two very vital issues 
and brought God into a new relationship both to the tempted and the 
tempter, to the sinner and to Satan.

     The issue at stake between God and God's first man was God's 
union with the human race. Through Adam in creation God had become 
united with humanity. But now through sin that union had of necessity 
been broken. God, who is absolute holiness, could never countenance 
nor condone sin, much less dwell in its presence. Sin must be punished 
and the sinner banished. Adam and Eve, through yielding to temptation, 
had become sinners. God who had been their beneficent Creator, their 
bountiful Provider, their intimate Companion, in the light of their 
transgression of His


holy law must assume a different relationship to them and the race 
latent in them from that which He had before.

     God could never remain holy and just unless sin were punished 
according to its deserts and in such a way as to satisfy fully His 
holiness. When He gave His command regarding the eating of the fruit 
of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil He had clearly stated 
the penalty if the command were disobeyed. To be true to Himself He 
must now exact that penalty for their sin. He must become their Judge 
and pronounce upon them the curse which sin merited.

     But He had made the human race for Himself and His own glory. He 
could not willingly stand by and condemn it either to destruction or 
to eternal separation from Himself for He loved it with an everlasting 
love. God's holiness compelled Him to become a Judge but His love 
compelled Him to become a Redeemer. If His union with the human race 
had been broken through the first man's disobedience, He would send 
another Man to reestablish it through His obedience. If the race had 
been ruined through the first man's sin it should be redeemed through 
the second Man's Saviourhood. Thus God assumes a twofold relationship 
to Adam and Eve in their sin: that of a Judge and that of a Redeemer. 
The promise of a Saviour and the pronouncement of a doom were made. 
Both promise and pronouncement must be fulfilled.

     So we see God in Eden seeking the sinner who, because of his 
sense of guilt and shame with its resultant fear, was hiding from Him.


     Gen. 3:9, "And the Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him, 
Where art thou?"

     What a marvellous unveiling of the infinite, abounding grace of 
God! A wounded, wronged God seeking a guilty, ungodly sinner! The Lord 
God taking the initiative to bring Adam and Eve back home to Himself! 
And this is but the opening scene in the continuous unfolding of God's 
infinitely gracious dealings with fallen humanity from that hour to 

     God then brought Adam and Eve face to face with the fact and 
guilt of their sin and gave them a fair, full opportunity to confess 
it. But instead of a contrite, broken-hearted confession there came a 
cowardly, half-hearted one mixed with much of palliation and shifting 
of responsibility.

     Again the exceeding riches of God's grace shone forth in His 
giving the promise of a Saviour. "It shall bruise thy head, and thou 
shalt bruise his heel" foretold to those guilty sinners who were soon 
to be banished from God's presence that He would open for them and for 
the race a way of access to Himself through the suffering of another.

     Having now given vent to His infinite mercy and love in the 
gracious promise of a Saviour, God does full justice to His holy 
nature and His holy law in pronouncing a curse upon their sin. The God 
of all grace becomes the sinner's Judge. Sweat, suffering and sorrow 
are the awful consequences of sin. Then comes the sentence of death, 
for "the wages of sin is death," and the banishment from God's 


     Gen. 3:19, "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till 
thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust 
thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."

     Gen. 3:23, 24, "Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the 
garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he 
drove out the man."

     Having dealt with the sinner in grace God now deals with Satan in 
wrath. There could be no mercy manifested here. The issue between God 
and Satan was a far more serious one. In the Eden temptation Satan had 
contested God's right to the ownership of and the dominion over His 
own creation. Through their yielding to sin God had lost the 
sovereignty over the world and the race. Such insult and treachery 
must be dealt with according to their deserts. 

          The Prophecy of a Conflict and the Pronouncement of a Doom

     God Himself declares a war against this arch rebel that He will 
fight to the finish and in which He will show no mercy. God prophesies 
an age-long conflict and pronounces an eternal doom.

     Gen. 3:15, "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and 
between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou 
shalt bruise his heel."

     From this sentence of eternal enmity there could be no reprieve.


               IV. The Rule of Sin Over Man

     SIN is a despot and the Bible shows very clearly that man came 
under the despotic rule of sin. Sin not only "entered" and "abounded," 
but it also "reigned" in man (Rom. 5:12, 20, 21). He lives under a 
threefold bondage, from which it is impossible for him to extricate 
himself. He is in bondage to sin.

     John 8:34, R.V., "Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin."

     He is in bondage to self.

     2 Cor. 5:15, "And that he died for all, that they which live, 
should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died 
for them, and rose again."

     He is in bondage to Satan.

     2 Tim. 2:26, "And that they may recover themselves out of the 
snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will."

     The natural man is in helpless captivity to sin, self and Satan.

          The Ruin wrought by Sin in the Human Personality.


     Not only were all men drawn into the whirlpool of sin but all of 
man was ruined by its pollution. Man's personality was corrupted at 
the very center and the dry rot of sin contaminated his whole being 
from center to circumference. Death breathed upon spirit, soul and 
body its destructive fumes. Sin stalked over the human being, that 
beautiful thing created in the image of God, and left its deadly trail 
everywhere, marring it until scarcely a trace of Godlikeness could be 
found. Sin caused civil war within the human personality. Sin made the 
human spirit a death chamber. The blasting breath of death first 
touched the human spirit. Sin closed the windows of the spirit 
Godward and made it a death chamber. Sin severed the human spirit's 
relationship with the divine Spirit.

     Eph. 4:18, "Having the understanding darkened, being alienated 
from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of 
the blindness of their heart."

     Sin also dethroned the human spirit as sovereign over the human 
personality and made it a captive, nay, even a slave. Both soul and 
body were permeated with sin and were brought under sin's control. 
Each claimed and sought an equal right to the rule of man. The 
immediate effect of sin was the complete inversion of the relationship 
between the spiritual and the physical in human nature. The fall of 
man from the plane of the spiritual to the plane of the natural took 

     "In the fall the soul refused the rule of the spirit and became 
the slave of the body with its appetites. Man


became flesh; the spirit lost its destined place of rule, and became 
little more than a dormant power; it was no longer the ruling 
principle but a struggling captive. And the spirit now stands in 
opposition to the flesh, the name for the life of soul and body 
together in their subjection to sin."--(The Spirit of Christ, Murray, 
page 34)

     So the natural man "who is born of the flesh" is flesh. He is of 
the earth, earthy, and dominated by the flesh rather than by the 
spirit. The human spirit is darkened, deadened and dethroned.

     Sin made the human soul a ruin. Sin invaded the realm of the soul 
and laid hold upon the intellectual, emotional, and volitional life. 
(1) The mind of man was blinded.

     2 Cor. 4:3, 4, "But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that 
are lost: In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them 
which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, 
who is the image of God, should shine unto them."

     Titus 1:15, "Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them 
that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind 
and conscience is defiled."

     Col. 1:21, "And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in 
your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled."

     God's first man was made with the capacity for knowing God and 
one cannot help but believe that had Adam continued to live his life 
entirely within the circle 


of God's will that capacity would have been enlarged and enriched. But 
he sought knowledge God had willed he should not have. By that one act 
of self-will he placed his intellect outside the circle of God's will. 
He had the knowledge of evil but he had neither the wisdom nor the 
power to resist it. As a result sin wrought such ruin in the mind of 
man that God was compelled to say "that every imagination of the 
thoughts of his heart was only evil continually" (Gen. 6:5). He even 
calls evil, good and good, evil.

     Separated from God man's mind became so darkened that his 
thinking is materialistic. "God is a spirit and they that worship him 
must worship him in spirit and in truth." God is eternal and spiritual 
and can never be apprehended by what is merely temporal and natural. 
Apart from living union and communion with God the operation of the 
human intellect is entirely within the realm of material things.

     Separated from God man's mind became so darkened that his 
thinking is sensual. The soul, unaided by the spirit, in its struggle 
with sin is open to continuous and terrible temptation through the 

     Separated from God man's mind became so darkened that his 
thinking is rationalistic. Being outside of God's will his thinking is 
inevitably outside of God's thought. His wisdom is not God's wisdom: 
in fact God draws a clean-cut line between His wisdom and that of the 
natural man.

     1 Cor. 1:20, 21, "Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where 
is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of 


this world? For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom 
knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save 
them that believe."

     The wisdom of the natural man has its source in himself. He 
rejects anything and everything which cannot be apprehended and 
explained by his own unaided reason.

     1 Cor. 2:14, "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know 
them, because they are spiritually discerned."

     Sin has so twisted and perverted the intellect of the natural man 
and Satan has so blinded his mind that he often thinks he knows more 
than God. Pride leads him to exalt his own mentality to such an extent 
that, if God says anything which his tiny intellect and puny reason 
cannot comprehend, then he declares God's saying "foolishness." He 
boldly proclaims God's sacred truth to be fable; God's eternal Word to 
be an earth-born myth. His endeavour to fathom God's ocean of truth 
with his little teacup of a mind is pathetic, and his arrogant method 
of casting aside God's supernatural revelation when it goes contrary 
to his sin-saturated reason is pitiful indeed. 
(2) The heart of man was defiled.

     Jer. 17:9, "The heart is deceitful above all things, and 
desperately wicked."


     Mark 7:21-23, "For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed 
evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, 
covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, 
blasphemy, pride, foolishness: All these evil things come from within, 
and defile the man."

     What a picture of the human heart! Yet it is a true one because 
it was taken by the divine Photographer "who knows what was in man." 
Who can look upon this awful picture and others given on the same 
divine authority, such as Rom. 1:29-32, Gal. 5:17-21, Ps. 14:1-3, and 
not call man's case absolutely hopeless except somehow a miracle be 

     Man was made to love God with all his mind, heart, strength and 
soul. His heart was created with the capacity to respond to the love 
of God with love. Man was made to love his fellowmen. God wishes man 
to love his neighbour as himself.

     But what is the condition in the world today both as regards 
man's relationship to God and to his neighbour? It is an awful but a 
tragically true prediction which God made in His Word of the present 
world condition.

     2 Tim. 3:1-4, "This know also, that in the last days perilous 
times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their own selves, 
covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, 
unthankful, unholy, Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false 
accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good,
Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasure more than lovers of 


     When did man fall into such an evil state as is here described? 
The moment God's first man stepped outside of God's will by his own 
voluntary choice and carried the human race with him, that moment he 
dethroned God and enthroned self in his own affections. From that 
moment man left to himself has been inherently and incurably selfish. 
(3) The will of man was perverted.

     To will to do God's will is man's highest privilege, his most 
godlike prerogative. To live wholly within the will of God is to have 
righteousness, peace and harmony reign everywhere. This was God's 
intention in His universe. All angelic beings, as well as man, were 
made to be obedient subjects of God the Creator. But in Satan pride 
led to self-will; self-will to rebellion; rebellion to refusal of 
authority; and the refusal of authority to lawlessness. Satan, having 
stepped outside the will of God and become a rebel, tempted Adam and 
Eve to do the same. They yielded to his temptation and ever since the 
will of mankind has been off the main track.

     But if man has not been willing to submit to the will of God 
which is always kind, beneficent and loving, surely he will not submit 
to the will of his fellowman which is often selfish, tyrannical and 
despotic. So the world of politics, commerce, industry, education and 
even religion, is intersected with side lines built by the ingenuity 
of masterful minds who wish to satisfy their unquenchable thirst for 
power over other men's lives or their insatiable thirst for other 
men's possessions. A heaven-inspired description of the perversion


sin made in man's will and of the lengths of lawlessness into which it 
led him, is given in these verses:

     Judges 17:6, "In those days there was no king in Israel, but 
every man did that which was right in his own eyes."

     Rom. 8:7, "Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it 
is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be."

     G. Campbell Morgan, The Crises of the Christ, sums up the ruin 
wrought in the human soul by Adam's fall as follows: "Thus in the 
spiritual part of his nature, man by the fall has become unlike God, 
in that his intelligence operates wholly within the material realm, 
whereas the divine wisdom is spiritual, and therefore explanatory of 
all material facts; his emotion acts from wrong principles of 
self-love, whereas the divine love ever operates upon the principle of 
love for others; and his will asserts itself upon the basis of passion 
for mastery, whereas the divine will insists upon obedience, through 
determination to serve the highest interests of others."

     Sin made the human body a battlefield. Sin not only invaded the 
realm of the spirit and the soul but also that of the body and made 
that which was intended to be the spirit's congenial home its prison 
house. That which should have been spiritual tends to become sensual. 
That which God purposed to be the channel through which the spirit 
within man could touch the external world and bring blessing to it was 
turned into the instrument through which Satan


reached the spirit with his defilement. The body became Satan's 
broadcasting station.

     Rom. 7:23, "But I see another law in my members, warring, against 
the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin 
which is in my members."

     In Paul's exhortation to those who had accepted Christ as 
Saviour, "Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye 
should obey it in the lusts thereof," he implied that the body of the 
natural man had been sin's territory. The members of the body became 
Satan's tools and instruments of sin.

     Rom. 6:13, "Neither yield ye your members as instruments of 
unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that 
are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of 
righteousness unto God."

     Rom. 7:5, R.V., "For when we were in the flesh, the sinful 
passions, which were through the law, wrought in our members to bring 
forth fruit unto death."

     The human body defiled by sin is corrupt, dishonoured and weak 
and it awaits deliverance from a bondage under which it groans (Rom. 

     2 Cor. 5:4, "We that are in this tabernacle do groan, being 
burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that 
mortality might be swallowed up of life."

          The Manifestation of Sin in the Natural Man 

     Sin began to do its deadly work at the core of


Adam's being. This core, his human nature, became sinful. Sin became 
its native atmosphere. Sin became its governing, impelling principle. 
The fountainhead of his thoughts, emotions, attitudes, instincts and 
purposes, was vitiated by sin.

     The word we commonly use today to express this sinful root is 
self. The core of the natural man is self. Scripture gives us another 
name. That corrupt human nature, that inborn tendency to evil in all 
men received by inheritance from our first parents, is called "the old 

     Col. 3:9, "Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off 
the old man with his deeds." (Cf. Rom. 6:6, Eph. 4:22.)

     But man is not a silent, inactive creature. His thoughts are 
expressed in words; his instincts are translated into actions; so if 
the fountain is corrupt, then that which flows out from it will be 
correspondingly corrupt. This inner nature manifests itself in outward 
acts. The hidden desires of "the old man" come to the surface in 
deeds. Covetousness grows into theft; deceit becomes falsehood; 
impurity of thought and desire manifest themselves in sins of the 
flesh; unforgiveness and hatred crystallize into revenge and murder; 
fear becomes fretting; unbelief shades off into worry; dislike 
degenerates into backbiting; impatience becomes nagging; 
dissatisfaction and discontent clothe themselves with murmuring and 
complaining; self-righteousness slips into censoriousness; pride takes 
on the colour of boastfulness; envy becomes slander; ambition


arms itself for war; selfishness grows into oppression; and jealousy 
attempts to end its torment in suicide or homicide.

     This truth is made very plain in the Bible in the clear cut 
distinction between sin and sins.

     1 John 1:8-9, "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive 
ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is 
faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all 

     Leon Tucker in his Studies in Romans states the difference as 

     "Sin is character;  sins are conduct. Sin is the center; sins are 
the circumference. Sin is the root; sins are the fruit. Sin is the 
producer; sins are the product. Sin is the sire; sins are his 
offspring. Sin is the fountain; sins are its flow. Sin is what we are; 
sins are what we do."

     Sin then is the old nature itself; sins are the manifestations of 
the old nature.

     This picture of the ravages of sin in the life of the natural man 
is an exceedingly dark one but a thorough, prayerful study of God's 
Word on this subject together with an honest observation of human life 
as it is must convince an open-minded, humble man that it is a true 
picture. It does not mean that each person has committed every one of 
these sins. There is a difference in the degree of sin manifested in 
the natural man but


not in the fact of inherent sin. God who knows what is in man says, 
"There is none righteous; no, not one." It does mean that every man is 
a sinner in the sight of God and that the whole world is guilty before 
Him (Rom. 3:19). It does mean that man who was made in the image of 
God has become flesh. 

     The Destiny of the Natural Man

     God and sin cannot dwell together; they cannot stay in the same 
place at the same time for they are mutually exclusive. They are exact 
opposites. Perhaps you are now sitting in a room full of light; a few 
hours will pass by and it will be filled with darkness. Where has the 
light gone? It has been displaced by darkness. Again a few hours pass 
by and the room is filled with light. Where has the darkness gone? It 
has been displaced by light. Light and darkness cannot dwell together; 
they are exact opposites; they are mutually exclusive.

     1 John 1:5-6, "God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. If 
we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, 
and do not the truth."

     Eph. 5:8, "For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light 
in the Lord; walk as children of light."

     God is light, sin is darkness; therefore God must displace sin or 
sin displaces God. God and sin cannot stay in the same place at the 
same time for they are mutually exclusive.

     Sin separated Adam from God; it made him want to hide from God's 
presence. Sin separated God from Adam and compelled Him to pronounce 


the sentence of death and to send him forth from the garden of Eden.

     If God cannot dwell with sin in the sinner on earth neither could 
He dwell with sin in the sinner in Heaven. So if the natural man 
persists in his sin and rejects the way of salvation which God 
provides in Christ Jesus, by that very choice he debars himself from 
the presence of God throughout eternity. His own unrighteousness will 
then shut him out of the Kingdom of God.

     1 Cor. 6:9, "Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit 
the kingdom of God?"

     Rev. 21:27, "And there shall in no wise enter into it anything 
that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a 
lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life."

     Let us now sum up the truth we have studied thus far. God's first 
man, Adam, was without sin; he was created in God's image on the plane 
of human life. He was made with the capacity for life on the highest 
plane, the spiritual, and with the power to choose such a life. God 
made man with his face turning Godward. God's will was both the center 
and the circumference of his life: consequently he lived in 
righteousness and peace because in perfect adjustment with God, with 
himself, and with all created beings.

     But Adam chose to disobey God's command. He used his power to 
choice Satanward, and placed his life voluntarily under Satan's 
sovereignty. He stepped outside of God's sphere of righteousness, 


light and life into Satan's sphere of sin, darkness and death. He 
dethroned God and enthroned self. He ceased to be spiritual and became 
flesh. Sin made him a sinner with his face turning Satanward and his 
course tending downward. Self-will became both the center and the 
circumference of his life; consequently he lives in ungodliness, 
unrighteousness and discord because there was maladjustment with God, 
with himself, and with all created beings.

     Adam himself was the father of children. He was not merely an 
individual creation of God but he was the appointed federal head of 
the human race. All the evil consequences of sin in him were 
transmitted to all men so that by nature all men are guilty and 
defiled. The most awful consequence of sin, however, was not the moral 
and spiritual ruin of the human race but the denial of the Godhood of 
God in His own universe.

     This view of the origin and the consequences of sin, even though 
it is so clearly taught in God's Word, is not accepted by all. Sin 
even in many pulpits today is treated very lightly if not passed over 
altogether. Nevertheless every one knows that humanity is saturated 
with sin and that sin is really at the bottom of all the world's 
trouble. But many people are unwilling to admit the real nature of 
sin. They treat it like a superficial skin disease rather than like a 
malignant cancer.

     Men are unwilling to acknowledge the truth of God's estimate of 
the natural man, that left to himself he is hopelessly, incurably bad. 
They place the blame of his misconduct onto his environment or limited 


circumstances and by seeking to improve these external conditions and 
to afford him larger opportunities through education and civilization 
they believe he can be evolved into what God intended him to be.

     Such thinking is due to a fundamental misconception of what sin is. 
The essence of the first sin in Eden is clearly defined in God's Word 
and it is the essence of all sin from that day to this.

     1 John 3:4, R.V., "Every one that doeth sin doeth also 
lawlessness, and sin is lawlessness."

     The exceeding sinfulness of Adam's sin lay in the fact that it 
was high treason of the created against the Creator; of the subject 
against the Sovereign. Such at heart is all sin. The natural man is a 
spiritual Bolshevist.

     Man is not only guilty and denied but he is rebellious and 
lawless. He is not only separated from God by sin but he is 
unreconciled by enmity. In God's sight he is a sinner, an enemy, an 
outlaw. (Diagram IV omitted.)


                   V. SATAN AND GOD IN CONFLICT

     THAT evil exists in this world no one could deny. Evil forces are 
at work in countless ways and through manifold channels. An evil 
power operates everywhere working intelligently for the degeneration 
of mankind and for the defeat of God. There is in the world an 
aggressive opposition to God and to God's purpose.

     Power is the product of personality, therefore the acknowledgment 
of the presence of power necessitates the recognition of the presence 
of a personality originating and directing it.

     Nowhere in the Bible is evil treated as a mere abstraction. A lie 
is the spoken language of a liar.

     Acts 5:3, "But Peter said, Ananias, Why hath Satan filled thine 
heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of 
the land?"

     A murder is the actualized desire of a murderer.

     1 John 3:12, "Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew 
his brother."

Ananias was the mouthpiece and Cain was the tool of another. Behind 
the human personality was a supernatural personality. Their evil was 
the revealed power of a concealed person.


     The Bible tells us that such an evil one exists. Christ is the 
authority for the statement that there is an evil one and that he is 
the devil.

     Matt. 13:19 R.V., "When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, 
and understandeth it not, then cometh the evil one, and snatcheth away 
that which hath been sown in his heart."

     Matt. 13:39, "The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest 
is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels."

     Good forces are at work also. A good power operates everywhere 
intelligently for the regeneration of mankind and for the exaltation 
of God. There is in the world an aggressive opposition to Satan and to 
Satan's purpose.

     Nowhere in the Bible is good spoken of as a mere abstraction. It 
is invariably the product of personality. Christ is the authority for 
the statement that there is a good one and that He is God.

     Matt. 13:24, "Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The 
kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his 

     Matt. 13:37, "He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the 
good seed is the Son of man."

     Luke 18:19, "Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? none 
is good, save one, that is, God."

     The evil one is the antithesis of the Good One. Scripture sets 
Satan forth as the greatest enemy of both God


and man. This is clearly seen in the names and titles given him.

     He is called "Satan," which means opponent or adversary. This 
title is used of him fifty-six times and invariably reveals him as the 
opponent of God and the adversary of man.

     Matt. 4:10, "Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: 
for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only 
shalt thou serve."

     1 Pet. 5:8, "Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the 
devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour."

     He is called "the devil," which means slanderer or accuser. This 
title occurs thirty-five times in the Bible and shows him to be the 
slanderer of God and the accuser of man.

     Matt. 13:39, "The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest 
is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels."

     Rev. 12:10, "And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is 
come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the 
power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down 
which accused them before our God day and night."

     The devil slanders God to man (Gen. 3:1-7) and man to God (Job 
1:9-12; 2:1-7). He is called "the wicked one."

     Matt. 13:19, "When any one heareth the word of the


kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and 
catcheth away that which was sown in his heart."

     He is not only the personification of evil, "the wicked one," but 
he is the source of evil in others.

     1 John 3:8, "He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the 
devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was 
manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil."

     The devil is a liar and cannot speak the truth. He is a murderer 
and bent on the ruin and destruction of men. He was the first sinner; 
therefore he is the forefather of sinners.

     John 8:44, "Ye are of your father the devil and the lusts of your 
father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not 
in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a 
lie, he speaketh of his own; for he is a liar and the father of it."

     He is called "the tempter." He tempted the Son of man and he 
tempts all men.

     Matt. 4:3, "And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be 
the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread."

     1 Thess. 3:5, "For this cause, when I could no longer forbear, I 
sent to know your faith, lest by some means the tempter have tempted 
you, and our labour be in vain."

     He is called "the deceiver." He deceives both indiviuals


and nations. He began his wicked work in Eden by deceiving Eve.

     Rev. 12:9, "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, 
called the Devil, and Satan, which'deceiveth the whole world: he was 
cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him."

     1 Tim. 2:14, "And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being 
deceived was in the transgression."

     On the threshold of divine revelation we read the prophecy of a 
conflict between Satan and God and every page from that on is but an 
unfolding of its progress toward its divinely appointed end, the 
ultimate and absolute defeat of Satan, the eternal and perfect victory 
of God. 

          The Commencement of the Conflict

     That a good God created everything good is a logical supposition 
as the character of God must be expressed in His works. But when God 
says that every creation of His was "very good," then the statement is 
lifted out of the realm of supposition into that of fact.

     God, then, did not create evil nor did He create the evil one as 
the evil one. From whence then did evil come? How did "the anointed 
cherub" become the "devil," "the wicked one," "the tempter," "the 
deceiver"? How did the beautiful archangel who held the highest rank 
in heaven become the diabolical traitor who will be cast into the 
depths of hell? How did he who "abode in the truth" become an apostate 
and "the father of lies"?


     We have seen already that it was because he said,

     "I will ascend into heaven. I will exalt my throne above the 
stars of God. I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation. 
I will ascend above the clouds.

     Every word of this defiant, presumptuous declaration is the very 
breath of treason and anarchy. Lucifer is unwilling longer to be a 
subject in and a prince over the world; he is determined not to be a 
subordinate but a sovereign.

     God could brook no such independence of action; He could 
countenance no such effrontery to His sovereignty over the universe or 
His moral government of created beings. Such treason brought Satan and 
God into deadly conflict. 

          The Consequences of the Conflict

     The die had been cast. Satan was henceforth to contest with God 
the possession of the earth and all therein; to set himself up as a 
rival claimant to the world's sovereignty and to man's worship. He 
would establish a kingdom of his own. God, for a purpose which we 
shall understand as we proceed with the unfolding of His wondrous plan 
of redemption, permitted Satan to go forward with his evil designs.

     Two Sovereigns. There are now in the universe two separate 
distinct kingdoms, the Kingdom of God and the kingdom of Satan. Two 
Sovereigns claim authority over Heaven and earth.

     By His creatorship God is the rightful Lord for all things


were created by Him and for Him. God has never given away to any 
created being, angelic or human, any part of His universe. He holds 
the possession of the whole universe in perpetuity.

     Deut. 10:14, "Behold, the heaven and the heaven of heavens is the 
LORD's thy God, the earth also, with all that therein is."

     Ps. 24:1, "The earth is the LORD's, and the fulness thereof; the 
world, and they that dwell therein."

     The Kingdom of God is the central government, the only government 
recognized by God and the spiritual hosts of heaven and earth. It is 
composed of all moral intelligences, angelic or human, celestial or 
earthly, of all centuries and all climes, who willingly place 
themselves within the circle of the divine will and who of their own 
free choice acknowledge and accept God as their Sovereign. The Kingdom 
of God embraces the entire universe over which God is enthroned as the 
absolute Sovereign.

     The Lord Jesus teaches that there is such a Kingdom of God and 
who are eligible to citizenship in it.

     Luke 13:28, 29, "There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, 
when ye shall see Abraham and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, 
in  the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out. And they shall 
come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from 
the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God."

     John 3:5, "Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, 
Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into 
the kingdom of God."


God states with clearness the essential credentials for entrance into 
His kingdom.

     James 2:5, "Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in 
faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that 
love him?"

     However unthinkable it may seem there is also in God's universe a 
kingdom of Satan. The Lord Jesus teaches that there is such a kingdom. 
On one occasion when casting out a demon some of the people charged 
Him with casting out demons through Beelzebub the chief of demons. 
Jesus made the following reply in which He brought the kingdom of 
Satan and the Kingdom of God into sharpest contrast.

     Luke 11:17-20, "But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, 
Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and a 
house divided against a house falleth. If Satan also be divided 
against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I 
cast out devils through Beelzebub. And if I by Beelzebub cast out 
devils, by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be 
your judges. But if I with the finger of God cast out devils, no doubt 
the kingdom of God is come upon you."

     God acknowledges that Satan did set up a kingdom and that he sits 
on a throne of his own making.

     Rev. 2:13, R.V., "I know where thou dwellest, even where Satan's 
throne is; and thou holdest fast my name, and didst not deny my faith, 
even in the days of Antipas


my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan 

     Christ never acknowledged Satan to be king but three times He did 
call him "the prince of this world."

     John 12:31, "Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the 
prince of this world be cast out."

     God also acknowledges the worship Satan has succeeded in 
obtaining for He calls him "the god of this world."

     2 Cor. 4:4, "In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds 
of them which believe not."

     There is still another title given him in Scripture which shows 
that Satan not only obtained and exercises great power on earth among 
men but that he carried his rebellion against God even into Heaven and 
secured a following among the angelic host.

     Eph. 2:2, "Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course 
of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the 
spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience."

     Eph. 6:12, R.V., "For our wrestling is not against flesh and 
blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the 
world-rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual hosts of 
wickedness in the heavenly places."

     It is evident, then, that through Satan's treason and Adam's 
disobedience Satan gained a temporary conquest of the earth, which 
became a revolted province in God's universe. Satan is a sovereign 


over a rebel government; it is a government against government. It is 
composed of all moral intelligences, angelic or human, celestial or 
earthly, of all centuries and of all climes, who are without the 
circle of the divine will and who continue to be subjects of Satan. 
The kingdom of Satan embraces the whole world of mankind that is 
without the Lord Jesus Christ.

     Two spheres. In a recent number of the National Geographic 
Magazine there is a remarkable picture. It was a view taken from a 
hydroplane at an elevation of five thousand feet of two rivers, the 
Negro and the Amazon, meeting and mingling. The picture reveals two 
distinct streams, each identified by its colour. The waters of the 
Negro are black, those of the Amazon yellow, and even at the place 
where they meet the sharp colour line of distinction can be seen.

     One looking down upon humanity from the viewpoint of the 
heavenlies can see in this world two distinct streams of life, the 
natural and the spiritual, each easily identified by its colour. The 
waters of the natural are black, those of the spiritual yellow, and 
even at the place where they meet and mingle whether in business, in 
society or in the home, the sharp colour line of distinction may be 

     The Negro and the Amazon have different sources and each partakes 
all through its course of the colour of the water at the fountainhead. 
The natural and the spiritual in human life come from two distinct 
sources and each partakes all through its course of the quality of 
life at its fountainhead.


     There are two spheres into which all humanity is divided; the one 
is the sphere of sin and the other is the sphere of righteousness. 
These two spheres are identified by three outstanding characteristics: 
the sphere of sin by darkness, death and disorder; the sphere of 
righteousness by light, life and liberty. Satan is the sovereign in 
the sphere of sin and Christ is the Sovereign in the sphere of 

     That there are these two spheres of life and that Christ Jesus 
died and rose again to bring men out of the one into the other is 
declared in many passages of Scripture. We shall study only three 
passages. In Paul's defence before Agrippa he states his God-given 
commission as a minister and a missionary to the Gentiles. God told 
Paul exactly what He expected him to do.

     Acts 26:17, 18, "Delivering thee from the people, and from the 
Gentiles unto whom I now send thee, to open their eyes, and to turn 
them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, 
that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them 
which are sanctified by faith that is in me."

     Those to whom Paul preached were blinded, befogged, bound men and 
he was sent that they might be enlightened and emancipated. They were 
to be turned from something to Something, they were to be turned from 
some one to Some One.

     Col. 1:13, R.V., "Who delivered us out of the power of darkness, 
and translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love."


     The believer has been rescued from Satan's dominion and removed 
into God's Kingdom.

     Eph. 5:8, R.V., "For ye were once darkness, but are now light in 
the Lord: walk as children of light."

     There are these two sharply contrasted and distinctly marked 
spheres in which men live and each reader this moment is in one or the 
other of these spheres.

     Two Seeds. With the defection of Adam Satan thought he had won 
the first step in God's defeat and dethronement. A terrible conflict 
began. God did not minimize its sinister seriousness but on the very 
threshold of the conflict He triumphantly claimed victory over his 

     Gen. 3:15, "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and 
between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou 
shalt bruise his heel."

     This prophecy-promise contains God's declaration of war. A battle 
is to be fought to a finish between two seeds. The issue at stake is 
the sovereignty of God. The immediate object in the conflict is the 
redemption and reconciliation of the human race ruined through sin. 
The ultimate object is the restoration to God of undivided sovereignty 
over all His universe; in other words the rule of the Kingdom of God.

     Enmity is to exist between two seeds--the seed of the serpent and 
the seed of the woman. Satan's seed traced through Scripture is the 
Antichrist; the woman's


seed is the Christ. Toward these two persons pitted against each other 
in a final conflict all Scripture prophecy converges.

     Satan knows that Jesus Christ is "the seed of the woman." It is 
He whom the devil hates. Ever since this first Messianic prophecy was 
uttered in Eden Satan's virulent attacks have been against the Person 
and work of the Lord Jesus. From the moment God said "I will put 
enmity between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head and 
thou shalt bruise his heel" until Christ, the Saviour, fulfilling that 
prophecy on Calvary cried, "It is finished," Satan waged incessant 
warfare against the Person of the Lord Jesus.

     Old Testament history unfolds to view repeated attempts to 
destroy the line through which "the woman's seed" would come, thus 
preventing the incarnation. These being brought to nought by God's 
protecting intervention, he then sought to kill the Christ-child at 
birth. Failing in this he tried to thwart the fulfilment of God's 
eternal purpose in His Son by tempting the Lord Jesus in the 
wilderness to declare His independence of God. Defeated in his direct 
appeal he used indirect means to keep Him from the Cross of Calvary. 
He used both Christ's enemies and His friends as his tools. He 
instigated His enemies to kill Him and repeated attempts were made 
upon His life. He used His friends to dissuade Him from the voluntary 
sacrifice of Himself as the world's Saviour. His defeat in all these 
varied attempts maddened him into an attack upon the spirit, soul and 
body of the Son of Man in Gethsemane, his last futile effort to 


blockade the way to Calvary. Jesus Christ went to the Cross, He died 
and rose from the tomb: the seed of the woman bruised the serpent's 

     Failing to hurt the Person of the Lord Jesus Satan has been 
occupied through the past nineteen centuries with attempts to nullify 
His work. He has done this by deceiving men and blinding their minds 
thus leading them to disbelieve and deny the truth of the Gospel. By 
so doing he hopes to delay the final fulfilment of the prophecy 
regarding his own utter defeat.

     From the moment of the pronouncement of this prophecy-promise God 
has made steady progress in its fulfilment. In the garden of Eden it 
was announced; in the manger cradle at Bethlehem it was actualized; on 
the Cross of Calvary it was accomplished; and on Mount Olivet it will 
be attested.

     The kingdom belongs to God. Satan maintains his claim only as a 
traitor and an usurper. Christ came, lived, died, rose, ascended into 
Heaven and will come again that He may sit upon His throne and reign 
(Acts 2:30) until every foe is conquered (Acts 2:35) and all is put 
again under the divine sovereignty of the triune God (1 Cor. 

     In Eden the final fate of Satan is clearly announced. "It shall 
bruise thy head." It is to be a fatal stroke which effects his 
ultimate defeat, dethronement and destruction. The doom pronounced 
upon the devil in Gen. 3:14-15 is an eternal doom: the end for him is 
eternal torment in the lake of fire prepared for him and his angels 
(Matt. 25:41).

     In the manger cradle of Bethlehem the final fate of


Satan is actualized. The incarnation of the Lord of Heaven means the 
beginning of the end for Satan, and he knows it. That is why he fought 
the birth of the Christ-child and why he now denies the God-breathed 
truth of the Virgin Birth. His destruction was actualized when 
God-manifest-in-Christ entered openly and aggressively into the field 
of operation to lead His forces on to victory.

     On the Cross of Calvary the final fate of Satan was accomplished. 
There his doom was sealed. God's eternal purpose in Christ's 
Saviourhood was realized. Henceforth Heaven looks upon the devil as a 
defeated foe. Christ in anticipating His death upon the Cross regarded 
it as the time and place of the devil's defeat for He said, "Now shall 
the prince of the world be cast out" (John 12:31).

     But not until on the Mount of Olivet the Lord Jesus Christ comes 
from Heaven in all His majesty and glory will the final fate of Satan 
be attested. The sentence pronounced upon him in Eden will then be 
executed. Through God's permission the traitor-prince still rules the 
kingdom of Satan but when God's eternal purpose in Christ Jesus is 
carried out fully then God's judgment upon Satan will be executed 

     Subjects in the Two Kingdoms. From the moment Satan set up a 
kingdom of his own he has been busy recruiting subjects and mobilizing 
his forces for warfare. Today he has a multitudinous Satanic host in 
the aerial heavens, on earth and in the underworld.

     Scripture speaks of "the devil and his angels." It tells us there 
are angels that sinned.


     Matt. 25:41, "Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, 
Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the 
devil and his angels."

     Jude 6, "And the angels which kept not their first estate, but 
left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains, 
under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day."

     As "prince of the power of the air" and "prince of demons" Satan 
rules a vast host of spirit beings in the aerial heavens. The "demons" 
or "evil spirits" who are employed in Satan's service are probably 
those who were under his rule when he was "the anointed cherub" and 
who followed him in his rebellion against God. The heavenlies swarm 
with these spiritual hosts of wickedness which are united in a most 
complete organization consisting of principalities and powers over 
which are intelligent world-rulers. The headquarters of this vast 
organization, Satan's seat, (Rev. 2:13) is above the earth and the 
sphere of activity of this Satanic host is on the earth and in the 
atmosphere that envelops it.

     Matt. 8:16, R.V., "And when even was come, they brought unto him 
many possessed with demons; and he cast out the spirits with a word, 
and healed all that were sick."

     Eph. 6:12, R.V., "For our wrestling is not against flesh and 
blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the 
world-rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual hosts of 
wickedness in the heavenly places."

     Satan is also ruler over a Satanic order on earth. He is


called "the prince of this world." The posterity of Satan's seed is 
found not only among angels and demons but among men. The seed of the 
serpent can be traced from Genesis to Revelation. They are men and 
women who choose to live in self-will rather than in God's will, who 
refuse God's sovereignty over their lives, who in pride and 
self-righteousness reject Jesus Christ as their Saviour. Cain is the 
first one mentioned as the seed of the serpent.

     1 John 3:12, "Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew 
his brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his own works were 
evil, and his brother's righteous."

     The Lord Jesus recognized the serpent's brood in the self-loving, 
self-willed, Christ-hating, Christ-rejecting Pharisees of His day and 
did not hesitate to call them by their rightful names.

     Matt. 23:33, "Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye 
escape the damnation of hell?"

     On another occasion in speaking to those who rejected Him, He 
disclosed their spiritual ancestry, the devil, and said they were 
subjects in His service. "Ye are of your father the devil, and the 
lusts of your father ye will do."

     At still another time Jesus called the unsaved among men "the children of the wicked one." He had told 
them the parable of the tares and the wheat and they asked for an 


     Matt. 13:38, "The field is the world; the good seed are the 
children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked 

     God has a multitudinous host in Heaven, in paradise and on earth 
who are His subjects. The seed of God can be traced from Genesis to 
Revelation and includes all those who from the beginning of human 
history have been rescued from Satan's kingdom and removed into God's 
through faith in the atoning sacrifice of the Son. Abel was the first 
of the heroes of the faith.

     Heb. 11:4, "By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent 
sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was 
righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he, being dead, yet 

     All down through the centuries men continued to offer those "more 
excellent sacrifices" which required the shedding of blood, thus 
expressing their need of and faith in the Saviour who was to come.

     Then the Saviour came and made one sacrifice for sins through the 
shedding of His own blood. Since then through the preaching of the 
Gospel multitudes from out of all nations and peoples of the earth 
have renounced their citizenship in the kingdom of Satan and have 
become subjects in the Kingdom of God.

     Col. 1:13, "Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and 
hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son."

     Added to these vast multitudes of God's subjects on


earth are the innumerable hosts of angels in Heaven whose delight is 
in unceasing worship of the Lamb that was slain.

     Rev. 5:11, 12, "And I beheld and I heard the voice of many angels 
round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number 
of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of 
thousands; Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain 
to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, 
and glory, and blessing."

     Two Systems. Satan has a purpose, a project and a program. His 
purpose is to "be like the Most High," his project is to set up a 
kingdom in opposition to the Kingdom of God, his program is to better 
the condition of the world and the circumstances of humanity so that 
men will be satisfied to remain his subjects and will have no desire 
for the Kingdom of God.

     Satan has been represented in much of the literature of the world 
as the fiend of hell. He has been caricatured as a heinous creature 
with horns and hoofs, revelling in all that was cruel, vicious and 
unclean. But he is the exact opposite of all this. He never wanted to 
be the god of hell but the God of Heaven. It was God's judgment upon 
his sin that made him king of the bottomless pit. He is the inspirer 
and instigator of the very highest standards of the God-less, 
self-made world of mankind. His purpose was and still is to be and to 
do without God what God is and does. Let us ever keep in mind that 
Satan's purpose was to dethrone God in His universe and in the hearts 


of men and then to take His place. To succeed in his attempt Satan 
must try not to be unlike God but like God. To incline the hearts of 
men to himself as a ruler and to draw out their hearts to him in 
worship he must imitate God. To annul the work of Christ Satan must 
counterfeit it as far as possible.

     His project was in line with his purpose. He would leave his 
position as a subordinate in God's kingdom and set up a kingdom of his 
own. The foundation of it would be self. Self-will, self-love, 
self-interest, self-sufficiency would constitute its corner stone. 
Lawlessness, a revolt against the rule of God, and irreverence, a 
refusal to worship God, would be its superstructure.

     Satan knew that such a project would have to be safeguarded by a 
cleverly planned program. Not even the natural man would submit 
knowingly to the sovereignty of Satan or fall down and worship him. So 
Satan's program from the beginning has been one of deception. Satan 
has sought to keep the natural man satisfied with himself and with the 
world in which he lives. This is not as easy a task as it might seem. 
The spirit of man can never be satisfied save in God from whom it 
emanated and for whom it was created. Something in even the worst of 
men at certain times and under some circumstances cries out for God. 
Man lives and toils in sweat, suffering and sorrow. His spirit, soul 
and body cry out for release from the intolerable burden.

     In the light of this knowledge Satan framed a very clever 
program. It was to unite all his subjects into a huge world federation 
for the reformation and betterment of

the world. This would be accomplished through carefully worked out 
plans for the promotion of education, culture, morality and peace upon 
the earth. Human relationships, international, civic, social, family 
and personal are undeniably in a terrible tangle but through peace 
conferences, leagues of nations and world courts international 
maladjustments would be righted: through mass education movements and 
social service programs civic and social conditions would be bettered: 
through new thought processes which foster self-culture and 
self-constraint the civil war within man's own personality would be 
ended and so more amicable relations with those to whom he was bound 
by ties of blood and of friendship would be established. Thus Satan 
would succeed in deceiving men into thinking the Kingdom of God had 
come on earth.

     Satan knows there is but one true God and that Jesus Christ is 
His Son whom He sent to be the Saviour (James 2:19; Matt. 8:29). But 
this truth he would keep men from knowing. He must even keep them from 
feeling any need for God. So his program must provide for the perfect 
satisfaction of man's soul and body that his spirit may be kept 
darkened and deadened. So Satan's program includes every conceivable 
thing that could minister to self-enjoyment, self-ease, self-gain and 
self-satisfaction in the realm of the physical, intellectual, 
affectional, aesthetic, moral, yea even in the religious nature of 

     Moreover his program must provide for man an outward environment 
that matches this inward need. The


earth is cursed but Satan must do what he can to remove the effects of 
that curse. Man will never be satisfied unless the earth is a more 
comfortable, pleasant place in which to live. So Satan's plan is to 
make this world very attractive and then organize human society that 
it may be so engrossed with its pursuits and pleasures men will have 
no thought for God.

     Earnest, serious minded men will see through this flimsy veil and 
will be concerned over the world's maladjustments. But Satan will 
engage such men in the task of repairing the ruin he himself has 
wrought. They will give millions upon millions of dollars, some will 
even lay down their lives in the accomplishment of the task thinking 
they are engaged in God's service. Satan will drug men with the 
tangible and transient and so detach them from the heavenly and 

     This huge federation of evil spirits and evil men is organized 
into a cunning system over which Satan is the presiding genius. He 
determines its principles, directs its policies, decides upon its 
program and devises its propaganda. This Satanic system is "the 
world." The Lord Jesus revealed both its name and its nature in His 
farewell message to His disciples and told them clearly what its 
attitude to Him would be. The attitude of this system to Jesus Christ, 
which is one of unmitigated hatred, brands it as Satanic.

     John 15:18-19, "If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me 
before it hated you. If ye were of the world the world would love its 
own; but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of 
the world, therefore the world hateth you."


     John 17:14, 16, "I have given them thy word; and the world hath 
hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the 

     God says that this Satanic system is inherently "evil"; 
hopelessly "corrupt"; thoroughly "polluted"; irreconcilably hateful.

     Gal. 1:4, "Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver 
us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our 

     2 Pet. 1:4, "Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and 
precious promises; that by these ye might be partakers of the divine 
nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through 

     2 Pet. 2:20, "For if after they have escaped the pollutions of 
the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
they are again entangled therein and overcome, the latter end is worse 
with them than the beginning."

     John 15:18, "If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me 
before it hated you."

     Thus God states His estimate of "the world." He speaks with equal 
clearness regarding its works.

     John 7:7, "The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I 
testify of it, that the works thereof are evil."

     This Satanic system, "the world," is like a colossal octopus that 
has sent forth myriads of tentacles to lay hold upon every phase of 
human life and draw it unto itself. It has its grip upon the corporate 
life of mankind in its homes, marts, schools, politics, even its


churches. It has penetrated into every relationship of the 
individual's life, personal, family, social, national and 

     "The world," which is human society with God left out, is Satan's 
snare for capturing men and holding them in bondage. "What the web is 
to the spider: what the bait is to the angler: what the lure is to the 
fowler: so is the world to Satan a means of capturing men." "The 
world" is the devil's paw with which he strikes men: it is his lair 
into which he entraps men: it is the devil's ally in fighting God for 
the sovereign control of men.

     But is there anything within man that responds to Satan and to 
his system? In the Bible we read they have an accomplice whose name is 
"the flesh."

     Rom. 7:5, "For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins 
which were by the law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit 
unto death."

     Rom. 8:12-13, "Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the 
flesh, to live ajter the flesh. For if ye live after the flesh, ye 
shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the 
body, ye shall live."

     In Scripture the word "flesh" has several meanings but in the 
verses quoted it is used in the ethical sense and means the whole 
natural man, spirit, soul and body, living in self-will and alienated 
from the life of God. The flesh is what man became through the fall. 
It is man "without God" (Eph. 2:12).

     The "flesh" manifests nothing but antagonism to God and defiance


of authority. It is irrevocably opposed to God and to His law.

     Rom. 8:7, "Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it 
is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be."

     The "flesh" then is the material in mankind upon which Satan 
works to keep man a part of his system. This trinity of evil, the 
world, the flesh and the devil, is organized into a diabolical combine 
against God and His saints.

     Satan has a cleverly thought out plan but God has a divinely 
wrought out purpose. God's purpose antedated Satan's plan: God's 
purpose anticipated Satan's plan: God's purpose annulled Satan's plan: 
God's purpose was formed in the eternity of the past and reaches into 
the eternity of the future. 
"God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself."

     Christ Jesus was the One through whom God's purpose was to be 
fulfilled. He constantly spoke of Himself as one who had been sent 
from Heaven by the Father to do the Father's will, not His own. He did 
not belong to earth but to Heaven and was here only to fulfil a 
special mission.

     John 6:38, 40, "For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own 
will, but the will of him that sent me. ... And this is the will of 
him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on 
him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him at the last day."

     Jesus disclaimed any part in or relationship to the Satanic 
system called "the world."


     John 17:16, "They are not of the world, even as I am not of the 

     John 14:30, "For the prince of this world cometh, and hath 
nothing in me."

     In fact He declared that this Satanic system had an unchangeable 
attitude toward Him--that of unrelenting hate which would spend itself 
ultimately in crucifying Him.

     John 15:18, "If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me 
before it hated you."

     John 15:20, "Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant 
is not greater than his lord. ... they have persecuted me, they will 
also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep your's 

     There is nothing in Scripture to indicate that God makes any 
attempt to change or to convert "the world." The Lord Jesus frankly 
acknowledges that "the whole world lieth in the evil one" (1 John 
5:19, R.V.) and is under Satan's control.

     God's purpose in Christ is to call men out of the world: to 
emancipate them from love for it, even to crucify them unto the world 
and it unto them.

     John 15:19, "If ye were of the world, the world would love his 
own: but because I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the 
world hateth you."

     1 John 2:15, "Love not the world, neither the things that are in 
the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in 


     Gal. 6:14, "But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and 
I unto the world."

     God's purpose in this age Scripture makes unmistakably clear to 
the spiritual mind. It is to call out individuals, here and there, 
from all nations, kindreds, peoples and tongues, who through faith in 
the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the Cross become a very part 
of Him and He of them. This living organism He calls His body, the 

     Col. 1:18, "And he is the head of the body, the church: who is 
the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he 
might have the preeminence."

     Christ's purpose in this age is to call out of the world and into 
union with Himself those "chosen in him before the foundation of the 
world," who become a holy, heavenly people fit to be members of the 
body of which the holy Christ in Heaven is the Head.

     Eph. 1:4, "According as he hath chosen us in him before the 
foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame 
before him in love."

     Eph. 1:22, 23, "And hath put all things under his feet, and gave 
him to be the head over all things to the church, Which is his body, 
the fulness of him that filleth all in all."

     1 Cor. 12:27, "Ye are the body of Christ, and members in 

     From God's viewpoint "the world" and "the Church" are exact 
opposites. "The world" is a vast organization 


of the whole mass of unbelieving mankind under Satan's leadership. 
"The Church" is an invisible organism of all true believers under 
Christ's Headship. These two are in conflict on the earth and are 
pitted against each other as the instruments of Satan and of Christ in 
their attempt to get and keep possession and control of men.

     How does God win response to His appeal to men to come out of the 
world and into fellowship with Christ? Does He have an associate in 
this task? We shall see in succeeding lessons that this is the work of 
the Holy Spirit who kindles life anew in the human spirit and then 
comes Himself to dwell in it.

     Ez. 36:26, 27, "A new heart also will I give you, and a new 
spirit will I put within you:... And I will put my Spirit within you."

     Rom. 8:9, "But ye are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if so 
be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ he is none of his."

          The Consummation of the Conflict

     God's eternal purpose in man's redemption has been in gradual 
process of fulfilment ever since it was formed and each succeeding 
century has brought it nearer to its consummation. The heart of God's 
plan of redemption was a Saviour. This Saviour was to come through the 
seed of a woman. God was to become man. So God chose a people and set 
them apart that through them the Saviour might come "according to the 
flesh." In the fulness of time Christ came, lived,


died and rose again. Man's redemption was accomplished.

     Rom. 9:4, 5, "Who are Israelites: ... Whose are the fathers, and 
of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came."

     Following thereon a written Word was needed to proclaim this 
wondrous Gospel to sinners everywhere. So God chose and set apart a 
people through whom the written Word might come.

     1 Cor. 15:3, 4, "I delivered unto you first of all that which I 
also received, how that Christ died for our sins, according to the 
scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third 
day according to the scriptures."

     Rom. 3:1, 2, "What advantage then hath the Jew? ... Much every 
way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of 

     Through the Israelites, God's chosen people, He gave both the 
incarnate Word and the written Word to the world.

     God's next move was to preach this Gospel through His own 
ministers and missionaries throughout the whole world that all men 
everywhere might have the opportunity to behold the Son and to believe 
on Him.

     Mark 16:15, "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, 
and preach the gospel to every creature."

     When this work has been completed to God's satisfaction and the 
Bride is made ready for the Bridegroom,


the Lord Jesus Christ will come again to take His own unto Himself and 
to set up His kingdom upon earth.

     This is the beginning of the end for Satan. He will be bound, 
cast into the bottomless pit for one thousand years. Then he will be 
loosed for a little season. He will go forth to deceive the nations 
and to gather them together for battle against the Lord, thus proving 
his unchanging and unchangeable attitude of self-will and of 
opposition to God (Rev. 20:1-3, 7-9).

     Then comes God's final and full judgment upon him. He is cast 
into the lake of fire and brimstone to be tormented day and night 
forever and ever (Rev. 20:10).

     Christ Jesus having consummated to the full God's plan to redeem 
men and reconcile all things unto Himself now restores the absolute, 
undivided sovereignty of God over His entire universe.

     1 Cor. 15:24-25, 28, "Then cometh the end, when he shall have 
delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have 
put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till 
he hath put all enemies under his feet. ... And when all things shall 
be subdued unto him, then shall the Son, also himself be subject unto 
him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all."



     IN His Word God has taught one truth which is beyond all 
contradiction. It is that sin has created an awful chasm between 
Himself and man. Man may ignore or condone sin, he may treat it very 
lightly, he may even be so foolish as to deny its reality, but that 
does not alter the unalterable fact that sin exists and that it 
separates from God. God does not treat sin lightly. God hates it, God 
condemns it. "Sin unatoned for must be an insuperable barrier between 
the sinner and God."

     If the natural man is to be brought into favour and fellowship 
with God, it is evident that something must be done with sin. Man's 
first step in returning to God must be a consciousness that deepens 
into a conviction of sin. So the question which comes to every person 
who awakens to his condition through sin and its consequences, is the 
same as that which came to the Philippian jailor, "What must I do to 
be saved?" (Acts 16:30). 

          The Nature of Salvation

     "Let us analyze the jailor's question. First, "What must I do to 
be saved?" Who is the "I"? A lost man enslaved by sin, self and Satan; 
a blind man, whose mind has been darkened by the god of this


world and whose eyes are closed to the beauty and glory of God; a dead 
man alienated from the life of God.

     Second, "What must I do to be saved?" He does not ask what he 
must do to be reformed or repaired or repolished, but to be saved. The 
question he asks is, "How can I an enslaved man have deliverance; a 
blind man have sight; a dead man have life?"

     Third, "What must I do to be saved?" What can a bond-slave do to 
free himself? Or what can a blind man do to gain sight? Or what can a 
dead man do to make himself alive?

     Let us answer the jailor's question by defining the kind of 
salvation which will fully meet the sinner's need. It must be a 
salvation God can accept as wholly sufficient and satisfactory. God is 
the One who has been offended and most wounded by sin. By his sin Adam 
forfeited all right to relationship with God and it is God alone who 
can say by what means and in what manner the relationship with sinful 
men can be restored. Man has no ground upon which he can approach God. 
If God ever receives the natural man it must be upon some ground where 
he confesses himself an helpless, hopeless, sinner. "Between him and 
God is the impassable gulf of moral inability. Between him and God is 
the barrier of penal judgment." God alone can determine how this chasm 
shall be bridged and this barrier removed.

     It must be a salvation that deals effectually with sin and all 
its consequences. This salvation must put away sin and give man a new 
nature, without which there would be 


no basis for establishing a relationship with God. This salvation must 
blot out man's sins and their attendant guilt. Sins committed cannot 
be undone merely by an expression of sorrow or by a promise of 
amendment through a New Year resolution or by the "turning over of a 
new leaf."

     It must be a salvation that carries out the sentence of death 
upon the sinner. God's law is holy and it cannot be trifled with. 
God's judgments are righteous and they must be fulfilled. God has 
said, "The soul that sinneth it shall die." The penalty must be paid; 
the judgment must be executed. Any salvation that saves must take into 
account the payment of this penalty and the execution of this 

     It must be a salvation that accomplishes the defeat, dethronement 
and destruction of Satan. God's judgment upon Satan who brought sin 
into the universe must be executed as truly as God's judgment upon the 
sinner. God has said that the seed of the woman shall bruise the head 
of the serpent. This is one half of the original promise of salvation. 
Christ's final victory necessitates Satan's full defeat. Such must be 
the nature of any salvation that fully saves. 

          Man's False and Futile Attempts for Salvation.

     But there are those who, refusing to accept God's estimate of the 
natural man, deny the necessity of any such radical and revolutionary 
change in him. They delight in the exaltation of the flesh and they 
deny the self-evident fact that human nature is in utter ruin though 
they are compelled to admit that it is greatly in need of repair. They 
believe and teach that human nature 


is imperfect because it is in the process of formation. But given 
proper environment, liberal education and the chance to make the best 
of what he already possesses, man by his own natural development 
ultimately will achieve Godlikeness and attain a place in the Kingdom 
of God. In other words salvation is not by grace but by growth; it 
depends upon an evolution of life from within rather than upon an 
impartation of life from without.

     There are those even in the pulpit and in the theological 
seminary who teach that the natural man is not dead but diseased; not 
wicked but weak; not fallen but fainting; and they attempt 
resuscitation through ethical culture, social reform and mass 
education while ridiculing the necessity of redemption through the 
atoning work of the crucified Saviour and regeneration through the 
power of the indwelling Spirit.

     Their kind of preaching is well summed up in the word of a 
prominent preacher who said, "Do your part and God will surely do His. 
To deny that a man is forgiven when he turns away from wrong and asks 
forgiveness would be to deny the moral character of God." In such 
teaching man is made his own saviour, and salvation is nothing more 
than a feeble sense of regret resulting in slight changes in conduct 
to which God is asked to affix His seal of forgiveness.

     This kind of thinking and teaching leads men to seek out ways of 
salvation which are futile and to rest upon hopes which are false. If 
the meaning of salvation is what we have indicated in these pages then 
the means of its accomplishment must be supernatural. But


man is ever prone to put his trust in the purely natural, in himself.

     When the eyes of Adam and Eve were opened to evil and they came 
into a realization of their sin and shame instead of seeking God, 
confessing their sin, and acknowledging their undone condition, they 
made themselves aprons of fig leaves to cover their nakedness (Gen. 
3:7). From that day to this the natural man has been at the same 
foolish, futile task of trying to cover his sin and guilt with some 
garment of his own making which he trusts will be acceptable to God.

     But no dress which the natural man provides for the flesh will 
ever please God. No matter of what material it is made or how 
beautiful, fitting and durable it may seem to be to the world, it will 
wither into nothingness, even as Adam's and Eve's aprons of fig 
leaves, before the righteousness and holiness of God.

     No garment of salvation except the one He Himself provides will 
be acceptable to God.

     Gen. 3:21, "Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make 
coats of skins, and clothed them."

     By this act God acknowledged that the shame of Adam and Eve was 
not groundless, and that they did need a covering; but He also showed 
the utter inadequacy of the one they had provided for themselves, 
their lack of apprehension of the enormity and heinousness of their 
sin against Him, and of the nature of the salvation required to 
restore them to His fellowship. God had said, "In the day thou eatest 


thereof thou shalt surely die." They had eaten. "The wages of sin is 
death." If they did not die some one acceptable to God must die in 
their stead. This is the meaning of salvation. But God had already 
given the promise of a Saviour-Substitute. The seed of the serpent 
would bruise the heel of the woman's seed. The garments of skin with 
which the Lord God clothed Adam and Eve were procured through the 
slaying of animals, through the shedding of blood. By this gracious 
act of God the means of salvation was symbolized; the death of His own 
well-beloved Son was shadowed forth. God Himself furnished the skins, 
God made the coats, God clothed them in acceptable garments.

     Now let us look at some of the aprons of fig leaves with which 
the natural man is trying to make himself acceptable to God and fit 
for Heaven.

     Salvation through character. "Character--homebrew" is the sign 
over the door of the self-righteous man's life. He has to admit 
weakness and failure but he does not call sin sin nor does he grant 
that he has any great need. There is nothing in him so wrong that he 
cannot remedy it himself if given time, a proper environment and 
enlarged opportunities. The self-righteous man thinks that he starts 
with something already very good, something even with the very essence 
of the divine in it. His business is to make this good thing gradually 

     In this process of self-cultivation the self-righteous man 
measures himself with himself and he is very pleased; he measures 
himself also with other men and, like the self-righteous Pharisee of 


Luke 18:9-14, he is more than pleased. He congratulates himself on 
himself and even commends his virtues to God.   But there is one 
measurement that he has forgotten to take. He has never placed his 
self-righteous life alongside the spotless, stainless, sinless, life 
of the Son of Man to see how infinitely far short he falls of a 
righteousness which God accepts. He ignores the fact that the absolute 
righteousness of God demands nothing less than absolute righteousness 
in all who are acceptable to Him, which is a demand no human being in 
himself ever can meet.

     Some day when this man stands before the Lord Jesus Christ, once 
a proffered but a rejected Saviour, now his Judge, he will expect Him 
to approve this man-made production of righteousness, to pronounce it 
as good as anything the Lord could have done, and to let him pass into 
Heaven to abide forever in the presence of an absolutely righteous 

     I was talking once with a friend concerning his need of a 
Saviour. He was a man of splendid ideals, high standards and excellent 
principles. He was cultured, kind, moral, and from a human standpoint, 
lived what the world would commend as a highly respectable life. When 
I pressed the necessity of accepting Jesus Christ as his Saviour, he 
said, "Why do I need any one to die for me? I do not want any one's 
blood shed for me!" The root of that reply was self-righteousness. 
That young man was trusting to be saved through character. God looks 
down upon all such "which trusted in themselves that they were 
righteous" and says:


     Rom. 3:10, 12, "There is none righteous, no, not one. ... They 
are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable: 
there is none that doeth good, no, not one."

     And of the righteousness which has been so carefully cultivated 
He gives His estimate through the mouth of His prophet.

     Isa. 64:6, "But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our 
righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we do fade as a leaf; and our 
iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away."

     To rely upon self-righteousness as the ground of salvation is 
utterly futile. God declares plainly that His wrath against it will be 

     Rom. 10:3, "For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and 
going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted 
themselves unto the righteousness of God."

     Rom. 1:18, "For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against 
all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in 

     How very different is the self-righteous, self-made man from the 
one who has had a glimpse of the Holy One and His righteousness!

     Isa. 6:5, "Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am 
a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean 
lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts."


     Job 42:5, 6, "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but 
now mine eye seeth thee. Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust 
and ashes."

     1 Tim. 1:15, "This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all 
acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners: of 
whom I am chief."

     The last quotation is from the lips of a man who, if any one, 
could have rested upon his own righteousness as a sufficient ground of 
acceptance with God. With perfect sincerity he said of himself that 
"touching the righteousness which is of the law he was blameless." Yet 
after seeing the Lord of glory he was convinced of the foolishness and 
futility of such confidence in the flesh. From that time he had but 
one consuming desire, "... that he might win Christ, and be found in 
him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that 
which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of 
God by faith" (Phil. 3:8, 9). The only righteousness that makes any 
man acceptable with God is the righteousness of God by faith in Jesus 

     Rom. 3:22, 23, "Even the righteousness of God which is by faith 
of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is 
no difference: for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of 

     No one whose eyes have seen the King, the Lord of Hosts, and who 
has contrasted his own sinfulness with His holiness will have a shred 
of hope of acceptance with God through his own character. The man who


relies upon any righteousness in himself as his ground of salvation 
and who refuses Christ's imputed righteousness as God's free gift only 
proves the Word of God that the god of this world has blinded his mind 
so that the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image 
of God, should not shine into his heart.

     Salvation through education. Another bridge which men attempt to 
erect over the yawning sin-made chasm between God and man is that of 
education. Ignorance due to lack of opportunity is deemed the cause of 
much of the sorrow, suffering and strife, in the world. The cry is, 
"Give every one an education and so elevate standards, raise ideals and change environment. By thus creating a 
desire for better conditions of life a better life itself will 
eventuate." There are intelligent men and women today who are 
proclaiming that the one thing needed for the salvation of individuals 
and of nations is mass education. Knowledge is made the cure for sin.

     Such argument is absolute fallacy. For to know is but a fragment 
of man's responsibility in the matter of living and is by far the 
easier part of the task. Life challenges us to do, above all to be. 
Knowledge is of no value whatsoever until it has been transmuted into 
character and conduct. In fact the Bible tells us in one of its most 
solemn words that unless it is so transmuted knowledge becomes 
positive sin. "To him that knoweth to do good and doeth it not to him 
it is sin" (James 4:17).

     Education has sometimes even led to a deterioration of character 
and conduct.   It has opened new avenues into sin 


and taught men greater cleverness in the ways of evil. It has not only 
made men more selfish, more proud, more grasping, but has placed them 
in positions where their selfishness, ambition and greed could have 
full right of way against others less favoured.

     We hear much in certain circles today about religious education 
and many people believe this to be the sufficient remedy for the need 
of the world. If religious education means teaching the Word of God 
itself under the direction and operation of the divine Teacher, the 
Holy Spirit, with the purpose of securing man's regeneration and 
renewal, then it is indeed one of the world's greatest and deepest 
needs. But, if it means urging the natural man to study Christ's 
teachings and to learn His principles of life for men as individuals 
and as members of society in order that through obedience to His 
teaching, through application of His principles, and through imitation 
of His example there may be a reconstruction of human society and an 
amelioration of social wrongs, then it is an absolutely foolish and 
futile thing. The natural man could know the content of the teachings 
of God from Genesis to Revelation and still have no power, and more, 
no desire to obey them. He might be thoroughly conversant with every 
Christian principle for the government of man in his personal, social 
and civic relationships and yet fail to apply them in his own life.

     I heard of a group of students who talked loud and long about the 
selfishness and greed of officials in high places in the government of 
their country. They took part in patriotic movements 


to remove these men from office. Yet they themselves were found guilty 
of taking a "squeeze" from their fellow-students who had entrusted to 
them the task of buying food under a self-government scheme in 
operation in the college. In their smaller sphere of activity they had 
done exactly what the officials had done in their larger sphere. Any 
system of religious education which merely unfolds to the natural man 
the teachings and principles of Jesus Christ and tells how to apply 
them in the life of the other fellow is utterly inadequate.

     The Bible is the only textbook given man on salvation from sin 
and from cover to cover there is not a ray of hope held out of 
salvation through education or through anything that aims merely at 
the improvement of the natural man. In fact God plainly tells us in 
the first and second chapters of 1 Corinthians that it is "the wisdom" 
of the natural man that keeps him from accepting the only way of 
salvation, Christ crucified. Education, if it be truly Christian, may 
be one of the agents used by God to create the desire for salvation 
but it can never furnish the dynamic which makes salvation possible.

     Salvation through works. One man looks for salvation through 
character or what he is; another trusts in education or what he knows; 
while a third seeks it in service or what he does. He believes he can 
be saved through good works. He comes to God with self-confidence and 
says, "What shall I do that I might work the works of God?"

     God answers his question by asking  one which


teaches that the natural man can do no good work that will accomplish 
his salvation.

     Jer. 13:23, "Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his 
spots? then may ye also do good, who are accustomed to do evil."

     Please note God does not say, "Can the Ethiopian powder or rouge 
his skin?" That has been done. The question is "Can the Ethiopian 
change his skin?" The natural inference is that it would be changed 
from its natural colour to another. Can that be done?

     Suppose a girl from Ethiopia comes for the first time into the 
presence of a group of fair skinned girls. Never before has she seen 
any colour of skin but black. She wishes her skin to be fair and 
determines to do something to make it so. Procuring water and soap she 
proceeds to lather her face and rubs it vigorously. The process ended 
she goes triumphantly to the mirror expecting to see a great change. 
Instead she confronts the same black skin only a bit more highly 
polished. She decides that she did not do enough, that she failed to 
use sufficient water or soap or muscle, so she repeats the process 
increasing the use of soap, water and strength. But the second attempt 
ends in the same bitter disappointment. To change her skin is beyond 
her power.

     "Can the Ethiopian change his skin?" We are compelled to answer 
God's question for His answer to ours depends upon it. If the 
Ethiopian can change his skin then the natural man will be able to do 
something to change his sinful heart, he will be able to do


good who has always been accustomed to do evil. But, if the Ethiopian 
cannot change his skin then what must we infer regarding the power of 
the natural man to change his evil heart? God's Word gives a 
conclusive answer.

     Jer. 2:22, "For though thou wash thee with nitre, and take thee 
much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me, saith the Lord 

     Through self-cultivation, self-discipline and self-effort many 
men and women have been able to accomplish certain reforms within 
themselves which have made them more acceptable to themselves and to 
the world but no living person has ever been able to make himself 
righteous, and without righteousness no man is acceptable to God.

     Another way in which the natural man attempts his own salvation 
is to do something for God which will be acceptable.

     This was Cain's mistake, yea, it was more, it was Cain's sin. Why 
was Abel's offering accepted and Cain's accepted not? (Gen. 4:4, 5). 
Because Abel realized that he was a sinner and that the offering he 
brought to God must confess that fact and be an acknowledgment of his 
need of another to cleanse him. Cain, on the contrary, brought an 
offering which revealed no sense of sin but rather of complete 
self-sufficiency. He offered his best, the work of his hands, the 
fruitage of his toil. He needed not the help of any one. And he 
expected God to accept his gift, the offering 


of a sinner still in his sins, and to call the account against him 
squared. Cain did not come to God "by faith" (Heb. 11:4) but "by 

     There is no phase of modern teaching more ancient or pagan than 
the doctrine proclaimed so generally throughout the world today that 
we can be made acceptable to God by good works, that we are saved 
through service. It is indeed true that, if we are saved, we will 
serve; but it is altogether untrue that we are saved because we serve.

     Jews in our Lord's time who were unwilling to acknowledge Him as 
their Messiah and to accept Him as their Saviour, came to Him with the 
question, "What shall we do that we might work the works of God?" The 
reply of the Lord Jesus is very significant. "This is the work of God, 
that ye believe on him whom he hath sent." But this "good work" they 
stubbornly refused "to do."

     What God required was not that they should do something for Him 
but that they should accept what He had done for them. The foundation 
stone of salvation is not what man gives to God but what God gives to 
man; it is not what man offers to God but what he receives from God.

     Rom. 4:4, 5, "Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned 
of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on 
him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for 

     2 Tim. 1:9, "Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy 
calling, not according to our works, but according to


his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before 
the world began."

     The Pharisees considered themselves the prophets of religion. 
They fasted and prayed; they paid tithes and "built the tombs of the 
prophets and garnished the sepulchers of the righteous." They did 
countless good works yet Jesus called them "hypocrites" and the 
apostle Paul prayed that they might be "saved." So in this twentieth 
century many are deceived into thinking they are saved because they 
serve tables at a church supper; make garments for the poor or 
bandages for the sick; act as chairman of the finance committee to put 
over a big drive; or contrive schemes for the physical and social 
betterment of mankind.

     Salvation through good works either for God or man is pure 
paganism. I have a friend in China whose dear old grandmother was an 
ardent Buddhist. At seventy-six years of age she rose every morning at 
four o'clock and spent the hours until noon without food in performing 
the rites of her heathen worship. She walked long distances to the 
temple, she burned her bundles of incense and lighted her candles, she 
gave of her money. Her days were largely spent in religious works, but 
at seventy-six she was still an ignorant, superstitious, idolatrous, 
unsaved woman. But not one whit more unsaved than the man or woman, 
even though dressed in cap and gown, who offers to the Saviour who 
died upon the Cross to redeem him "the stone" of philanthropy, good 
works and social service, for "the bread" of faith, adoration and 


     Salvation through religion. Some one has said that "Man is 
incurably religious." Another has beautifully written, "God created 
man a deep and everlasting void. The soul in its highest sense is a 
vast capacity for God but emptiness without God." It is most assuredly 
true that man was made for God and his heart never can be fully 
satisfied until it is satisfied in Him. It is equally true that God 
made man not only in His likeness but also with the capacity for 
fellowship with Him, yes, even for sonship. Therefore God's heart can 
never be fully satisfied except as this relationship with man is 
realized and enjoyed.

     The natural man can neither satisfy nor please God (Rom. 8:7). 
Therefore God could never enjoy his presence even were it possible for 
him to stay in the presence of an holy God. Something must be done by 
God to make man acceptable to Him.

     From the day sin entered into the human race, God has been 
working to win men and women, one by one, back to Himself. He has sent 
His messengers, prophets and apostles to open the eyes of sinners and 
"to turn them from darkness to light and from the power of Satan unto 
God." At the same time the devil has been equally busy blinding the 
minds of men "lest the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ who is 
the image of God, should shine unto them" (2 Cor. 4:4).

     Satan's path is not altogether smooth. Two forces are working 
against him. One is the religious instinct in man. He cries out for 
something he knows he needs. He senses his insufficiency in seasons of 


trial, suffering and sorrow; often his heart reaches out for the help 
and comfort of one stronger than himself. He cannot let loved ones 
pass out of sight and touch without an insistent longing to know where 
they have gone and if all is well. That unsatisfied something in man's 
soul that cries out to an unknown God is very much against Satan.

     The second hindrance to the devil is the Holy Spirit. It is His 
business to convict of sin, to reveal the love of God in Christ, and 
to draw the heart of the sinner out in faith and love to God.

     Just here the devil reveals himself at his worst. He will lay 
siege to that unquenchable thing in man's nature which craves an 
object of worship and hold it for himself. He will delude men into 
thinking they can be saved by systems of religion which he inspires 
them to make.

     Contrary to the salvation of which Jesus Christ is the source 
Satan's system is not one and the same for all men alike irrespective 
of family, race, education, privilege or environment. These man-made, 
Satan-inspired religions have various names and manifold methods each 
suited to the type and temperament of the man who believes them. There 
is one kind for the ignorant and illiterate; another for the educated 
and erudite; one for the simple and superstitious; another for the 
wise and cultured; one for the poor; another for the prosperous.

     There is a system of religion for the idolater. Satan is an 
arch-deceiver and his practice of deception is seen in its most cruel 
and malicious form in idol-worship. Even 


in this twentieth century Satan still holds in his power millions upon 
millions of men who are worshippers of gods of their own making. They 
have been led to believe a lie and so have been plunged into dense 

     There is a system of religion for the ritualist. In carrying out 
His eternal purpose in Christ, God called forth a people from among 
the nations through whom the seed of the woman would come. The Jews 
were set apart as the people of God by the rite of circumcision. To 
this God added the covenants and the law so that the worship and 
service of the Jew was based on a God-appointed, God-honouring, 
ritualism. Through the manifold ordinances and sacrifices of the 
Jewish ritualism God made the Jew familiar with the idea of 
redemption. Then God raised up prophets who foretold the coming of a 
Messiah who would be their Redeemer. In the fulness of time the 
Saviour was born. The need of sacrifices was past for the one 
Sacrifice had offered Himself.

     But the expounders of the law, the most ardent religionists of 
Jesus' day instead of receiving Him rejected Him. And why? Because 
they permitted religious ordinances to take a larger place in their 
lives than God's redemptive order. They exalted ritualism above 
righteousness and substituted prayer for penitence, tithing for trust 
and fasting for faith.

     There are other great religious systems in the world today in 
which the real Christ of the Bible, the Redeemer of the Gospels, is 
veiled through ordinances and ceremonies in which there is no saving 


power, yet through which countless thousands are deceived into 
thinking they are made acceptable to God.

     There is a system of religion for the rationalist. The 
pronouncement of the curse upon Satan and the promise of salvation 
through Christ following the fall precipitated a conflict as we have 
seen. The conflict begun then has never ceased; it is being waged more 
fiercely today than ever before.

     To prevent the execution of the curse and the fulfilment of the 
promise Satan tried in every conceivable way to destroy the seed of 
the woman. At the Cross of Calvary he thought himself triumphant. But 
the very place of his supposed victory was the place of his judgment 
and the forerunner of his final doom. Christ arose, the Victim became 
the Victor. Christ Jesus returned to the glory from whence He came. He 
went beyond the devil's reach. There is no way in which Satan again 
can touch or tempt the person of the adorable Lord. How then would he 
continue the conflict? Now that he could not focus the venom of his 
hate upon the incarnate Word upon what would he focus it?

     The revelation of this conflict is unfolded in a Book. The 
incarnate Word has gone home to His Father but the written Word is 
still on earth. In it the defeat of the devil and the victory of the 
Christ is recorded in large type. The way of salvation through the 
atoning death and the triumphant resurrection of the Lord of glory is 
written in red letters from Genesis to Revelation. This is the Gospel. 
This Gospel the devil hates with all the hatred of which the father of 


hate is capable. So against it he will now direct his attack. Around 
the Gospel of Christ the conflict will center henceforth.

     The Gospel is in the Bible and the Bible is in the world. It has 
been printed in hundreds of languages and has gone to the far corners 
of the earth. More millions of copies of it are being sold annually 
than of any other book. Men everywhere are reading the Bible and are 
believing the Gospel. Being saved through it they are taken from 
Satan's dominion and removed out of his kingdom.

     What can he do to stop its progress and its power? Destroy it? He 
has tried that and failed. The Bible is not printed on paper only but 
it has been graven on human hearts by the Spirit of God, so that if 
every copy of the printed Bible in the world today were destroyed a 
new copy could be made from its truth stored in human hearts.

     Perhaps, then, Satan could ridicule the Bible and hinder its 
progress and power through scoffing. He has tried that also and 
failed. He has used some of the world's most brilliant men as his 
preachers of infidelity and atheism. Today they are in their graves 
and their words are forgotten while the Bible lives on more powerful 
than ever.

     But is there not a more effectual way of denying the Gospel and 
of keeping sinners from the benefit and blessing of the salvation it 
offers? There is and Satan is making use of it in these days in ever 
increasing measure. God tells us that the devil's most subtle 
manoeuvre in the conflict is to turn preacher and with


the Bible as his textbook to concoct out of it a gospel of his own. 
When Satan found that attacking the written Word from without failed 
then he began attacking it from within. As Christ uses men to preach 
His Gospel so Satan would find men who would consent to become "his 

     2 Cor. 11:13-15, R.V., "For such men are false apostles, 
deceitful workers, fashioning themselves into apostles of Christ. And 
no marvel; for even Satan fashioneth himself into an angel of light. 
It is no great thing therefore if his ministers also fashion 
themselves as ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according 
to their work."

     What would Satan's gospel be and where would it begin? God's 
Gospel is a Gospel of grace and begins with Genesis, chapters one to 
three. But how could Satan accept these three chapters as they stand 
fresh from the heart and hand of God containing as they do the 
revelation of God's perfect work in the creation of the universe and 
man; the invasion of an enemy, he being that enemy; the injection of 
sin into God's perfect work; the awful consequence in the fall of Adam 
and Eve; the terrible curse of God upon himself, upon man and upon the 
earth; the precious promise of a Saviour and the glorious prophecy of 
his own defeat through the death upon the Cross? Of course he could 
not accept these chapters for in them is the germ of the whole Gospel 
of man's salvation.

     He would defeat his own purpose if he did so bold and blatant a 
thing as deliberately to cut these chapters


out of the Bible. But the arch-deceiver is quite equal to the 
emergency. He will preach a gospel that reserves the right of 
interpretation of the Word of God according to the dictates of reason. 
He will insist upon a faith that is rational.

     It is always difficult for reason to accept anything beyond its 
own range. God thinks and works on the plane of uncreated, divine, 
unlimited, supernatural life. Man thinks and works on the plane of 
created, human, limited, natural life. The rationalist refuses to 
recognize any such dividing line between himself and his Creator. 
Consequently he refuses to accept anything, even from God, that goes 
beyond his reason. So whatever the rationalist believes, his religion 
must be on his own plane of life--the natural.

     So a system of religion is framed to suit him. A gospel is 
manufactured "which is another gospel" (Gal. 1:6), a clever, malicious 
counterfeit. Satan knows that he must inspire man to make a religion 
which does away altogether with God's revelation of the creation and 
the fall of man, otherwise how can he dispose of the promise of a 
Saviour and the prophecy of his own ultimate defeat through Christ's 
glorious victory on Calvary and His triumphant return as King?

     Consequently the basic tenet of the rationalist's system of 
religion is evolution. Man did not come direct from God's hands--a 
perfect work which God Himself pronounced "very good." God's first man 
was not created in the image of One infinitely higher than himself, 
but was evolved from something infinitely


lower than himself. This something had evolved through various stages 
by natural processes until man was produced. So that God's part in the 
production of man was not so much that of a Creator as of a semidivine 
supervisor or foreman "of resident natural forces." In other words the 
supernatural in man's creation was eliminated through evolution. So 
much for man's creation in this man-made, Satan-inspired gospel.

     How does this gospel of the rationalist deal with sin? Sin is in 
the world. Sin is in man. How does the rationalist account for its 
origin and what does he say of its end? He evades the issue altogether 
by calmly denying the necessity of any one having such knowledge.

     I read recently a chapter on "Sin and its Forgiveness" from the 
pen of a noted preacher in which he said, "Whence did sin come? What 
was its origin? How did it get into God's universe? That is a question 
to which no satisfactory answer has ever yet been given. ... Jesus is 
disappointing in His treatment of human sin. The origin of evil He 
never touched. He left that problem as opaque as it was before He 
came. He seemed to take it for granted that the origin of evil is a 
problem to be thought about and worked out in some other world than 
this. ... It is not necessary for us to know either the beginning of 
evil or the end of it; it is enough to know that sin is a burden to 
the heart of God, and that God has provided a way for our 
deliverance." Such deliberate evasion is equivalent to out-and-out 
denial. For any honest man,


whose mind has not been blinded by the god of this world, could not 
but believe from the reading of Genesis three and Romans five that sin 
came into this world through Adam who yielded to the will of Satan. 
Therefore sin must have had its origin in the devil. Jesus, far from 
leaving this opaque, threw a flood of light upon it when He said that 
the devil was "a murderer from the beginning and the father of lies" 
(John 8:44).

     But not only is sin in the world but Christ is also in the world. 
And He is in the world primarily as a Saviour. He became a Saviour by 
going to the Cross. His work in this world as Saviour is to draw 
sinners unto Him for salvation. "And I, if I be lifted up from the 
earth, will draw all men unto me." His power of attraction is mighty 
and permeates the world of humanity today. When once the Lord Jesus 
Christ is accepted by one as Saviour, yielded to as Lord, and 
appropriated as Life, then the devil's power over that life is broken. 
The devil knows this full well. So what will he do with Christ in the 
system of religion he inspires men to make, and in the gospel he 
inspires them to preach?

     Satan cannot do away with Christ altogether for even the most 
simple would see that any system of religion which claims to be based 
on the Bible and calls itself Christianity must give Christ some 
place. It is a galling thing to do but the devil is compelled for 
policy's sake to preach Christ in his "gospel, which is another 
gospel." But will he allow "his ministers of righteousness" to preach 
Jesus Christ as the Saviour from the 


guilt, penalty and power of sin through His substitutionary death upon 
the Cross and His bodily resurrection and His ascension into Heaven as 
the God-man, the interceding High Priest? Never! To do so would be 
allowing his own funeral sermon to be preached, fulfilling Gen. 3:15. 
But he will preach Jesus as the world's greatest teacher, its purest 
example, its most ethical leader, its most powerful reformer. He will 
appeal to the natural man still in his sin and hostility, still under 
condemnation and the sentence of death, to obey Christ's teaching, 
emulate His example, follow His leadership and submit to His reforms. 
Such a caricature of the real Christ as this is found in the 
rationalist's system of religion.

     True Christianity is grounded upon the supernatural. Two 
supernatural facts are its foundation. The first is the supernatural 
creation of man by the divine Creator whose perfect work was ruined by 
an enemy through the injection of sin. The second is the supernatural 
regeneration of man accomplished by God's grace through the 
supernatural birth, life, death, resurrection, ascension and 
exaltation of His Son.

     Rationalism, Liberalism, Modernism or whatever one wishes to call 
it, is grounded upon the natural. Two fallacies are its foundation. 
The first is the fashioning of man through evolution by which natural 
process he will continue to grow from the imperfect to the perfect. 
The second is the natural reformation of man accomplished through 
self-development by the help of a human Jesus, whose earthly life 
furnishes an example to be imitated, whose teachings provide a rule


for right living, and whose principles constitute a guide for the 
overcoming of evil and the gradual betterment of individual and 
corporate life.

     There is, then, a system of religion made by man but inspired by 
Satan. It is a religion which eliminates the supernatural. I am 
speaking now of the system not of the man who accepts it: of modernism 
not of the modernist. There are varying degrees and grades of faith 
and of unbelief in those who subscribe to this false system of 
religion. Some who call themselves modernists were brought up and 
nourished on the fundamental truths of evangelical Christianity and 
there is now in their belief a strange mixture of the false and the 
true. Our purpose in writing this is not to judge any man but to warn 
any who may be putting confidence for salvation in this man-made, 
Satan-inspired system of religion.

     There is a gospel of Satan and a Gospel of Christ; the one is the 
exact antithesis of the other. Satan's gospel has no place for the 
grace of God. Satan's gospel reverses God's estimate of the natural 
man. It does not admit that in himself he is hopelessly incurable and 
incorrigible, even though it does have to say that he is still 
imperfect. The basic tenet of his gospel is man's natural worthiness 
which can be increased and for which man will take to himself the 
glory. Satan's gospel admits the natural man's need for spiritual 
garments, but it teaches men that these garments can be made by 
themselves and urges them to borrow the pattern from the earthly life 
of Jesus and then make the garments to fit themselves. In Satan's


gospel the sinner does not penitently beseech God to save him but he 
politely requests God to help him save himself and then endorse what 
he has done.

     The Gospel of Christ has place for nothing but the grace of God 
by which a salvation is provided that the sinner accepts by faith as a 
gift. God's Gospel declares that the natural man is a sinner, a rebel 
and an outlaw and that he is separated from God and condemned by God. 
In God's Gospel the sinner admits that this is his standing and his 
state before God and that he is absolutely helpless to change it and 
therefore hopeless. He comes to God in true penitence and cries to God 
for salvation. The basic tenet of God's Gospel is the infinite worth 
of His Son and the efficacious worthiness of His finished work of 
redemption. God's Gospel declares the spiritual nakedness of the 
natural man and his inability to stand in the presence of God unless 
clothed in the garment of His Son's righteousness which He will 
graciously bestow upon all who will accept Him by faith.

     Which Gospel are you believing? There is but one Gospel that is 
the power of God unto salvation. Anything which departs an iota from 
the truth of that Gospel is "another gospel," even the gospel of 

     Rom. 1:16, "For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it 
is the power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth."

     Gal. 1:6-9, "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that 
called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:


Which is not another: but there be some that trouble you, and would 
pervert the gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, 
preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto 
you, let him be accursed. As we said before, so say I now again, If 
any man preach any other gospel unto you than ye have received, let 
him be accursed."

     We have been facing the question, "What must I do to be saved?" 
and endeavouring to answer it. I trust it has been made clear that 
salvation does not consist in anything that man makes of himself or 
that education and environment make of him. Nor does it consist in 
anything that he does either for God or for man. Neither is salvation 
a mere matter of a changed manner of living. It does not mean the 
elevation of the life of the natural man to a better state of living 
still on the natural plane. As long as he remains on the plane of the 
natural he is unsaved, no matter how cultured, educated, moral or even 
religious he is.

     Salvation is not man's work for God but God's work for man. 
Salvation calls us to put our faith not in what man is or does but in 
what Christ is and has done. Salvation's first concern is not what 
kind of a life a man lives but what is his relationship to God. So its 
first dealing is not with the good in man but with the bad. Salvation 
does not try to improve the standing and state of the natural man 
through reformation but it transfers him into a totally new sphere of 
life through regeneration.

     Every attempt to save the natural man through character, 
education, good works or religion, will prove to be


utterly futile because it has failed to deal effectually with that 
trinity of evil, sin, self and Satan. Anything that leaves a man "in 
Adam," "in the flesh," and under "the power of Satan" is not salvation 
and is not acceptable to God.

     Dear reader, which way are you going to take?

     Will you proudly and arrogantly try to save yourself or will you 
humbly and penitently accept the salvation provided for you in 

     Will you go the way of Cain, who presented to God as a sacrifice 
the finest fruit of his garden and the best product of his toil, or 
will you go the way of Abel who acknowledged his need of a Saviour, 
and accepted by faith God's sacrifice?

     Will you attempt to secure access to and acceptability with God 
on the ground of good works or will you rest on the finished work of 
God's Son?

     Will you try to improve the old sinful nature which is your 
inheritance in Adam or will you partake by faith of that new divine 
nature which God bestows in Christ?

     Will you try to conform your character and conduct to the 
standards of Satan's worldly system or will you yield yourself to 
Christ to be transformed into His image through the infilling of the 
Holy Spirit?

     Will you follow Satan's way or God's? Upon your answer to this 
question your present happiness and your eternal destiny depend.


     (This page has a picture of a "chasm" with a column on either 
side.  They are presented in alternating statements as follows.) 


  A.  "The faith which was once for all delivered unto the saints"
  B.  Modernist Theology 

  A1. The Bible IS the Word of God. "the Book judges man"
  B1. The Bible CONTAINS the Word of God. "Man judges the book"

  A2. Jesus Christ is THE Son of God in a sense which no other is.
  B2. Jesus Christ is A Son of God in the sense which all men are.

  A3. The birth of Jesus was SUPERNATURAL.
  B3. The birth of Jesus was NATURAL.

  A4. The death of Jesus was EXPIATORY. 
  B4. The death of Jesus was EXEMPLARY. 

  A5. Man is the product of special CREATION.
  B5. Man is the product of EVOLUTION.

  A6. Man is a SINNER fallen from original righteousness, and apart 
from God's redeeming grace is hopelessly lost.
  B6. Man is the unfortunate VICTIM of environment but through 
self-culture can "make good!"

  A7. Man is justified by FAITH in the atoning blood of Christ, result,
supernatural regeneration from ABOVE.
  B7. Man is justified by WORKS in following Christ's example; result,
natural development from WITHIN.


                    VII. THE CHASM BRIDGED

     GOD and God's first man enjoyed sweet and intimate communion 
until they were separated by sin. How could this great, impassable 
chasm which sin had made between God and man be bridged? From the very 
nature of the case man could do nothing, even had he wanted to, for 
sin had closed all possible access to God.    Clearly, if anything was 
to be done, God would have to do it.

     But what would God do? Adam's sin presented a terrific problem: 
one which not only affected God's personal relationship to man but His 
governmental relationship to the whole universe; nay, even, it 
affected His own personal character.

     Adam's sin was spiritual anarchy; it was resistance to God's 
authority; disobedience to God's command; rebellion against God's law. 
How would God treat sin? Would He punish it and pass judgment upon it? 
Or would He condone it and pass over it? If God failed to deal 
righteously with such a flagrant case of disobedience and disloyalty, 
how could He maintain order through obedience to law in any other part 
of His universe? God's governmental administration of the universe was 
involved in this stupendous difficulty.

     But Adam's rebellion created an even greater problem than this. 
By it God's holiness had been outraged;


His righteousness denied; His veracity questioned; His goodness 
doubted; His Word disbelieved; His command disobeyed; His love 
spurned. Surely such treatment deserved drastic action. Why did 
He not then and there abandon Adam and Eve utterly and leave them and 
their posterity to the consequences of their sin?

     He did not because He could not. "God is love," and "love never 
faileth." God's love is an everlasting love which nothing can quench, 
not even sin. Awful, terrible as sin is, it is not powerful enough to 
defeat God's purpose in the creation of man. Man was created not only 
by God but for God. Man was made for fellowship with God, much more, 
for ultimate sonship. Apart from a living, loving relationship with 
man God could never be satisfied. God, who is love, could not cast 
away the sinner in his sin and still be love. The claims of God's love 
must be met.

     But "God is light" and "in him is no darkness at all." As light 
cannot fellowship with darkness, so holiness cannot commune with sin. 
An holy God cannot have intimate relationship with a sinful man. God 
and sin cannot dwell together. The claims of God's holiness must be 
satisfied as truly as the claims of His love.

     "We speak of law and love, of truth and grace, of justice and 
mercy, and so long as sin does not exist, there is no controversy 
between any of these. If there be no sin, law and love are never out 
of harmony with each other; truth and grace go ever hand in hand; 
justice and mercy sing a common anthem. If the law


be broken, what is love to do? If truth be violated, how can grace 
operate? In the presence of crime, how can justice and mercy meet? 
This is the problem of problems. It is not a problem as between God 
and man. It is not a problem as between God and angels. It is a 
problem as between God and Himself."--(The Bible and the Cross, 
G. Campbell Morgan, page 125)

     Let us think deeply into this greatest of problems created by 
Adam's sin. How would He satisfy the claims of both His love and His 
holiness? His holiness must condemn sin and command the sinner to 
depart. His love must open its arms to the sinner and bid him come. An 
holy God could not tolerate sin, a loving God could not turn away from 
the sinner. God could not desert the sinner but what should He do with 
the sin? God's attitude toward sin would reveal His true character 
quite as much as His attitude toward the sinner.

     Would Adam's sin not only separate God and man but would it even 
bring division into God's own being? "Sin, whether as anticipated by 
the Creator, or as become actual in our world, created an antinomy in 
the very being of God, created a new ethical exigency for God and for 
the universe, so that for the legitimate expression of either or both 
of these polarities (holiness and love) in question a new 
reconciliation was necessary: that is, a reconciliation of opposite 
moral relationships within God's being itself. On the one hand, as we 
must believe, the self-affirmatory character of the divine purity must 
compel displeasure against sin: and on the other hand, the divine 
clemency which on God's part yearns to impart its own holy nature to His


creatures would constrain Him to forgive and cleanse from that 
sin."--(The Divine Reason of the Cross, H.C. Mabie, Ch. III, page 54)

     What, then, would God do that both would be consistent with His 
holiness and conciliatory to His love; which would mercifully and yet 
righteously bridge that awful chasm between Himself and man? 

          The Chasm Bridged

     A perfect reconciliation was brought about within God's being by 
a synthesis of His holiness and His love by which the claims of each 
were satisfied. God's holiness and righteousness compelled Him to 
pronounce the curse upon the serpent, the man, the woman and even upon 
the earth. God had said, "For in the day that thou eatest thereof thou 
shalt surely die." God's word is true and is from everlasting to 
everlasting; God's righteousness compelled Him to carry out His 
judgment upon sin.

     "But God's love put an exquisite, fragrant, fadeless rose in the 
midst of the thorns." Right in the very heart of the pronouncement of 
that awful curse recorded in Genesis 3:14-19 is that gracious, 
wondrous promise of salvation through a Saviour.

     Gen. 3:15, "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and 
between thy seed and her seed: it shall bruise thy head, and thou 
shalt bruise his heel."

     God's holiness and love are melted together in this precious 
promise and out of this golden crucible emerges THE CROSS OF THE LORD 


JESUS CHRIST, and stretches itself across the impassable chasm sin has 
made between God and man. "The reconciliation was affected through the 
self-provided, suffering reconciliation of God in Christ." 'Mercy and 
truth are met together: righteousness and peace have kissed each 
other.' Thus the antinomy in the divine Being itself was dissolved."

     Before Adam and Eve left the garden of Eden the promise was made 
of a way of salvation for the whole human race which had been plunged 
into moral and spiritual ruin through sin. It was not man's way but 
God's--Salvation through a Saviour. 

          The Cross in God's Eternal Purpose

     But just here we may ask--and reverently so--"Did Adam's and 
Eve's sin take God by surprise and did He have to think out a way of 
escape for man after his fall?" Here we come to the very acme of the 
infinite grace of God. May the Holy Spirit grant each reader spiritual 
understanding to apprehend "the breadth and length and depth and 
height of the love of God which passeth knowledge."

     No, Adam's sin did not take God by surprise, nor was God's way of 
redemption an after-thought. God knew even before the foundation of 
the world and the creation of man the sad and tragic devastation sin 
would work in the human race. God had anticipated the fall and was 
ready for it.

     The Cross which was to bridge the chasm made by sin was set up in 
love in the dateless eternity of the past before it was set up in 
promise in Eden or in history on Calvary. "The divine redemptive


movement, in purpose anterior to creation, once determined upon, never 
paused until it victoriously expressed itself in the language of 
Calvary. ... The atonement in principle and in God is dateless, but as 
taking effect on man it is historical, though dateless. ... Redemption 
then, in the large, is anything but an afterthought, a mere appendix 
to make good an unexpected disaster which had overtaken God's 
universe. Both sin and redemption were foreseen from the beginning."
--(The Divine Reason of the Cross, H.C. Mabie, Ch. III, page 54)

     There was a Cross set up in Heaven before it was ever set up on 
earth. The atonement for man's sin made visible, effectual and 
historical on Calvary, was wrought out in purpose and in principle in 
the heart of the triune God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit in the 
dateless past.

     Rev. 13:8, "And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, 
whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from 
the foundation of the world."

     Eph. 1:4, "According as he hath chosen us in him before the 
foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame 
before him in love."

     Acts 2:23, "Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and 
foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have 
crucified and slain."

     2 Tim. 1:9, "Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy 
calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose 
and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began."


     What can these words mean but that in the counsels of the triune 
God in the eternity of the past the awful tragedy in Eden was 
foreknown and that, then and there, the wondrous plan of salvation 
through the Son's redemptive work was formed by which God-in-Christ 
should reconcile a lost, sinning race to Himself? 

          Revelation of Redemption

     The Bible is the Book of Redemption, its one theme from the 
beginning to the end is salvation through a Saviour.

     Luke 24:27, "And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he 
expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning 

     Luke 24:44, "And he said unto them, These are the words which I 
spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be 
fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the 
prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me."

     All through the law, the psalms and the prophets, God is 
unfolding to man His plan of salvation through a Saviour. By the 
sacrifices of the Old Testament He foreshadows the one supreme 
Sacrifice. By pen pictures and prophetic promises He foretells Him who 
is "The Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world."

     The story of His life with the record of its words and works; His 
death, resurrection and ascension as recorded in the Gospels; His 
doings as continued in the history of the Acts; the deeper revelation 
of Himself as the living, victorious, glorified Lord in the Epistles,


and the promise and prophecy of a coming King in the Revelation; all 
have but one underlying purpose: namely, to reveal Him, not as the 
founder of a new religious order, nor as the propagator of a new 
ethical code, nor as the teacher of moral principles, nor as the 
reformer of man's external environment, but to reveal Him as the 
Saviour of mankind. The Father announced the coming of His Son as the 
coming of a Saviour.

     Matt. 1:21, "And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call 
his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins."

     Luke 2:11, "For unto you is born this day in the city of David a 
Saviour, which is Christ the Lord."

     Jesus Christ did not come only to teach or to preach or to heal: 
He came to SAVE. Jesus Christ came for but one purpose which He 
Himself states in these words,

     Luke 19:10, "For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that 
which was lost."

     He came to bridge the chasm which sin had made between God and 
man. No one else and nothing else could do this.



     THREE things are clear: man cannot save himself, God has 
undertaken to save him, Jesus Christ is the means. The question 

     What method would God use in salvaging the wreckage wrought in 
humanity? Would He try to repair the ruin in the old creation or would 
He replace it by a totally new creation? Would He reestablish the old 
order of humanity or would He inaugurate a radically new order?

     The race had been ruined through a man, therefore it must be 
redeemed through a man. The first man had failed to fulfil God's 
original intention in creation so a second Man must come forth who 
would succeed in fulfilling it. The old order of which the first Adam 
was the head had gone down in ruin so a new order of redeemed men 
under the headship of the last Adam must be started. The sentence of 
death had fallen upon all mankind through the first Adam's 
disobedience; it must be lifted through the obedience of another Adam, 
whose work would be so perfect that He could be rightly called "the 
last Adam" for none other would ever be needed. The redemption wrought 
through the last Adam is set in sharp contrast to the ruin 
accomplished through the first Adam in Rom. 5:12-21.


     THE FIRST MAN                      THE SECOND MAN
     THE FIRST ADAM                     THE LAST  ADAM

                      "BY ONE MAN"

     Disobedience |                    | Obedience
     Sin          |  Ruined  Redeemed  | Grace
     Death        |                    | Life
     Judgment     |                    | Justification

          The Necessity of a Mediator

     God, then, will redeem man through a Man. What then would be 
required in a Redeemer? Remember that sin has caused a terrible breach 
between God and man. God is morally unable to have fellowship with the 
sinner and the sinner is morally unable to have access to God. If any 
real reconciliation is to be effected between them there is need of a 
Mediator, one who would stand between God and man. Such a Mediator 
must needs be one accepted and trusted by both parties, one who 
partakes both of God's nature and of man's nature, one who in the work 
of reconciliation would represent both God and man equally, one who 
would satisfy every claim of God upon man and of man upon God. In 
other words a true Mediator must be a God-man. The Saviour of men must 
be a God-man. Christ Jesus, the Mediator, is the GOD-man. He is not 
the man-GOD. He is not a man who became God but God who became man. He 
is not a man who for a special purpose and at a special time was 
invested with Deity but He is God who for a special purpose and at a 
special time was invested with humanity. He always was God: He became 


     Heb. 1:1-3, "God who at sundry times and in divers manners spake 
in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days 
spoken unto us by His Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, 
by whom also he made the worlds; Who being the brightness of his 
glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things 
by the word of his power, when he had himself purged our sins, sat 
down on the right hand of the Majesty on high."

     No words could teach more clearly that Christ Jesus, the Saviour, 
the God-appointed Mediator, is God. He is the eternal Son, the Heir, 
the Creator, the upholder of the universe and all therein. He is the 
Son who is the commencement, the continuance, and the consummation of 
all things. He is the Son, the effulgence of the Father's glory and 
the very essence of His Person. He is the eternal Son who said of 
Himself, "Before Abraham was, I am" (John 8:58); who declared "I came 
forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again I leave the 
world, and go to the Father" (John 16:28) and on the eve of returning 
to His Father, prayed, "And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine 
own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was" 
(John 17:5).

     Only God could represent God in this mediatorship. As in creation 
so in redemption the Father works in and through the Son. "God in 
Christ was reconciling the world unto himself." Christ Jesus, the 
Mediator between God and man is God, the eternal Son, "the Lord from 

     But where could God find one who would qualify as


the GOD-man? Most surely not among the sons of men on earth, nor among 
the angelic hosts of Heaven for they are neither God nor man. One and 
only One even in Heaven itself could ever be thought of for such an 
exalted task--the eternal Son of God.

     But how could even He be a Mediator for man? It is easy to see 
how the Lord from Heaven could represent an holy God but could He be a 
just, righteous, impartial representative for sinful man? If such a 
reconciliation demanded a divine-human Mediator how could He qualify 
who had been throughout all the eternity of the past the holy Son of 

     Just here we come to the place where the human mind has to 
acknowledge its finiteness, where human reasoning is silenced, where 
human comprehension confesses defeat, for we are lifted above all that 
is human, earthly and natural, up--up--up--into the realm of that 
which is divine, heavenly and supernatural, to the wondrous grace of 
God. Nothing but the grace of God could have provided such a 
divine-human Mediator, could have conceived the thought of a God-man.

     Again we are driven back in thought to that which took place in 
the eternal councils of the Godhead as the Omniscient Father, Son and 
Holy Spirit looked out upon the universe they were to make, upon the 
man they were to create, and foresaw the tragedy in Eden with all its 
terrible consequences. Then and there the Triune God looked from 
eternity to eternity and compassed fully in thought and plan all that 
would take place between, "In the beginning God created the heaven and 
the earth" (Gen. 1:1) and "I saw a


new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth 
were passed away" (Rev. 21:1). It was then and there determined that 
the eternal Son of God, the Alpha and the Omega, "the beginning and 
the end, the first and the last" (Rev. 22:13), should lay aside for a 
brief space of time His essential glory, and "be made in the likeness 
of man": "to become obedient unto death, even the death of the cross" 
(Phil. 2:6-8) that He in returning to glory "might bring many sons 
unto glory" (Heb. 2:10), to be forever with the Lord. There in the 
glory of eternity the grace of God fashioned the wondrous plan of 
redemption by which the eternal Son of God would become the incarnate 
Son of Man; the divine-human Mediator; the God-man whom both God and 
man would need when sin entered into the human race and separated man 
from God. Christ Jesus is the divinely provided Mediator.

     1 Tim. 2:5, R.V., "For there is one God, one mediator also 
between God and men, himself man, Christ Jesus."

     In no book of the Bible is the person of Christ Jesus, the 
God-man and His work as the divine-human Mediator more clearly set 
forth than in the Epistle to the Hebrews. In it we can trace back to 
glory the unfolding of truth regarding His glorious person and follow 
from Heaven to earth and from earth to Heaven again His gracious work 
as Redeemer.

     We shall consider His work in the following chapters. May we 
concentrate our thought now upon His person.  Who is He?


     The divine-human Mediator--the Eternal Son of God--"The Lord from 

     1 Cor. 15:47, "The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second 
man is the Lord from heaven."

     John 1:1-2, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God."

     The divine-human Mediator--the Incarnate Son of Man--"The Word 
made flesh."

     John 1:1, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God."

     John 1:14, R.V., "And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, 
(and we beheld his glory, glory as of the only begotten from the 
Father), full of grace and truth."

     "The Word became flesh." "The statement is appalling, 
overwhelming. Out of the infinite distances into the finite nearness; 
from the unknowable, to the knowable; from the method of 
self-expression appreciable by Deity alone, to a method of 
self-expression understandable of the human."--(The Crises of the 
Christ, G. Campbell Morgan, page 73)

     Christ Jesus, the Mediator, is the GOD-man. The Eternal Son of 
God became the Incarnate Son of Man. Heaven came to earth.

     In Hebrews, chapter one, the Mediator is divine. He is called 
"Lord," "God," "the Son." In Hebrews, chapter two, He is human. He is 
called "Jesus," "brother," "high priest." In chapter one He is as


far above us as the heavens are above the earth; He is absolutely 
separate from us; He is in a class by Himself; He is the 
Unapproachable; the Incomprehensible; the Incomparable One. In chapter 
two He is on the level of our humanity, He has stooped to come to our 
human plane of life.

     Heb. 2:9, "But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the 
angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that 
he by the grace of God should taste death for every man."

     In chapter two He is one with us, He has entered into our 
humanity, He has actually become part of our flesh and blood.

     Heb. 2:11, "For both he that sanctifieth and they who are 
sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call 
them brethren."

     Heb. 2:14, "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh 
and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that 
through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that 
is, the devil."

     In chapter two He is the tender, sympathetic, understanding Son 
of Man: the gracious, gentle One.

     Heb. 2:17-18, "Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made 
like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high 
priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the 
sins of the people. For in that he himself hath suffered being 
tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted."


     Only Man could represent man in this mediatorship. Christ Jesus, 
the Mediator between God and man is Man: the Incarnate Son: "the Word 
made flesh."

     From the beginning to the end of Scripture this story is told: 
Christ Jesus, the Mediator between God and man is God; the Eternal 
Son; the Lord from Heaven; the Alpha and the Omega. Christ Jesus, the 
Mediator between man and God is Man; the Incarnate Son; the Man of 
Galilee; the Babe of Bethlehem. 

          How the Eternal Son became the Incarnate Son

     That Christ Jesus was a divine-human Mediator is not only a fact 
of revelation but of history as well. Not only the words of Scripture 
but the a.d. on our desk calendar tells us that at some one point of 
time "The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us."

     Luke 2:11-12, "For unto you is born this day in the city of 
David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign 
unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying 
in a manger."

     "Christ the Lord"--"a babe"! "a saviour"--"wrapped in swaddling 
clothes"! the creator of the universe--" lying in a manger"! the 
author and sustainer of life--"born"! The father of 
eternity--beginning to count His life by days and weeks and years! a 
god-man ! It is a fact of revelation and of history staggering: 
stupendous: sublime. In this fact we are face to face with the miracle 
of miracles, the mystery of mysteries.

     Many have asked the question "How can such a thing be?" "How did 
the Eternal Son of God become


the Incarnate Son of Man?" "How was the uncreated Lord of glory born a 
babe in Bethlehem?" The answer is plainly given in the annunciations 
of the angels to Joseph and to Mary.

     Matt, 1:20, "But while he thought on these things, behold, the 
angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou 
son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which 
is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost."

     Luke 1:30, 31, 34, 35, "And the angel said unto her, Fear not, 
Mary; for thou hast found favour with God. And, behold, thou shalt 
conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name 
JESUS. ... Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I 
know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy 
Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall 
overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of 
thee shall be called the Son of God."

     Perhaps nothing in God's holy Word challenges man to greater 
reverence, deeper humility, sublimer faith, than this divine record of 
God's supernatural entrance into human life. Yet to the truly humble, 
reverent, worshipful, man of faith there is no difficulty in accepting 
the statement of revelation that through the supernatural operation of 
God, the Holy Spirit, the Virgin Mary gave birth "to that holy thing 
which was called the Son of God." He reads and accepts these two 
annunciations without making any attempt to explain the heart of the 
mystery therein because he


humbly acknowledges that it transcends all human understanding.

     He sees in Christ Jesus, the God-man, essential Deity and real 
humanity, very God and very Man. He gladly acknowledges the 
supernatural in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. He finds no way 
to account for such a result except in an adequate cause. A 
supernatural life demands a supernatural birth. So he joyfully accepts 
as true God's divine revelation that in the origin of the God-man 
there was to be found the cooperation of Deity and humanity. He 
believes that Christ Jesus, the God-man, was "conceived by the Holy 
Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary," as the evangelical Church has 
believed through the centuries.

     Thus the supernatural birth of the Lord Jesus is the connecting 
link between eternity and time: between Heaven and earth: between 
Deity and humanity: between God and man. Through the doorway of that 
supernatural conception there came into this world such a Person as 
had never lived in it before or ever has since. In Him there is 
essential Deity and essential humanity each in its wholeness and 
completeness. He is "the Son of God, the Word of the Father, begotten 
from everlasting of the Father, very and eternal God, of one substance 
with the Father. Being such, He took man's nature in the womb of the 
blessed Virgin, of her substance, so that two whole and perfect 
Natures, that is to say, the Godhead and the Manhood, were joined 
together in one Person, never to be divided, whereof is one Christ, 
very God and very Man."--(Outlines of Christian Doctrine, H.C.G. 
Moule, page 57)


     All that God is, Christ Jesus is. All that unfallen man was, He 
is. Nothing that belonged to Deity or to sinless humanity was lacking 
in Him. The divine and the human nature are each fully manifested in 
His unique personality. Both God and man are equally represented in 
the constituent elements of the personality of the God-man. He is 
veritable God and veritable man in one person.

     Even though the God-man is a unit in whom God and man meet in a 
harmonious union of natures yet the root of His wonderful personality 
is God. Through all eternity He was God. At one moment of time He 
became Man. "The Son of God came from the eternities. The Son of Man 
began His Being." "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
God." The Deity of Christ Jesus is basic and primary. "The Word was 
made flesh" and there was "born this day in the city of David a 
Saviour--a Babe wrapped in swaddling clothes." The humanity of Christ 
Jesus is assumed and therefore secondary though essential. In the 
union of God and man God is the dominant factor. "The incarnation is 
the humanizing of deity and not the deification of humanity." The 
God-man is "God ... manifest in the flesh" (1 Tim. 3:16).

     In the following Scriptural classic we have a very clear and 
beautiful revelation of the person of the God-man and the process by 
which He became such and the purpose.

     Phil. 2:5-8, R.V., "Have this mind in you, which was also in 
Christ Jesus: who existing in the form of God,


counted not the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped, 
but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the 
likeness of men; and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled 
himself, becoming obedient even unto death, yea, the death of the 

     He was the Eternal Son, "existing in the form of God" and "on an 
equality with God." But in the presence of Eden's tragedy and man's 
need of redemption He counted not the being on an equality with God a 
thing to be grasped but by a sublime act of self-emptying He qualified 
to be the world's Saviour. While not divesting Himself of His 
essential nature as God, He became the Incarnate Son, "taking the form 
of a servant, being made in the likeness of men," and submitted to the 
temporary non-manifestation of His divine prerogatives.

     "He emptied Himself." He did this by permitting the essential 
glory and majesty of His divine person to be covered and hidden for a 
while by the flesh, by voluntarily putting His several attributes, 
omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence, under temporary 
limitations; and by placing Himself under the sovereign will of the 
Heavenly Father and under the control of the Holy Spirit.

     "The emptying indicates the setting aside of one form of 
manifestation, in which all the facts of equality with God were 
evidently revealed, for another form of manifestation, in which the 
fact of equality with God must for a time be hidden, by the necessary 
submissiveness of the human to the divine. ... The Word passed from 
government to obedience, from independent 


cooperation  in the equality of Deity to dependent submission to the 
will of God."--(The Crises of the Christ, G. Campbell Morgan, pages 

     "He humbled Himself." God took man's form, the Lord of glory 
stooped to an actual union with human nature. In His humiliation He 
endured every conceivable suffering, the culmination of which was His 
cruel death on the Cross as a condemned criminal.

     His voluntary self-humbling and self-emptying was for a purpose. 
"He became obedient unto death, yea, the death of the cross" that 
through His divine-human mediatorship He might become mankind's 
all-sufficient Saviour. (Diagram V. omitted)




     GOD in His infinite love has undertaken the restoration of 
mankind and the reconciliation of all things to Himself through the 
mediation of Christ Jesus. It is to be salvation through a Saviour. If 
man's complete salvation is effectually accomplished, five things must 
be done.

     First: Man must be restored to such a relationship with God as 
shall make possible the fulfilment of the original, divine intention 
in his creation.

     Second: The sin question must be fully and finally settled. Sin 
must be dealt with in respect to its guilt, penalty, power and 

     Third: Such propitiation and reconciliation must be effected as 
shall remove the barrier of separation between God and man and give to 
every person the opportunity of restoration to God's favour and 

    Fourth: A new order of human beings must be inaugurated to 
supersede the old order which is in ruin and rejection.

     Fifth: Satan, the original cause and continual instigator of sin 
in man, must be defeated and dethroned. God's sovereignty over all 
things must be fully restored.


     To accomplish such a salvation God erected a bridge of four spans 
over the chasm made by sin. Each span is an integral part of the 
whole. Without any one span the bridge would be incomplete and 
inadequate. The four spans are incarnation, crucifixion, resurrection 
and ascension. Incarnation is the first span in the bridge of 

     That there would be an incarnation God's prophet had plainly 

     Isa. 7:14, "Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; 
Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his 
name Immanuel."

     Isa. 9:6, "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: 
and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be 
called Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, 
the Prince of Peace."

     The moment sin stained the heart of humanity God gave the promise 
of a Saviour. All down through the centuries those who, like Simeon 
and Anna were eagerly anticipating the Coming One, could hear the 
advancing steps of the Lord of glory on His way from heaven to earth.

     In the fulness of time He came. "Jesus was born in Bethlehem of 
Judea in the days of Herod the king." "God manifest in the flesh" was 
God's first step in the fulfilment of his prophecy-promise in Eden.

     God's original intention in the creation of man was a being made 
in His own image. Through sin man lost all true knowledge both of God 
and of himself as God meant him to be.


     Living in a world of sinful men the sinner had no one better than 
himself with whom to compare himself. So he measured himself with 
himself and with others like himself and the result has been 
self-complacency and self-sufficiency. Left to himself alone there is 
no desire for anything better for there is no sense of need. In his 
moral and spiritual darkness and degradation man is incapable of 
knowing aright either God or himself. Hence it is clearly evident that 
if man is to be restored to favour with God he needs a twofold 
revelation, a revelation of God as He is, and of himself as he is and 
as God means him to be. 

          Revelation--The Preliminary Purpose in Incarnation

     God gave that twofold revelation in Christ Jesus, the God-man. 
Only the Son could reveal accurately and authoritatively the Father 
because He alone had seen the Father.

     John 1:18, "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten 
Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him."

     Matt, 11:27, "No man knoweth the Son but the Father; neither 
knoweth any man the Father, save the Son."

     But how could the Son make known to sinners on earth the 
ineffable beauty, the infinite love, the immeasurable worth of the 
Father in Heaven if He remained in the Father's bosom? There was but 
one way that the age long cry of "orphaned humanity," "Shew us the 
Father," could be answered and that Was by way of the incarnation. 
This is the way the Lord Jesus took


and He told those who saw Him on earth that when they had seen Him 
they had seen the Father.

     John 14:9, "Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with 
you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath 
seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father?"

     In the incarnate Son the everlasting Father stooped to the level 
of man's power to comprehend Him. "Jesus is God spelling Himself out 
in a language that men can understand."

     In the glorious person and the gracious work of the Son God was 
manifest. What the Son was God is. His character and conduct on earth 
is a mirrored reflection of His Father in Heaven. Blessing the little 
children and bidding them come unto Him; entering into the joys of the 
wedding feast and the dinner party; weeping with the bereaved sisters 
at the brother's tomb; seeking the companionship of kindred spirits in 
the Bethany home; talking with an outcast woman at Jacob's well; 
feeding the hungry multitudes who have followed Him into the desert; 
giving sight to the eyes of the man born blind; cleansing the temple 
of the avaricious moneychangers; denouncing the hypocrisy  and 
self-righteousness of the unbelieving Pharisees; suffering in 
Gethsemane; dying upon Calvary; in all these ministries the invisible 
God is made intelligible to men.

     But Jesus Christ came not alone to reveal God to man but to 
reveal man to himself. Through sin man


was blinded both to the worth of God and the worthlessness of self. 
But in the man Christ Jesus God revealed to humanity His perfect Man, 
the divine Ideal. In Him man not only found all that he could ever 
want in God but all that God could ever want in man. What the God-man 
was on earth God desires every human being to be. "In him we see in 
perfect form what man in the divine idea of him is." By comparison of 
his life with that of the man Christ Jesus each one may see the depth 
of sin into which he has fallen and the height of holiness to which he 
may rise.

     The twofold revelation in the God-man of God as He is and of man 
as he may be is surely the preliminary purpose in the incarnation but 
it is not the primary one. If the natural man had nothing beyond this 
revelation it would do him very little good. In the first place, how 
could his blinded mind apprehend it? his darkened heart accept it? his 
biased will act upon it? And if he could apprehend, accept, and act 
upon this revelation of God and of himself given in Jesus, where would 
it bring him? Such a revelation does not touch the sin question except 
to reveal to what depths man has fallen. In no sense can it settle it. 
It would only leave the awakened sinner with a greater consciousness 
of condemnation and a deeper experience of despair.

          Redemption--The Primary Purpose in Incarnation

     Revelation in itself is not a sufficient reason for the 
incarnation. God was not manifest in the flesh to mock sinners by 
giving them an example of a perfect life which


they had absolutely no power within themselves to imitate. The God-man 
is an example for the saint to follow but not for the sinner.

     Again Jesus Christ did not come to impart teachings which the 
natural man could obey. Nor did He come to earth to make it a more 
comfortable and habitable place for the sinner through the social 
reforms He would effect. Nor did He come as the founder of a new 
religion, the spiritual head of another sect, which would go a step 
beyond other religions in resuscitating the old creation and in 
lifting the human, race through gradual development to a higher moral 
and spiritual attainment.

     Jesus Christ clearly conceived His mission to this sinful world 
to be that of a Saviour. Scripture always speaks of the incarnation in 
relationship to sin and to God's purpose in redemption. Redemption is 
the primary purpose in the incarnation. Christ came to save sinners 
like you and me.

     Luke 19:10, "For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that 
which was lost."

     Gal. 4:4, R.V., "But when the fulness of the time came, God sent 
forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, that he might 
redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the 
adoption of sons."

     1 John 3:5, R.V., "And ye know that he was manifested to take 
away sins: and in him is no sin."

     The incarnation is undoubtedly the first span in God's bridge of 
salvation. But in what way is the fulfilment of God's redemptive 
purpose begun in the incarnation? What 


part does it have in man's restoration to the favour and fellowship of 

     We have already stated two consequences of the fall; first, the 
utter failure of God's first man to fulfil God's original intention in 
His creation; secondly, the total ruin of the old order of humanity of 
which Adam was the head. The first Adam failed both as a man and as a 
representative man. Through his sin God's union established in 
creation with himself and through him with the whole human race was 
broken. This must be restored. Sin had injected into man an evil 
nature which made man hostile to God. He must be reconciled. Salvation 
demands reconciliation and reconciliation must be followed by 
conformity. Salvation from God's viewpoint does not mean merely the 
recovery of men from the guilt, penalty and power of sin but it means 
restoration to the likeness of God, even conformity to the image of 
His Son. It is not only a negative deliverance from a state of 
estrangement from and hostility to God but it is a positive entrance 
into a state of righteousness and holiness in God.

     To accomplish such a salvation an altogether new union with the 
race must be made and it must be a union based on kinship of nature so 
that both God and man could find their fullest satisfaction and 
greatest blessedness in such fellowship. It was impossible for God to 
permit, or for man to enjoy, such an union as long as man had only an 
evil nature. For man to enjoy fellowship with God he must have a 
nature like God's. But how could he become a partaker 


of the divine nature? Here we discover the measure of God's grace. 
Here God's grace at its highest height stoops to man's need at its 
deepest depth. In order that man might become a partaker of the divine 
nature God would Himself become a partaker of human nature. In order 
to condemn sin in the flesh God would send His own Son in the likeness 
of sinful flesh.

     Heb. 2:14, 16, 17, "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers 
of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; 
that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, 
that is, the devil.... For verily he took not on him the nature of 
angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore in all 
things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might 
be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to 
make reconciliation for the sins of the people."

     Rom. 8:3, "For what the law could not do, in that it was weak 
through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful 
flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh."

     The act of the Son of God in becoming a partaker of our nature is 
the incarnation. This is followed very shortly by His death, 
resurrection and ascension by which we may become partakers of His 
nature. Thus in the incarnation we find the corner stone of the new 
union between God and man. But let us go further into its meaning.

     God was faced with two necessities in any effectual plan of 
salvation: first, the sending forth of a second


Man who would fulfil His original intention in man's creation; 
secondly, the providing of another Adam who would act representatively 
for the human race as the Head of a new order. The Man Christ Jesus 
meets both these necessities. He is God's second Man.

     1 Cor. 15:47, "The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second 
man is the Lord from heaven."

     He is God's last Adam.

     1 Cor. 15:45, "And so it is written, the first man Adam was made 
a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit."

     In the God-man God made a new union with the human race; the 
ultimate issue of this union is a new race of redeemed men of whom 
Christ Jesus is the Head.

     To fully qualify, however, as the last Adam in this mediatorial 
redemptive work, God's second Man must succeed where His first man 
failed, and He must succeed under the same circumstances and 
limitations. The first man failed on earth: the second Man must 
succeed on earth. The first man had a tripartite human nature subject 
to human limitations. The second Man must have a tripartite human 
nature subject to human limitations. The first man was tempted from 
without by Satan to doubt, disobedience and disloyalty. The second Man 
must be tempted in the same way, by the same person, to do the same 
thing. If God's second Man succeeded where God's first man


failed then He would qualify as the last Adam to become the Redeemer 
of the human race and the Head of a new order of beings.

     Let us see how God's second Man in the incarnation met every one 
of these requirements.

     The eternal Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. The only 
begotten Son left the Father's bosom in glory to be born of a virgin 
in a manger in Bethlehem. A Saviour was born in the city of David. The 
Lord from heaven came to earth.

     God's second Man was human subject to human limitations. Christ's 
humanity began where ours did and went through all the stages of human 
life from infancy to manhood. Christ had a human ancestry.

     Rom. 1:3, "Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was 
made of the seed of David according to the flesh."

     Acts 13:23, "Of this man's (David) seed hath God, according to 
his promise, raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus."

     The Son of God became the Son of Man by a human birth. He was "a 
babe wrapped in swaddling clothes." Mary was His mother.

     Luke 1:30, 31, "And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for 
thou hast found favour with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in 
thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS."

     He was a "child" subject to the law of regular development, 
living in a home with brothers and sisters and


growing under the training and discipline of His home life as other 
boys grow.

     Luke 2:40, "And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, 
filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon him."

     He was "a man" and as a son and brother in the home, as a 
neighbour and tradesman in the community, as a citizen of the nation, 
He performed every duty and met every obligation that these human 
relationships demanded. Christ Jesus was not only "made in the 
likeness of men" but He was in His earthly life "found in fashion as a 
man" (Phil. 2:7, 8). "In all things it behoved him to be made like 
unto his brethren" (Heb. 2:17). In everything the Son of Man was not 
only humanly perfect but He was perfectly human.

     God's second Man had a tripartite human nature.

     Luke 23:46, "And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, 
Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said this, he 
gave up the ghost."

     Matt. 26:38, "Then said he unto them, My soul is exceeding 
sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with me."

     Matt. 26:12, "For in that she hath poured this ointment on my 
body, she did it for my burial."

     God's second Man had a spirit. It was ever open Godward and 
heavenward. He loved His Father and delighted in His Father's world, 
word and will. Communion with His Father was His supreme delight and


He ever lived in the consciousness of the Father's presence (John 
8:29) and in the joy of the Father's smile (Matt. 17:5). In Jesus the 
human spirit was always in perfect adjustment with the Spirit of God 
and was dominant over both His soul and body.

     God's second Man had a soul. The last Adam thought, loved and 
willed as the first Adam had done. His familiarity with the Holy 
Scripture shows how He must have read and pondered the sacred 
writings. His parables taken largely from nature or the events of 
human life reveal the mould that shaped His thought life. He loved 
people and enjoyed fellowship with them. He was capable of intense 
sympathy and sorrow, of great indignation and anger, of deep joy and 
gladness, of exquisite appreciation and gratitude. Jesus had a soul in 
which was manifested a mighty capacity to think, love and will.

     God's second Man had a body. He was made "in the likeness of 
sinful flesh." The Samaritan woman knew Him to be a Jew. Mary 
Magdalene thought Him to be a gardener. Those who saw and heard Him in 
the synagogue at Nazareth while wondering at His gracious words still 
took Him to be only Joseph's son. He ate, slept, walked, worked and 
lived as other men did. While in His countenance, conversation and 
carriage there must have been that which His sinlessness and holiness 
produced which made Him different from all other men yet in His 
physical form there was nothing which differentiated Him.

     God's second Man was not only human but He was subject to all the 
sinless infirmities and limitations of


humanity. Jesus hungered, thirsted, slept, wept, wearied, mourned, 
suffered and died. "There is not a note in the great organ of our 
humanity which, when touched, does not find a sympathetic vibration in 
the might, range and scope of our Lord's being, saving, of course, the 
jarring discord of sin."

     Heb. 2:10, 11, "For it became him, for whom are all things, and 
by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the 
captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings. For both he 
that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which 
cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren."

     Lastly God's second Man was tempted from without by Satan to 
doubt, disobedience and disloyalty.

     When Satan said "I will" to God, setting his creaturely will in 
opposition to that of his Creator, he broke the unwritten law that in 
God's universe there can be but one will and that the will of the 
Maker of all things. Lawlessness then became a fact in the celestial 
realm. It entered the world and began coursing through the veins of 
human life when God's first man broke God's law and disobeyed God's 

     From that day on down through the centuries until the angels sang 
the first Christmas carols over the manger cradle in Bethlehem there 
had never lived a man who had been perfectly obedient to God, who had 
fully kept God's law. Men had turned to their own way and done that 
which was right in their own sight. Even among those who through faith 


followed the Lord there was not one who lived only and wholly in the 
will of God.

     But through the incarnation there entered into human life a 
second Man in whom mankind was again to be put to the test; a last 
Adam in whom the human race had its only and final hope of restoration 
to God.

     The first man, Adam, and the whole race latent in him had gone 
down into ruin and rejection through disobedience. Now God had sent 
forth a second Man, a last Adam, who might lift the race into 
restoration and reconciliation upon the one condition of obedience. It 
must, however, be obedience from the beginning to the end of life; 
obedience at all times, in all things, under all circumstances, to all 
limits, in spite of all consequences; obedience, too, not merely in 
the letter but in the spirit; obedience to the whole will of God as 
the unalterable rule of life; such obedience as made the will of God 
the center of His life, the circumference, and all in between. The 
ruling passion of His whole being must be "God's will--Nothing more, 
nothing less, nothing else."

     Rom. 5:19, "For as by one man's disobedience many were made 
sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous."

     Would the Son of Man be able to qualify for Saviourhood under 
such a condition? Would He choose in all things to will Godward?

     In coming into the world Christ Jesus had declared that the 
purpose of the incarnation was to do His Father's will.


     John 6:38, "For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, 
but the will of him that sent me."

     Part of His humbling in becoming the Son of Man was His 
willingness to leave the place of equality in sovereignty as God to 
take the place of subordination in subserviency as man. The Father's 
will was the Son's delight; it was the very sustenance of His life.

     John 4:34, "Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of 
him that sent me, and to finish his work."

     He came, He lived, He worked, all with one purpose and one 
passion--to do His Father's will. And what was the Father's will in 
relation to the human race and to the incarnation of His Son?

     John 6:40, "And this is the will of him that sent me, that every 
one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting 
life: and I will raise him up at the last day."

     God's will was that every sinner should see in His Son a Saviour 
and believe on Him as such that the Father might lift from him the 
sentence of death and raise him up into eternal life in Him.

     That this was the Father's will Satan knew; that Jesus Christ had 
yielded Himself unreservedly to the Father to carry out that will 
Satan also knew. His Satanic desire, his devilish determination, was 
to keep the Son of Man from doing the Father's will if possible. The 
slightest shadow of questioning regarding His Father's goodness would 
be doubt: failure to keep the holy law of 


God even in one point would be disobedience: the merest deflection of 
desire toward self-will would be disloyalty, and God's second Man, His 
last Adam, would have been disqualified for becoming the world's 
Saviour and the Head of a race of holy, heavenly men. That He would be 
tempted by Satan from the center to the circumference of His life, 
yea, that His Father must even permit such temptation would be easily 
understood even if Scripture did not state it so plainly.

     Heb. 4:15, "For we have not an high priest which cannot be 
touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points 
tempted like as we are, yet without sin."

     Heb. 2:18, "For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, 
he is able to succour them that are tempted."

     Heb. 2:10, "For it became him, for whom are all things, and by 
whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the 
captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings."

     To qualify as the Saviour of men and the Head of a race of 
redeemed men the Man Christ Jesus must be a victor over humanity's 
temptations one by one.

     Throughout the thirty years of private life as a child, a boy and 
a young man, He had no doubt been tempted over and over again to doubt 
the Father's goodness, to disobey the Father's law and to be disloyal 
to the Father's will. In the home, at the carpenter's bench, in the 
manifold contacts of community life He met a daily assault in the 
common temptations of  man. That He came through these years of


obscurity with His manhood unsullied and unstained is amply attested 
by the Father's voice speaking those words of unqualified approval at 
His baptism. "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." As a 
Man Jesus had lived in private a life not only of absolute sinlessness 
but one that was wholly obedient to the will of God.

     He emerged from private into public life and engaged upon His 
three years of public ministry. He publicly proclaimed Himself as the 
Messiah. But before He did this an event of tremendous significance 
occurred. At the Jordan Jesus was baptized by John. This was His first 
act of identification with humanity's sin, it was the preliminary step 
in becoming the sinner's Substitute.

     Crowds of people were thronging to John to be baptized, 
confessing their sins. Jesus came to be baptized. He had no sin to 
confess and He had no disobedience to God's law to repent of. But 
there on the banks of the Jordan God's second Man publicly 
acknowledged and accepted His responsibility as the world's Saviour by 
thus identifying Himself with the world's sin. The last Adam through 
His baptism committed Himself to bear all the consequences of a broken 
law on the part of sinners. At His baptism the Man Christ Jesus began 
to be numbered with the transgressors and the work of personal 
substitution which ended at Calvary was commenced.

     Immediately after His baptism His public ministry began and we 
read, "Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be 
tempted of the devil."


     As a man Jesus had met the manifold testings through the daily 
temptations incidental to private life and in them all had come forth 
Victor. But now as the Son of Man He is to have the decisive test of 
His whole life in a personal conflict with the devil himself. Man's 
salvation does not consist in deliverance from temptation but in 
deliverance from the possession and power of the tempter. The utter 
defeat and destruction of the devil himself was part of Christ's work 
as Saviour. Jesus Christ was committed to the salvation of mankind 
from sin in toto; this necessitated His going back to the very origin 
of sin in man and confronting and conquering its instigator. To such a 
task and to such a test "Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the 

     In this wilderness conflict the God-man is there not alone as a 
man but as the Son of Man, not only as an individual but as the 
Representative of mankind. Satan is there not only as a personal enemy 
of "the seed of the woman" but as the avowed foe of God and of the 
human race. The enmity prophesied in Eden is having there a concrete 
fulfilment; the conflict foretold, which has gone on in secret for 
centuries and which has its manifest fulfilment on Calvary, is brought 
out into the open and crystallized into actual combat here in the 
wilderness. The devil is no longer allowed to cover his identity 
through impersonation but is exposed as the devil and his purposes are 
openly revealed. There in the wilderness the spoiler of the human race 
faces the Saviour of the human race in a decisive and terrible 
conflict. It will be proven here


for all ages to come who is the vanquished and who the Victor.

     Satan had tempted Adam with the one purpose of gaining 
sovereignty over him and securing his worship. He had tempted God's 
first man in the garden of Eden at the one point where he could be 
disobedient and had met marked success. He had come forth victor. Adam 
had made a personal choice against the choice of God. He had acted 
independently of God and by so doing had stepped outside of God's will 
into self-will.

     In the wilderness Satan impelled by the same purpose, tempted 
God's second Man employing the same methods and working toward the 
same end. A careful study of the great temptation (Matt. 4:1-11) will 
show that Satan made three separate attacks along three distinct 
avenues but with one purpose: to draw the God-man in desire and in 
deed outside the will of God; to induce Him to make a personal choice 
against the choice of God; to persuade Him to act independently. The 
supreme effort in each attack was to dislodge the God-man from the 
center of God's will and to lead Him into disloyalty to His Father.

     The temptation in the wilderness was the decisive test not only 
for Christ but for Satan as well. If Satan could only triumph over the 
last Adam as he had over the first then he would be victor for all 
time to come. So he offered to Him in the wilderness all that he had 
gained in the garden even the kingdoms of this world if He would only 
fall down and worship him. Then he would indeed have dethroned God and 
the Satanic passion to be "like the Most High" would


have been realized. The only hope of man's salvation would have gone, 
for Christ is the last Adam.

     God's first man exercised his right to will and willed Satanward. 
God's second Man had also been given the same right to will and the 
power to will Godward. He exercised the right to will and chose to 
will Godward. The first Adam became the victim of sin and of Satan; 
the last Adam became the Victor over sin and Satan.

     The question is bound to force itself upon us "Was it as God or 
as man that the God-man triumphed over Satan?" Unconsciously perhaps 
we may comfort ourselves in defeat by thinking that He made use of the 
prerogatives and powers of Deity and that His victory was gained 
through means beyond the reach of man. If this be true the whole 
benefit to mankind of that wilderness experience is lost and it was 
only a personal and not a racial victory which the God-man gained. He 
alone would have profited by it but there would have been no meaning 
in it for you and for me. For if He had recourse to Deity and to 
divine power not at our disposal, then His triumph over sin and Satan 
does not avail for us.

     This, however, was the very thing the devil was tempting Him to 
do and the very thing He resolutely refused to do. Satan tempted Him 
to use His power as the Son of God. "He declined to use the 
prerogatives and powers of Deity in any other way than was possible to 
every other man. He did not face temptation or overcome it in the 
realm of His Deity but in the Magnificence of His pure, strong 


Manhood: tested for thirty years in ordinary private life and for 
forty days in the loneliness of the wilderness. Jesus was in the 
wilderness as Man's representative."--(The Crises of the Christ, G. 
Campbell Morgan, page 170)

     The last Adam gained His victory precisely where the first Adam 
failed. Scripture reveals two constituent elements in the God-man's 
triumph in the wilderness. The first is the sovereign control of the 
Holy Spirit over His whole being, spirit, soul and body. The second is 
His implicit obedience to God's Word.

     Matt. 4:1, "Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the 
wilderness to be tempted of the devil."

     God, the Holy Spirit, led Him into the wilderness to gain this 
racial victory. The temptation in the wilderness was no accident; it 
was not even the devil's doings; it was part of the plan. The 
temptation from without did not take Jesus unawares; He was prepared 
for this crisis. In His earthly life He was begotten, ruled, led, 
filled and empowered by the Holy Spirit. While still having all the 
attributes of Deity, yet as God's second Man, He voluntarily submitted 
to a life of human limitations that He might be tempted in all points 
like as we are and gain the victory over temptation in the only way in 
which we can gain the victory. So He voluntarily put Himself under the 
control of the Holy Spirit, and lived His life and did His work only 
in the Spirit's power.

     The temptation of the last Adam in the wilderness was an assault 
upon His entire personality. Satan approached 


Jesus through "the lust of the flesh," "the lust of the eye," and "the 
pride of life," but He found no vulnerable spot in Him. The human 
spirit in Jesus was dominant over both soul and body because it in 
turn was yielded wholly to the Spirit of God. The constituent parts of 
Jesus' wondrous personality were in perfect adjustment to each other 
because the whole life was lived in right relationship to God. Hence 
when Satan came he "found nothing in Him." It was victory gained 
through submission to the dominant control of the Holy Spirit. Such a 
victory may daily be yours and mine.

     The second factor in the triumph of the God-man was His obedience 
to and use of God's Word. In Eden God's first man was defeated because 
he had listened to the devil's voice instead of to God's; he had 
believed the devil's lie instead of God's truth. In the wilderness 
God's second Man was victorious because He had listened to God's voice 
instead of to Satan's; He had believed God's Word instead of the 
devil's lie. More than that, He had used that Word as a weapon against 
the devil and with it alone repulsed the threefold attack.

     Matt. 4:4, "But he answered and said, It is written." 

     Matt. 4:7, "Jesus said unto him, It is written."

     Matt. 4:10, "Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: 
for it is written."

     "Then the devil leaveth him" for the victory was won. It was the 
victory of perfect obedience to the will of


God revealed in the Word of God. Such a victory may daily be yours and 

     The victory won in the wilderness over the tempter was both 
perfect and permanent. For both Satan and Christ it had been a 
decisive test. From that time the devil never again approached Christ 
in the same way and Christ ever treated Satan and his emissaries as a 
Victor treats the vanquished.

     But the temptation in the wilderness was humanity's test as well 
as Christ's. God was giving man another chance, a last chance. 
Therefore the victory was humanity's victory. The Lord Jesus was there 
as God's second Man qualifying to become man's Saviour and as the last 
Adam preparing to become the Head of a new race of men. "The Lamb of 
God which taketh away the sin of the world" must be without spot. 
Satan had used every avenue of approach and every method of attack to 
make Him sin and to win His allegiance but he had failed utterly. The 
Son of Man came forth from this fierce conflict unscathed, unsullied, 
unstained. At every point where the first man had failed, the second 
Man had succeeded; at every place where the first Adam met defeat, the 
last Adam won victory. The fight against sin, self and Satan had been 
completely won. His sinlessness qualified Him for Saviourhood. The 
victory in the wilderness was more than personal, it was racial; it 
was your victory and mine, if we will.

     Sinlessness, however, is a negative condition of life and God 
requires more than that. For the fullest fellowship with Himself He 
demands something positive,


even the perfection of holiness. So Christ went forth from the 
wilderness to live a perfect life--perfect in its words, walk, ways 
and work. Perfection marked everything in His character and conduct. 
He Himself testified both negatively and positively to the perfection 
of His life when He said "The prince of this world cometh, and hath 
nothing in me" (John 14:30) and "The Father hath not left me alone; 
for I do always those things that please him" (John 8:29). He was not 
only the sinless One but the perfect One.

     The perfection of His life was the perfection of obedience, of 
unwavering, unvarying submission to His Father's will. When He emptied 
Himself of His equality with the Father and yielded the place of 
sovereignty for one of subserviency He surrendered completely His 
right to speak, to act, to will independently of His Father.

     John 12:49, 50, "For I have not spoken of myselj; but the Father 
which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I 
should speak. And I know that his commandment is life everlasting: 
whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I 

     John 5:19, "Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he 
seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth 
the Son likewise."

     Matt. 26:39, "And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, 
and prayed, saying, my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass 
from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt."


     His obedience was the obedience of the God-man: of the 
divine-human Mediator, of God's second representative Man. It was 
therefore not due to any divine attributes of the Son of God but was 
an obedience the Son of Man learned through sufferings and sorrow, 
through trial and tribulation as He trod the pathway of all humanity.

     Heb. 5:8, 9, "Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by 
the things which he suffered; And being made perfect, he became the 
author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him."

     Heb. 2:10, "For it became him, for whom are all things, and by 
whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the 
captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings."

     It was an obedience that did not end simply in the perfection of 
moral beauty and spiritual grace in daily life but one which led Him 
to drink the cup of suffering to its very dregs. It constrained Him, 
even compelled Him to be obedient unto death, even the death of the 
Cross, because this was the Father's will. He measured up to the full 
stature of the perfection of holiness in God the Father through His 
perfect obedience as the incarnate Son.

     In the person of the God-man the broken unity between God and man 
has been reestablished. For what purpose? For none other than that of 
restoring in man the image of God, disfigured and marred by sin. In 
the holiness of the perfect Man sinful humanity has not only a 
revelation of what God meant man to be


but also a pledge of what man may become. God was in Christ 
reconciling the world unto Himself that He might lift man out of what 
he is into what God is.

     Rom. 5:10, "For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to 
God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be 
saved by his life."

     God proposes the inauguration of a new order of beings who are to 
be as heavenly and holy, as pure and perfect as He is; a race of 
redeemed men who shall be "conformed to the image of his Son." 
Undiscouraged by sin's tragic work God purposes to carry out His 
original intention that man shall be like Himself. The new union God 
made with humanity in the incarnation is His pledge of the fulfilment 
of such a purpose. He stooped to an actual identification with human 
nature and by that stoop He lifted human nature into an actual 
identification with the divine nature. Reconciliation--The Plenary 
Purpose in the Incarnation.

     The revelation of God in Christ to man and the redemption by God 
in Christ of man were undoubtedly the preliminary and the primary 
purpose in the incarnation. But they do not exhaust the exceeding 
riches of God's grace in salvation nor complete His purpose in sending 
His only begotten Son into the world.

     Sin despoiled both the human race and the natural universe. Sin 
produced chaos in the place of cosmos. Both heaven and earth suffered 
through sin.

     Christ the Son is the Alpha and He is the Omega. He is


the goal of all things in God's universe as He is the beginning. 
Christ Jesus is the firstborn of all creation; by Him all things 
consist and in Him shall all things be gathered together. God's 
eternal purpose in Christ His Son will be consummated in the 
reconciliation of all things in heaven and in earth unto Himself.

     Col. 1:20, "And, having made peace through the blood of his 
cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, 
whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven."

     Eph. 1:10, "That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he 
might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in 
heaven, and which are on earth; even in him."

     Incarnation then is the first span in the bridge of salvation, 
the first great movement toward the restoration of man to God and 
toward the reconciliation of all things in God's universe. It is no 
wonder the angels of heaven sang on that first Christmas morning. The 
birth of the Lord Jesus was the beginning of the fulfilment of the 
prophecy-promise of Gen. 3:15. It was the first step in the overthrow 
of God's arch-enemy; the first victory in the age-long conflict; the 
beginning of the end of sin. It was to the angels as to us, "the 
central point from which all events were to be hereafter measured. To 
Heaven as to earth it was to be the reckoning point of all time, and 
more, for b.c. and a.d. are to be the extensions of eternity."--(The 
Greater Life and Work of Christ, A. Patterson, page 13) (Diagram V. 




     INCARNATION brought God to man but it could not bring man to God. 
The first span in the bridge of salvation demands a second. In the 
incarnation God had not yet dealt with the sin question. He could go 
no further through the revelation of His own sinless, perfect life 
than to show men what they ought to be. Sin, the insuperable barrier 
between God and man, remained, and Satan, the arch-enemy of God, the 
tempter and deceiver of men, still held the human race in his control. 
Men did not even know how sinful they were; their darkened minds had 
no conception of God's real attitude toward sin, nor did they 
apprehend the awful certainty of its inexorable consequences.

     The life and teaching of Christ Jesus had stirred the heart of a 
very few to desire something better and to seek Him as the Giver but 
the majority of those who saw and heard Him were indifferent to Him, 
and not a few even hated Him. Had He only lived His pure, holy life 
and died a natural death He would have been enshrined in the memory of 
but few of the choice, rare souls who appreciated His worth.

     That something more than the life even of the holy


Lord Jesus was needed to save men's souls is patent, something that 
would deal adequately with sin and all its consequences, something 
with power in it to defeat and to destroy the devil, something with 
the germinating seed of a holy, heavenly life. The world is full of 
leaders and reformers. Its fundamental need is a God-sent Saviour, One 
who can deal with sin in such a way as to bring satisfaction to God 
and salvation to man.

          Death the Goal of Incarnation

     The incarnation was not an end but a means to an end. In itself 
it had no redemptive value but it paved the way for His death which 
alone has redemptive value. It could never make an end of sin but it 
did give to the world a Saviour. Our Lord Himself and every New 
Testament writer set forth the death of Christ as the goal of the 
incarnation. He was born not merely a Man but a Saviour. He came not 
alone to live but to save, and to save He must die.

     Matt, 1:21, "And she shall bring forth a son and thou shalt call 
his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins."

     Luke 2:11, "For unto you is born this day in the city of David, a 
Saviour, which is Christ the Lord."

     The eternal Son became the incarnate Son that He might lay down 
His life as the crucified Son. He became the Son of Man that He might 
die for the race of men.

     Matt. 20:28, "Even as the Son of Man came not to be


ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for 

     He took a body in incarnation that He might lay it down in 
crucifixion. He entered into a body supernaturally prepared for Him, 
which no sin had tainted and upon which death had no claim that He 
might offer it as a voluntary sacrifice unto God, that through death 
He might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil. 
"The body was prepared not so much for the birth as for the bruising" 
(Gen. 3:15).

     Heb. 10:5, "Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, 
Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou 
prepared me."

     Heb. 10:10, "By the which will we are sanctified through the 
offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all."

     Heb. 2:14, "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh 
and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that 
through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that 
is, the devil."

     Christ Jesus not only came into the world to die but He knew that 
He came for that purpose. From the very beginning of His public 
ministry the Son of Man had a brooding anticipation of "an hour" that 
was to come--an hour which in some eventful way would be the 
culmination of His ministry. "The sense of something tragic in His 
destiny was present in the mind of Jesus."

     Let us trace His anticipation of this hour through John's Gospel.


     John 2:4, "Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with 
thee? mine hour is not yet come."

     This word was spoken on a joyous occasion at the beginning of His 
public ministry when He was popular, when the people were receiving 
and following Him.

     John 7:6, "My time is not yet come: but your time is alway 

     A large multitude of those who had been fed with the loaves and 
fishes had followed Him as He went from Capernaum across the sea. He 
used the occasion to give the wonderful discourse recorded in John six 
where He claims to be the Bread of Life sent by the Father to give His 
life for the life of the world. Life out of death was possible for all 
but only actual in the life of the one who "ate his flesh and drank 
his blood." The message of the Cross was foreshadowed in these words. 
It was a hard saying even for His own disciples and many of them went 
back and walked no more with Him. The claim of Messiahship and 
Saviourhood angered the Jews beyond measure and instilled such bitter 
hatred into their hearts that they sought to kill Him. But Jesus was 
unperturbed, simply saying, "My time is not yet come." He knew full 
well the time would come when their hate would expend itself on Him in 
cruel malignity.

     Three times in John seven this expression is used. The Jews' 
feast of tabernacles was at hand and the


Lord Jesus was conscious of the plot on the part of the Jews to kill 
Him, so He says to the disciples:

     John 7:8, "Go up to the feast: I go not up yet unto this feast; 
for my time is not yet full come."

     How significant are those words "full come." The shadow of the 
Cross had already fallen over His life. From that time on He would 
walk in its ever deepening darkness.

     At this feast the Lord Jesus was brought into open conflict with 
the Jews over the question of the authoritative origin of His 
doctrine. Again He made claims for Himself which so incensed them that 
we read:

     John 7:30, "Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands 
on him, because his hour was not yet come."

     The same thing was repeated as the Lord Jesus taught in the 
temple (John 8:20). Jesus grew in popularity with the people. He makes 
even more daring claims to Deity and Messiahship and proved the truth 
of His words by the wonder of His works. The man born blind is given 
sight. Lazarus is raised from the dead. The religious leaders of the 
day are compelled to acknowledge the uniqueness of His power and they 
fear its influence upon the people. They frankly confess that "the 
world is gone after him" and openly declare that the thing must be 
stopped immediately. The hour draws nearer.

     Just at this time when the Jews are most fiercely censuring and 
opposing Him a very significant thing happens. A 


deputation of Greeks, Gentiles, came to worship Him. Everything 
converges to show Christ that "the hour" He has so long anticipated is 
now near at hand. So when Andrew and Philip bring the message of the 
Greeks to Him, with majestic calmness and kingly control He replies, 
"The hour is come."

     Up to this time He has not explained what He means by the oft 
repeated words "my hour." Several times He has foretold His death and 
resurrection but the disciples did not grasp His meaning. On this 
occasion, however, He speaks more explicitly.

     John 12:23, 24, "And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is 
come, that the Son of man should be glorified. Verily, verily, I say 
unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it 
abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit."

     John 12:27, 31-33, "Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I 
say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto 
this hour. ... Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince 
of this world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, 
will draw all men unto me. This he said, signifying what death he 
should die."

     The interval now was very short. Not a single event of that last 
week takes the Lord Jesus by surprise. He knows that His hour has 
come. In His last conversation and prayer with His disciples He 
anticipates His exodus from this world and His return to His Father in 


     John 16:28, "I came forth from the Father, and am come into the 
world: again, I leave the world, and go to the Father."

     John 17:1, "These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to 
heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy 
Son may also glorify thee."

     When the Lord had spoken these words He went forth with His 
disciples unto a place called Gethsemane. There His soul began to be 
very sorrowful and oppressed, so much so that He left the 
companionship of the disciples and went alone with His Father to pray. 
Falling upon His face He cried:

     Matt. 26:39, "O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass 
from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt."

     Returning unto His disciples and finding them asleep, He, still 
overborne with sorrow, went away a second time and prayed:

     Matt. 26:42, "O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, 
except I drink it, thy will be done."

     Again He came to the disciples and found them sleeping and again 
He left them to pray. Then He returned to them for the last time and 

     Matt. 26:45, "Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour 
is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of 

     Never in the history of man was such anguish of


spirit and agony of soul endured as that of the Son of Man as He went 
to Calvary by way of the garden of Gethsemane. Heaven mercifully 
veiled the Sufferer from the gaze of men and left us only the thrice
repeated pleadings of His prayer to indicate the nature and the depth 
of the suffering.

     Two utterances in His prayer take us to the very heart of His 
anguish. "Let this cup pass from me" and, "Behold the hour is at 
hand." Surely the two bear some intimate relationship to each other. 
But what is the dreaded "cup" that must be drunk? What is the 
inevitable "hour" so long anticipated and now at hand? Did He not 
interpret the meaning of this oft used expression when He said "The 
Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners"? From this and the 
events that follow in quick succession "the hour" could be none other 
than the hour of His death.

     But why should He dread that or shrink from its approach? But an 
hour or two before He had said "Now I go my way to him that sent me." 
Would not death be to Him an hour of glorious release from a life 
environed by sin, suffering and sorrow? Would it not be the hour of 
reinvestment with all His kingly majesty and glory? Above all would it 
not be a return to the blessedness of immediate, intimate fellowship 
with His Father? Had He died a death such as other men die then it 
would indeed have been just such a glorious release. Had death for Him 
been merely the culminating event in a life of unsullied perfection 
then it would have been such a gracious coronation. Some


adequate explanation must be found for His dread of the approach of 
that "hour" that meant the drinking of a bitter "cup."

     But another question must surely press in upon one who has beheld 
the Son as He is mirrored in the pages of the four Gospels and who has 
entered into a study of His matchless, pure life with any degree of 
spiritual appreciation and apprehension. The question is "Why need 
Jesus Christ die?" Scripture is very clear in its statement of what 
death is and who dies.

     Rom. 6:23, "For the wages of sin is death."

     Rom. 5:12, "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, 
and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men."

     Ezek. 18:20, "The soul that sinneth, it shall die."

     Death is the consequence of sin: it is the sinner who dies. And 
Jesus Christ died! The irresistible logic of these facts places before 
one two alternatives. Either Jesus was a sinner as all other men are 
and His death like theirs was the wages of His own sin, or else He 
died a death different from the death of all other men and for a 
reason entirely outside of His own life.

     Was Jesus Christ a sinner? Did death come to Him as the penalty 
of His own sin? Even His bitterest enemies in the time in which He 
lived and in all succeeding ages have never accused Him of sin. He 
said once to a group who were opposing and denying Him, "Which of you 
convinceth me of sin?" But not one word


of accusation did they bring against Him. Even Pilate said he could 
find no fault in Him. God testified to the absolute sinlessness and 
holiness of His life even before His birth in saying through the angel 
to Mary, "that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called 
the Son of God." After living in a world where He was continuously 
environed by sin and defilement God again testified through those who 
knew His character and conduct under all circumstances that He "did no 
sin" (1 Pet. 2:22); "In him is no sin" (1 John 3:5); He "knew no sin" 
(2 Cor. 5:21). In His character, conversation and conduct He was the 
holy One of God "without blemish and without spot." If then death is 
the wages of sin, it had no claim upon Jesus Christ.

     Why then did Jesus Christ die? How foolish and futile to look 
anywhere else for the answer to such a question but to God's divine 
revelation. There an absolutely sufficient and altogether satisfying 
answer is given.

     1 Cor. 15:3, "For I delivered unto you first of all that which I 
also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the 

     Isa. 53:6, "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every 
one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us 

     Isa. 53:4, 5, "Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our 
sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and 
afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised 
for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and 
with his stripes we are healed."


     1 Pet. 2:24, "Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on 
the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: 
by whose stripes ye were healed."

     In every one of these passages "death" and "sin" are shown to 
have an inextricable relationship to each other but it is invariably 
the death of Christ and the sin of men.

     Words could not make it clearer that Jesus Christ died not 
because of anything in Himself but because of something in us; that it 
was not the wages of His sin but of ours that He paid on the Cross. It 
was our sin He put away; our sins that He bore; our iniquities which 
were laid upon Him. Death had no claim on Him; then the death He died 
was for the sake of others and to accomplish something for them which 
they were unable to accomplish for themselves. The death of Christ was 
obviously for the purpose of taking up the sin question and dealing 
with it in such a way as to bring salvation to man.

     But would it also deal with it in such a way as to bring 
satisfaction to God? God has an unalterable, irrevocable attitude 
toward sin which is most clearly revealed in His judgment upon it. 
"The wages of sin is death." Death is the expression of God's 
implacable condemnation of sin. "Death is the man's liability in 
relation to sin." Did the death of Christ deal with this divine 
judgment upon sin in a way that was satisfactory to God? God says it 

     2 Cor. 5:14, 15, R.V., "For the love of Christ constraineth


us, because we thus judge, that one died for all therefore all died;
And he died for all that they that live should no longer live unto 
themselves, but unto him, who for their sakes died and rose again."

     The sinner's twofold relationship to God, the divine Judge and 
God, the gracious Saviour, may be stated as follows:

     "The wages of sin is death,"
     "All have sinned," 
     "So death passed upon all men."


     "One died for all," 
     "Therefore all died."

     Death is the racial doom. In Adam all die because in Adam all 
sinned. Death is God's judgment upon sin and it rests equally upon all 
men. From the execution of this divine judgment there is no escape 
because it is the decree of a holy God and is therefore unalterable. 
Sin and death are inextricably interwoven: the sinner must die.

     But the holy God is also a loving God. While He cannot change His 
attitude toward sin and His judgment upon it without denying His own 
nature yet His love with perfect consistency can make some escape for 
the sinner providing whatever He does maintains unity in His own 
divine being. This necessitates meeting in full the requirement of His 
holy law.

     What, then, would that requirement be? That an adequate 
Substitute able to meet the full penalty of the


law should voluntarily offer to take the sinner's place and die the 
sinner's death.

     But where could such an adequate substitute be found? Only "a 
lamb without spot and blemish" could be accepted as an offering for 
sin. Only an absolutely sinless one could be the sinner's Substitute. 
It would require one who himself had fulfilled every demand of God's 
holy law to pay the sinner's penalty for a broken law. There was but 
one who had ever lived such a life on earth and He was the incarnate 
Son of God.

     Would He voluntarily offer Himself as the sinner's Substitute and 
thereby assume all responsibility for the removal of the penalty, the 
power and the presence of sin in man knowing as He did that the 
penalty of sin was death, that the power of sin meant anguish of 
suffering consummating in crucifixion, and that the presence of sin 
involved even separation from God? Would He who never knew sin 
willingly be made sin on the sinner's behalf knowing full well that 
all the wrath of a holy God against sin would be spent on Him? (A very 
helpful treatment of this to which I am indebted is found in Atonement 
and Law, Armour.)

     Yes, He would do it. For the very purpose of becoming the 
sinner's Substitute the eternal Son had become the incarnate Son. But 
have we not discovered in this truth the secret of His dread of that 
"hour," His shrinking from the "cup"? It was not death He dreaded but 
the death of the Cross which was "the wages of sin." What else could 


the thrice repeated pleading to the Father to remove "the cup" mean 
but that, in the death He was about to die as the sinner's Substitute, 
all the sin of the whole race of sinners with all its stain and stench 
would be upon Him? It is no wonder that the soul of the sinless Son of 
God cried out in an agony of suffering at the thought!

     But the weight and wickedness of the world's sin was not all the 
"cup." Sin separates from God. God cannot stay in the presence of sin 
even when that sin is upon His own beloved Son. The Son of Man in the 
garden faces this awful consequence of Saviourhood. Could He assume 
this consequence of sin for the sinner's sake? Could He, who through 
all eternity in glory had rested in the intimate fellowship of the 
Father's bosom and who in His life on earth had enjoyed the vivid 
consciousness of His Father's abiding presence, consent to the 
inevitable even though momentary separation from His Father which the 
presence of the world's sin on Him would cause? Death is separation 
from God and separation from God is hell (2 Thess. 1:7-9).

     This, then, is "the cup" He could not drink were there any other 
possible way for the Father's will in man's salvation to be 
accomplished. This is "the cup" that caused the agony of soul in 
Gethsemane--an agony so terrible that His sweat was as it were great 
drops of blood falling to the ground; an agony so awful it took Him 
back three times to the Father to cry out for release; an agony so 
intense that an heaven-sent angel appeared to strengthen Him. This is 
"the cup" that caused the intolerable anguish of


spirit, which wrung from the sufferer upon Calvary that heart-breaking 
cry, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" Could He drink that 
"cup"? Yes, even that if it were the Father's will and there were no 
other way in which sin could be dealt with to God's satisfaction and 
man's salvation. He who had been obedient to the will of His Father 
every moment of His earthly life would be "obedient unto death, even 
the death of the Cross."

     There evidently was no other way for "while He yet spake, lo, 
Judas one of the twelve came and with him a great multitude with sword 
and staves." In quick succession follow the betrayal, arrest and trial 
of the Lord Jesus and then--the crucifixion of the Lord of glory.

     The "hour" had come. The event foretold and foreshadowed for 
centuries had taken place; "the most stupendous event in the history 
of man, the only event in the history of God." The noon hour not only 
of time but of eternity had come; indeed it was the pivotal hour in 
the life both of heaven and of earth. "The Son of God has died by the 
hands of men. This astounding fact is the moral center of all things. 
A bygone eternity knew no other future; an eternity to come shall know 
no other past. That death was this world's crisis."--(The Gospel and 
Its Ministry, Sir Robert Anderson, page 12)

     The death of Jesus Christ is the pivotal fact in Christianity. It 
is its very heart-beat; its life's blood. Without it Christianity 
would not be. His worth lay not in the life He lived but in the death 


He died. His death was not so much the culmination of the victorious, 
obedient, holy life as its coronation. His incarnation was but paving 
the way for death; His death was the goal of incarnation.

     It is not merely the fact that Christ died that is vital but that 
He died the death of the Cross. The prophecy of Gen. 3:15 foretold a 
bruising and it was in the bruising of the heel of the woman's seed 
that the promise of the sinner's salvation was to be found. The Old 
Testament sacrifices made for the sake of sins year by year required 
the blood of goats and calves. These sacrifices and this 
blood-shedding were the foreshadowing of the one perfect sacrifice of 
the Son of God as He poured out His life's blood on Calvary for the 
salvation of sinners. While the prophets of old did tell us something 
of the circumstances that would attend the birth of Jesus Christ yet 
the burden of their message was of One who would be "wounded," 
"bruised," "scourged," "oppressed," "afflicted." By the mouth of all 
the prophets God foretold that Christ should suffer. Over and over 
again the Lord Jesus told the disciples that He "must go to Jerusalem 
and suffer many things of the elders and the chief priests and the 
scribes and be killed and be raised again." On the way to Emmaus as He 
walked and talked with the two disciples who were recounting to Him 
the tragedy of His crucifixion He said unto them:

     Luke 24:26, "Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and 
to enter into his glory?"

     The theme of the entire Bible is the Lamb slain from


the foundation of the world. "Cut the Bible anywhere and it bleeds; it 
is red with redemption truth." A suffering, crucified Christ was the 
Christ preached by the Apostles and to them His sufferings were a 
vital factor in the sinner's salvation because of their expiatory 
nature. Paul testifying before King Agrippa preached a suffering 

     Acts 26:22, 23, "Having therefore obtained help of God, I 
continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying 
none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say 
should come: That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the 
first that should rise from the dead."

     Peter told us that it was through the victorious, atoning 
sufferings of Christ that men were brought back to God.

     1 Peter 3:18, "For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the 
just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death 
in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit."

     John taught that there was no cleansing power except in the blood 
of Christ shed on Calvary.

     1 John 1:7, "The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from 
all sin."

     Respectable sinners will flock to the church today to hear 
ministers preach on the life of Jesus; many are even not averse to 
listening to an occasional sermon of the death of Christ, providing 
that death is preached only as the


greatest example of sacrificial love, or as the culminating event in a 
life of obedience, or as an act of martyrdom in a good cause. But in 
this age there is a widespread refusal on the part of the man in the 
pew, and on the part of the man in the pulpit a conspicuous rejection 
of the Biblical, evangelical teaching regarding the death of the 
Cross. The reason for this will grow more apparent as we proceed with 
our studies. 

          The Cross of Christ--The Great Divide

     The Cross of Christ makes a clean-cut cleavage between the two 
spheres, the sphere of death, darkness and disorder, and the sphere of 
life, light and liberty, and it challenges sinners to decide in which they purpose to live. The Cross of 
Christ is the battlefield on which the conflict between Satan and God 
over the sovereignty of human lives is being waged and it compels men 
to take sides either for or against God. The Cross of Christ marks the 
boundary line between the kingdom of Satan and the Kingdom of God and 
it calls subjects in the one to come out and to become subjects in the 
other. The Cross of Christ finds men living on the plane of the 
natural and it opens a way for them to live on the plane of the 
spiritual and then appeals to them to enter the open door. The Cross 
of Christ is the Great Divide: it separates men into two classes, the 
unsaved and the saved.

     1 Cor. 1:18, "For the preaching of the cross is to them that 
perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of 
God." -


          The Cross of Christ--A Double Exposure

     The Cross of Christ is the place of exposure. There as nowhere 
else is revealed the hatred of man for God and the love of God for 
man. Sin is seen at its worst and love is seen at its best in the 
Cross. Man's sin and God's love both reach a climax on Calvary. There 
the hideousness of the one and the glory of the other are brought out 
into sharpest relief.

     Acts 2:23, "Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and 
foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have 
crucified and slain."

     The desperate, despicable wickedness of the human heart is 
uncovered at Calvary. All the rebellion, self-will and enmity of the 
natural man found vent in this one act. In the crucifixion of the Holy 
One sin came out into the open and disclosed its inwardness.

     "Him--ye have taken and by wicked hands have crucified and 
slain." Sin nailed the Saviour to a Cross and by doing so exposed to 
the world its ugly hideousness. Sinners stained their hands with the 
blood of their Saviour and thereby revealed the length and breadth, 
the height and depth of the infamy of sin.

     However, the sin of man could not outstrip the love of God. Nor 
could sin defeat God by taking Him unawares. Before that hydra-headed 
monster had raised its head in rebellion against God He had 
accomplished its defeat. "Him, being delivered by the determinate 
counsel and foreknowledge of God." In the eternal counsels of the 
Godhead the Cross of Christ was set up in love before man was made or 


the world created. In the atoning death of the well-beloved Son on the 
Cross of Calvary God was fully prepared to assume responsibility for 
sin and all its consequences. God, the Father, spelled out in capital 
letters on the Cross His unquenchable love for sinners.

     The Cross of Christ reveals not only the love of the Father but 
the love of the Son as well. In the lament over Jerusalem, in the 
parable of the father's love for the prodigal, in the tender look at 
the denying Peter, and in the pathetic question to Judas the betrayer, 
Jesus Christ showed His sorrow for sin and the outreaching of His 
loving heart to the sinner. But only in the laying down of His sinless 
life in death as the sinner's Substitute do we see the perfect 
outshining of His infinite, limitless love. With the most perfect 
apprehension of what the sin of man was on the one hand, and of what 
the mind of God toward sin was on the other and of sin's due from God, 
there went up from the depths of Christ's sinless humanity a perfect 
Amen to the righteous judgment of God against sin, and a willingness 
to bear that judgment.

     The Cross of Christ is the heart of God broken by sin. It tells 
you and me that the God who must judge and punish sin will save and 
forgive the sinner. It discovers to us the unfathomable depths of 
God's love.

     Rom. 5:8, "But God commendeth his love toward us, in that while 
we were yet sinners, Christ died for us."

     John 3:16, "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only 
begotten Son."

     Gal. 1:3, 4, "... Our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for


our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, 
according to the will of God and our Father."

     The Cross of Christ--The Place of Victory

     God has but one problem in His universe—it is sin. All other 
problems of whatever nature emanate from this one. The sweat of 
grinding toil, the suffering of broken hearts, the sorrow of the 
world's crushing maladjustments, all have their beginning in sin. God 
has but one enemy in the universe--it is Satan. All other enmities, 
whether among angels or men, have their ultimate source in him. To 
regain His rightful sovereignty over the world and in the human race 
God had a double victory to win. This twofold victory was won through 
the Saviourhood of Jesus Christ. Salvation from sin and all its 
consequences, deliverance from Satan and all his allies, were gained 
for the sinner at the Cross.

     The Old Testament classic which reveals Jesus Christ as the 
Sin-bearer is Isaiah fifty-three.

     Isa. 53:4, 6, 10, 11, 12:
  "Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows:...
  "... And the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. 
  "... when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin,...
  "... for he shall bear their iniquities. 
  "... He bare the sin of many, ..."

     The New Testament is full of the same truth.

     John 1:29, "The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and 
saith, Behold, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the 


     Heb. 9:28, "So Christ was once offered to bear the sin of many; 
and unto them which look for him shall he appear the second time 
without sin unto salvation."

     Jesus Christ faced the problem which sin had created and solved 
it by taking upon Himself the whole responsibility for it. When He 
entered into human life and as the Son of Man became the connecting 
link between God and the ruined race, He pledged Himself to become 
responsible for sin and its effects.

     Sin had brought upon man four terrible consequences for which 
Christ as Sin-bearer assumed responsibility. The first is guilt. The 
whole world is guilty before God (Rom. 3:19). The whole of man is 
defiled and depraved. That this guilt might be removed God made Christ 
sin and then treated Him as sin.

     2 Cor. 5:21, R.V., "Him who knew no sin he made to be sin on our 
behalf; that we might become the righteousness of God in him."

     The second is death. "The wages of sin is death." The sentence of 
death rested upon the whole human race. As the last Adam Jesus Christ 
assumed all responsibility for the first Adam's sin and its 
consequences. Therefore He executed the death sentence upon sinners by 
Himself dying.

     Rom. 5:6, "For when we were yet without strength, in due time 
Christ died for the ungodly."

     The third consequence of sin is the curse. Sin is lawlessness and 
the penalty for broken law is the curse. Jesus Christ 


acknowledged the justice in God's judgment upon sin and voluntarily 
offered to assume even this responsibility on the sinner's behalf.

     Gal. 3:13, "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, 
being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that 
hangeth on a tree."

     The fourth consequence of sin is the wrath of God. God hates sin. 
God's holiness demanded that He take some action against it. So God 
was compelled to decree that sin would bar sinners from His presence 
through time and eternity. Here again Jesus Christ assumed 
responsibility for the presence of sin in men and on the Cross of 
Calvary bore the full force of God's wrath against it even to the 
point of conscious separation from His Father's presence.

     Rom. 5:9, "Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we 
shall be saved from wrath through him."

     In becoming the Sin-bearer Jesus Christ fully met and solved the 
problem of sin. "In His death everything was made His that sin had 
made ours ... everything in sin except its sinfulness."--(The Death of 
Christ, James Denney)

     The Cross of Christ is God's starting point of victory over Satan 
and all his allies. God is the One who has been hurt most by sin. 
"Satan was putting the knife into God's heart through Adam's hand." So 
any effectual dealing with sin must go back to its first cause and any 
permanent victory for God must be a crushing defeat for Satan.


     The first curse pronounced after the fall was upon the serpent. 
The serpent's curse and the Saviour's Cross are inextricably 
interwoven. The prophecy containing the curse foretells a double 
bruising. "It shall bruise thy head and thou shalt bruise his heel."

     Men and women are being taught that the record of the fall in 
Genesis three is just a myth and that no scholarly person believes it 
today. This is indeed the devil's lie and he has a very good reason 
for telling it. By the death of Christ his head was bruised, his doom 
was sealed. The Cross of Christ robbed that Satanic usurper of every 
vestige of rightful claim to the world and of all dominion over any 
man or woman who fully trusts in the atoning blood of the Saviour and 
who yields to the Lordship of Jesus. Christ's cry of victory from 
Calvary's Cross "It is finished" was Satan's death knell. The victory 
over the devil commenced in the wilderness, continued in Gethsemane, 
culminated on Calvary. The hour of Christ's death was the hour of 
Satan's defeat.

     John 12:31, "Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the 
prince of this world be cast out."

     The death of the Cross deprived him of his power and rendered him 

     Heb. 2:14, R.V., "Since then the children are sharers in flesh 
and blood, he also in like manner partook of the same; that through 
death he might bring to nought him that had the power of death, that 
is, the devil."

     The death of Jesus Christ meant an open and decisive 


victory for God over all the principalities and powers in rebellion 
against Him. It severs the believer from the powers of darkness.

     Col. 2:14, 15, "Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that 
was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, 
nailing it to his cross; And having spoiled principalities and powers, 
he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it."

     The devil has two active, aggressive allies in his diabolical 
work of keeping sinners living in self-will and rebellion toward God. 
They are the "world" and the "flesh." For the defeat of both of these 
God has made ample provision in the Cross of Christ.

     Gal. 6:14, "But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and 
I unto the world."

     Gal. 5:24, "And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh 
with the affections and lusts."

     In the Cross of Christ the sinner who truly desires it may find 
complete deliverance from the evil one and all his entanglements. 
Satan's reign over him may end there if he seeks release through the 

          The Cross of Christ--A Divinely Provided Meeting Place

     Sin made every man unrighteous in God's sight, (Rom. 3:10-12) and 
by so doing it created an impassable chasm between a righteous God and 
an unrighteous sinner. It did more than that, it totally disqualified 
man for doing anything to bridge this chasm


thus placing upon God the whole responsibility of making a way of 
access into His presence and of providing a meeting place between 
Himself and the sinner.

     But how could a righteous God be just and the justifier of 
sinners? (Rom. 3:26). How could God maintain His holiness in His 
dealing with sin and at the same time manifest His graciousness in 
mercy toward the sinner? How could God provide such a meeting place 
and not deny Himself through compromise?

     Before God was a law which was holy and right. It was the 
expression of His own character; the essence of His own nature. To 
ignore or condone man's rebellion and disobedience as evidenced in 
that law broken would be to deny Himself. God could not do that; He 
must be true to Himself so He must treat sin as sin and deal with it 
as such. It must be condemned and its merited punishment meted out. 
"Even God cannot change the character of righteousness by altering, or 
lessening to the slightest degree, its holy demands. What is done for 
the satisfaction of His love in saving any one whom His righteousness 
condemns must be done in full view of all that His righteousness could 
ever require."--(Salvation, L.S. Chafer, page 27)

     Before God was not only a broken law but a broken relationship, a 
broken bond of love which had united Him to the human race. Before 
Him, too, was the desperate need of those whom He loved with an 
everlasting love, the undone condition of those who were precious in 
His sight. Before Him was His own broken 


heart made desolate by the prodigal's departure into the far country.

     Viewing the sinner in his relationship to God his fundamental 
need is a way of access and acceptance with God despite his guilt. 
Viewing God in His relationship to the sinner His fundamental 
necessity is a way of granting favour and fellowship to the sinner 
despite His holiness. A meeting place between a righteous God and an 
unrighteous sinner is the demand made upon the righteousness of God. 
But it is equal to even this necessity for in His death upon Calvary's 
Cross Jesus Christ became the propitiation for the sins of the world.

     1 John 2:2, R.V., "And he is the propitiation for our sins; and 
not for ours only, but also for the whole world."

     Rom. 3:25, 26, R.V., "Whom God set forth to be a propitiation 
through faith in his blood, to show his righteousness because of the 
passing over of the sins done aforetime, in the forbearance of God; 
for the showing, I say, of his righteousness at this present season: 
that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him that hath 
faith in Jesus."

     To the spiritually minded Christian who has a realization of the 
awful chasm sin had made between him and his God the truth that 
centers around the word "propitiation" is inexpressibly precious. But 
to the natural man living still in pride, rebellion and 
self-satisfaction, it is insufferably offensive.

     "Propitiation" means a mercy seat or covering, a divinely 
provided meeting place. In Old Testament


times on the Day of Atonement the great high priest took the blood of 
the sacrificial lamb into the Holy of Holies and with it sprinkled the 
mercy seat. Within the ark under the cover of the blood was the broken 
law. The blood-sprinkled mercy seat provided a meeting place between 
God and the sinner where the guilty one could come to God without remembrance of his past offences and without 
fear of judgment and where the Holy One could receive the sinner 
without compromise and yet without condemnation. "A holy God could 
righteously meet a sinful man and a sinful man could fearlessly meet a 
holy God."

     God set forth His well-beloved Son to be such a propitiation for 
all the guilty sinners in all the world. Through the shedding of the 
precious blood of the Lamb of God on the Cross of Calvary such a 
covering for sin and for broken law was provided. In His death Jesus 
Christ honours God's holy law by bearing in full the punishment meted 
out to the sinner for breaking it. Thus in the crucified Lord the 
sinner has found a meeting place with God and a way of access into His 
favour and fellowship.

          The Cross of Christ--A Divinely-prepared Turning Point

     A double barrier separates God and the sinner. Sin has caused man 
to be offended toward God as truly as it has caused God to be offended 
toward man. The Cross of Christ shall have failed to deal adequately 
with sin if it only removes the cause of offence in its Godward aspect 
and does not equally remove it in its manward aspect.


     And this is exactly what the Cross of Christ does. "We love him 
because he first loved us" (1 John 4:19). "By grace are ye saved 
through faith." The grace of God built the bridge of salvation before 
ever a single sinner made a start toward crossing it. Grace took God 
into the garden in the cool of the day to seek the first two sinners 
and to offer them the gracious promise of salvation through a Saviour 
even before He dealt righteously with their sin in pronouncing upon 
them the judgment of the curse. Even in the prophecy-promise given in 
Eden God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself. God took 
the initiative in effecting reconciliation by giving His Son to die.

     Rom. 5:10, "For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to 
God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled we shall be 
saved by his life."

     Col. 1:21, 22, "And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies 
in your mind by wicked works yet now hath he reconciled IN THE BODY OF 
HIS FLESH THROUGH DEATH, to present you holy and unblameable and 
unreprovable in his sight."

     2 Cor. 5:18, "And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us 
to himself by Jesus Christ."

     The Son of God endured the suffering and the shame of the Cross 
that thereby He might tell a world of sinners who have turned their 
backs on God that God loves them with an everlasting love. When the 
sinner sees the Saviour suffering, the just for the unjust, when he 
sees Christ crucified by his sin, dying his death, enduring his 
punishment, then his heart is melted, his


rebellion is removed, his whole attitude toward God is changed from 
enmity to love, from estrangement to fellowship, from indifference to 
devotion, from fear to faith, from shame to peace.

     In Christ crucified God has provided such propitiation and 
reconciliation as has made possible the removal of the barrier of 
separation between God and man, and has opened a merciful yet 
righteous way of access and acceptance; thus giving to every man who 
will avail himself of God's grace the opportunity for full restoration 
to God's favour and fellowship. 

          The Cross of Christ--The End of the Old Creation 
               and the Beginning of the New

     Through propitiation and reconciliation accomplished in the death 
of Christ adequate provision has been made for a change of 
relationship between the sinner and God which effects a radical change 
in the sinner's position before God. But is there provision for a 
change in his condition also? The natural man is a slave, "sold under 
sin" (Rom. 7:14).

     Where sin abounded grace did much more abound. God's boundless 
grace was undaunted by the sinner's helpless, hopeless condition. 
God's right to proprietorship through creation still remained but it 
had been lost to Him through man's surrender of himself to the 
sovereignty of another. But God would Himself go down unto the 
slave-market of sin and buy back that which was His own. He would then 
take the sinner out of the sphere of Satan, out of the slave-market of 
sin, and set him free in the glorious liberty of a new life in Christ.


     Such redemption demanded a ransom. It required a life for a life. 
"The life is in the blood." To redeem the race from the bondage of sin 
involved the paying of a price which was nothing less than the 
precious blood of the spotless Lamb of God. To buy back His own for a 
possession God paid the costly price of His own blood.

     Acts 20:28, "Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the 
flock over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed 
the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood."

     1 Pet. 1:18, 19, "Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed 
with corruptible things as silver and gold, from your vain 
conversation received by tradition from your fathers; But with the 
precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without 

     Rev. 5:9, "And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to 
take the book, and to open the seals thereof; for thou wast slain, and 
hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and 
tongue, and people, and nation."

     But God did not go into the slave-market of sin only to buy the 
captive sinner but also to bring him out from that old sphere of 
bondage and set him free in a new sphere of liberty. Not alone would 
He lead him out of Egypt but He would bring him into Canaan. Christ 
Jesus would become not only the sinner's Saviour but He would be the 
believer's Lord and Life. In the Cross of Christ God rejected the old 
order of fallen, sinful humanity "sold under sin" through


the first Adam's disobedience that He might raise up a new order of 
holy, heavenly beings redeemed from sin through the last Adam's 

     The death of Christ upon the Cross not only redeems but it 
re-creates; it not only provides complete emancipation from the old 
life but abundant entrance into the new.

     Ex. 13:3, "And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in 
which ye came out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by 
strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place."

     Ex. 13:11, "And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into 
the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, 
and shall give it thee ..."

     Tit. 2:14, "Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from 
all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of 
good works."

          The Cross of Christ--The Place of Decision 
               that Determines Destiny

     "The Cross of Christ has measured out the moral distance between 
God and man and has left them as far asunder as the throne of heaven 
and the gates of hell."--(The Gospel and its Ministry, Sir Robert 
Anderson, page 25.) Scripture bears ample testimony to the solemn 
truthfulness of these words.

     But praise God it is equally true that the Cross of Christ has 
measured out the length and breadth and height and depth of the love 
of God in the gift of a Redeemer who closed the gates of hell and 
opened the gates of Heaven for all who will believe.


     As sin through Adam had been universal so salvation through 
Christ must be made potential to all. Where sin abounded grace did 
much more abound and opened a way back to God for every sinner. The 
bridge of salvation provided a way out of the old sphere into the new 
for all who will acknowledge themselves sinners needing a Saviour.

     Tit. 2:11, "For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath 
appeared to all men."

     1 Tim. 2:5, 6, "One mediator between God and men, the man Christ 
Jesus; who gave himself a ransom for all."

     Isa. 53:6, "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned 
every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity 
of us all."

     Heb. 2:9, "But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the 
angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that 
he by the grace of God should taste death for every man."

     In tenderest compassion God broods over every sinner and bleeds 
for his sin. His great yearning heart of love reaches to the uttermost 
corner of His universe and seeks to draw each heart unto Himself 
through His Son.

     1 Tim. 2:3, 4, R.V., "This is good and acceptable in the sight of 
God our Saviour; who would have all men to be saved, and come to the 
knowledge of the truth."

     1 Tim. 4:10, "For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, 
because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, 
specially of those that believe."


     2 Pet. 3:9, R.V., "The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, 
as some count slackness; but is longsuffering to you-ward, not wishing 
that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance."

     That all men might have an adequate opportunity to know God's way 
of salvation He commanded the disciples to carry the Gospel to the 
ends of the earth preaching it to every creature.

     Acts 1:8, "But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost 
is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, 
and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the 

     Mark 16:15, "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and 
preach the gospel to every creature."

     God commands every sinner who hears the Gospel to repent and turn 
to Him.

     Acts 17:30, "And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but 
now commandeth all men everywhere to repent."

     God invites all sinners to come to Him and promises eternal life 
to all who truly believe and receive His Son.

     John 6:37, "All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and 
him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out."

     John 3:16, "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only 
begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but 
have everlasting life."


     Countless sinners throughout the ages have refused the grace of 
God manifested in His salvation and have rejected Christ, the Saviour, 
but the death of Christ on the Cross of Calvary opened a way back to 
God for all men everywhere. "No man is lost for want of an atonement, 
or because there is any other barrier in the way of his salvation than 
his own most free and wicked will."

     Dear reader, on which side of the Cross of Christ are you living? 
Your relationship to the crucified Christ will determine your 
destiny. (Diagram VI. omitted)




     HAVING granted that incarnation and crucifixion are necessary 
spans in the bridge of salvation, one is driven to the acceptance of 
resurrection as the third span or all that has been gained through the 
other two will be lost.

     The intimate relationship between these three fundamental truths, 
their unbreakable connection in fact, is brought out very wonderfully 
in Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost recorded in Acts 2:22-36. 
The resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ is shown to be the essential 
vindication of His incarnation and crucifixion. Without the 
resurrection the other two spans in the bridge of salvation would be 
futile; through the resurrection every claim God had made regarding 
the person and work of His Son both had been vindicated and realized.

     Let us get the setting of these words. A tremendous event had 
taken place. It was a post-resurrection event. The risen, ascended, 
exalted Christ had poured forth the Holy Spirit who had filled every 
believer and had caused each one to speak in another tongue the 
wonderful works of God so that people from every nation under Heaven 
gathered in Jerusalem at that time had heard them speak in their own 


language. The multitude were confounded and amazed and asked for an 

     This the Apostle Peter gave in a sermon the theme of which was 
the resurrection of Christ. He deals with it both in retrospect and in 
its relationships. The outpouring of the Holy Spirit which they had 
seen and heard had been promised, but it was conditioned upon the 
realization of God's eternal purpose which He had purposed in Christ, 
His Son (Eph. 3:11) and upon the fulfilment of His divine plan. 
According to that purpose and plan it was the risen, exalted Christ 
who was to shed forth the Holy Spirit.

     Acts 2:32, 33, "This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are 
witnesses, Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and 
having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath 
shed forth this, which ye now see and hear."

     The outpouring of the Holy Spirit was an accomplished fact 
attested to not only by the little company of believers but by devout 
Jews from every nation. The shedding forth of the Holy Spirit was 
proof that Christ had risen from the dead. Now that we have the 
setting of the words under consideration let us study their 

          The Resurrection--An Essential Vindication

     Acts 2:22, "Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of 
Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and 
signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also 


     In these words the Apostle Peter records God's satisfaction in 
the person and work of the incarnate Son. He had sent His Son into the 
world to live such a life as none other had ever lived and to do such 
a work as none other had ever done. He had lived the life and done the 
work and had received the Father's unqualified approval.

     Let us get clearly before us in review what the task was to which 
the Father had set His Son. In the equality of Deity Father and Son 
had worked together to create a universe and the race which was to 
inhabit it. Into this perfect creation sin had entered first through a 
celestial being and then through a human being. Death, darkness and 
disorder followed in the trail of sin and threw everything in God's 
world out of harmony with Him. God Himself was even dethroned both in 
His world and in the hearts of men.

     As Father and Son had worked together in the creation of the race 
so would they work together for its regeneration. God in Christ would 
reconcile the world unto Himself. As sin had entered the world through 
God's first man, salvation would enter through God's second Man.

     To this end the eternal Son would become the incarnate Son. The 
second Man would start exactly where the first man started, with a 
perfect life, a human nature, a direct fellowship with God through the 
Holy Spirit, the right to will and the power to will Godward, but He 
would start in a world where everything would work to drag Him down 
into defeat and destruction. In such a world He must live a life such


as none other had ever lived--a life of unspotted holiness, unceasing 
victory and unwavering obedience. It must be a life literally "without 
spot or wrinkle, or any such thing," unsullied by either the slightest 
desire to sin born from within or by the yielding to any temptation to 
sin brought from without. It must be a life from center to 
circumference lived wholly within the will of God.

     Through such a holy Man God would establish a new union with the 
human race and through such a sinless Mediator God would open a way of 
reconciliation and redemption to rebellious sinners.

     The Apostle Peter in the sermon at Pentecost witnessed to the 
fact that the incarnate Son had lived such a life on earth. Three 
times God had even opened heaven and spoken to all who would hear the 
words of divine satisfaction in the perfection of His Son. But the 
world did not reckon to it such worth or give to it such honour. Many 
had rejected Him; some had even dared call Him an imposter and a 
blasphemer. A further public witness and open vindication of the 
Father's satisfaction in the perfection of the Son was essential. This 
God gave in the resurrection. 

          The Resurrection--A Consummated Victory.

     Acts 2:23, "Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and 
foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have 
crucified and slain."

     In undertaking the reconciliation and redemption of the world God 
obligated Himself to deal fully and


finally with sin and all its consequences. Every man was a sinner and 
the sinner's greatest need is a Saviour.

     In the incarnation God provided a potential Saviour in the Holy 
One who was always everywhere Victor. But to make this potential 
Saviourhood effectual for man's salvation it must be actualized. 
Christ's personal victory must become a racial victory if it avails 
for the sinner. But the only way in which the benefit of Christ's 
victory over sin could be bestowed upon the sinner was by having the 
guilt, penalty and judgment of sin borne by the Saviour. If the sinner 
were to take Christ's place of holiness, victory and obedience Christ 
must take the sinner's place of sin, death and judgment. If any sinner 
were ever saved Christ must take upon Himself the sin of all sinners 
and bear its full responsibility. To pay the wages of sin the Author 
of life died. In the deep and unfathomable mystery of the Cross His 
Spirit was separated from God and went into Hades, and from His body 
which went into the grave (Acts 2:27).

     The eternal Son becoming the incarnate Son had given the world a 
perfect Man; the incarnate Son becoming the crucified Son had given to 
the human race a perfect Saviour. He had been victorious in the 
wilderness temptation, in the Gethsemane struggle and finally in the 
Calvary conflict. But now what? He lies buried in a tomb and a stone 
seals His grave. Has He been conquered at last? Was His victory but a 
seeming victory? Has the world had bequeathed to it nothing but the 
example of a sinless, perfect life it is impossible to follow and the 
memory of a well meaning but futile


sacrifice for sin? Will the Author, Preserver and Upholder of all life 
Himself succumb to death, and will the palm of victory after all 
belong to him "who has the power of death, that is the devil"? Such 
will surely be the case if the God-man remains in the grave.

     But this is unthinkable. Christ had said that He would not only 
lay down His life but that He would take it again (John 10:17-18). And 
He did rise from the dead. Death could never hold Him who had said, "I 
am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in me, though he 
were dead, yet shall he live" (John 11:25).

     "Death could not keep his prey--
     Jesus, my Saviour, 
     He tore the bars away--
     Jesus, my Lord!
     Up from the grave He arose,
     With a mighty triumph o'er His foes;
     He arose a Victor from the dark domain,
     And He lives forever with His saints to reign.
     He arose! He arose! Hallelujah, Christ arose! "

     The victory over death was complete.

     1 Cor. 15:55-57, "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is 
thy victory? The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the 
law. But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ."

     The victory of the resurrection gathered up into its embrace all 
the other victories in His life and death and gave to them meaning and 


power. The victories of incarnation and crucifixion were merged into 
the victory; perfect, powerful, permanent victory over the triumvirate 
of hell: sin, death and Satan. 

     The Resurrection--The Divine Seal

     Acts 2:24, "Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of 
death; because it was not possible that he should be holden of it."

     Upon the life of the perfect Man and the work of the perfect 
Redeemer, God, the Father set His divine seal of approval and 
appraisal by raising the God-man from the dead. Christ Jesus had cried 
from the Cross, "It is finished," and it was the cry not of a victim 
of Satan, but of a Victor over Satan; not of one vanquished by death, 
but the cry of the Vanquisher of death. In that cry of victory Christ 
showed that He anticipated His resurrection; He expected the Father to 
raise Him from the dead. Had He a right to expect His Father so to 
act? Most assuredly.

     To His perfection of life as God's second Man the Father had set 
His seal of approval both at His baptism and at His transfiguration by 
opening the heavens and saying, "This is my beloved Son in whom I am 
well pleased." Would the Father remain silent now? Would there be no 
witness to the Father's satisfaction in the all-sufficiency of the 
Son's sacrifice of Himself upon Calvary's Cross to save men? To 
Christ's death on the Cross as the perfect Saviour God would set His 
seal by opening the tomb and raising His Son from the dead, thus 
expressing in language more eloquent than words His satisfaction with 


the Saviour's redemptive work and its sufficiency for the sinner's 
salvation. "Upon all the virtue of His life and the value of His death 
and the victory of His conflict, God set the seal in the sight of 
heaven and earth and hell, when raising Him from the dead."--(The 
Crises of the Christ, G. Campbell Morgan, page 364) "The resurrection 
is the Father's 'Amen' to the Son's exclamation 'It is finished.'" 

          The Resurrection--A Sure Pledge

     The body that had been specially prepared for Him in incarnation 
(Heb. 10:5), that had been laid down in death upon the Cross (Heb. 
10:10) was now raised and came forth from the tomb.

     Matt. 28:5, 6, "And the angel answered and said unto the women, 
Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is 
not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the 
Lord lay."

     John 20:27, "Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, 
and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it in into 
my side; and be not faithless, but believing."

     In resurrection as in incarnation He was still the God-man. He 
arose from the grave on that first Easter morning with the body which 
He had taken in incarnation, which had been nailed to the Cross in 
death, which had been placed in Joseph's tomb, which had been 
preserved from corruption and which after three days had been raised 
from the dead. In that body He appeared to the disciples proving to 


them His identity by the nail prints in His hands and feet and the 
spear print in His side. In that body He ascended to Heaven and sits 
today at the right hand of the Father receiving the worship of 
countless multitudes out of every kindred, and tongue, and people and 
nation who are redeemed to God by the blood of the Lamb slain on 
Calvary. In that glorified yet scarred body He will live through the 
ages of the ages, the visible reminder to redeemed sinners "of the 
exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ 

     While the body of the risen God-man was the same body yet it was 
a changed body. From the truth revealed in Phil. 3:20, 21 and 1 Cor. 
15:42-50 it is clear that the body Christ Jesus had in resurrection 
was a glorified, incorruptible, mighty, spiritual, heavenly body. The 
limitations of His earthly life were those of His human nature; the 
limitations incident to the humiliation to which He had voluntarily 
submitted. But in the resurrection He threw off all these fetters of 
the flesh. "His birth marked the voluntary self-limitation of His 
Godhood in His descent into our race in His incarnation. His 
resurrection marked His ascent out of these limitations and His return 
to His former glory. It was the passageway through which He went to 
the resumption of the unlimited powers of His Godhood."--(The Person 
and Work of Jesus Christ, A.E. Wood, page 56)

     The resurrection of Jesus Christ is the sure pledge of the 
resurrection of the believer. When comforting Martha about her brother 
Lazarus who had been dead four days Jesus said, "I am the resurrection 


and the life; he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall 
he live." Just as truly as Christ's prophecy concerning His own 
resurrection was literally fulfilled will this promise to Martha 
concerning the resurrection of every believer also be fulfilled. The 
resurrection of Him who is the Head of the body makes the resurrection 
of every member of the body not only certain but essential.

     1 Cor. 15:20-24, "But now is Christ risen from the dead, and 
become the first fruits of them that slept. For since by man came 
death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam 
all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in 
his own order: Christ the first fruits; afterward they that are 
Christ's at his coming."

     And as He rose with a glorified, incorruptible, mighty, 
spiritual, heavenly body, so shall we. "As we have borne the image of 
the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly" (1 Cor. 

     Phil. 3:20, 21, R.V., "For our citizenship is in heaven; whence 
also we wait for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: •who shall fashion 
anew the body of our humiliation, that it may be conformed to the body 
of his glory, according to the working whereby he is able even to 
subject all things unto himself."

          The Resurrection--A New Beginning

     Col. 1:18, "And he is the head of the body, the church: who is 
the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he 
might have the preeminence."


     Through the last Adam God has provided another way of union with 
the human race and in Him He has made a new beginning. Through the 
perfection of His incarnate manhood, God's second Man has qualified to 
become the Head of a new creation, through the victory of His 
crucifixion He has put an end to the old creation, and now through the 
power of His resurrection a new order of beings is formed of which He 
is appointed the executive Head. As firstborn from the dead He becomes 
the Progenitor of a new race of redeemed men, the Head of a new 
company of people whose life on earth is to be transformed daily into 
His image from glory to glory and who are ultimately to share the 
perfection of His glorification.

     Through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, as twin 
events, certain definite issues in the conflict between God and Satan 
were met and eternally settled. The victory over Satan was fully and 
finally won which robbed him of the last vestige of claim to 
sovereignty over the earth or the race. He is henceforth a usurper and 
a thief. Jesus Christ gained back all that had been lost and now the 
earth and all that is therein is His not only by right of creation but 
by right of conquest.

     To the believer in Jesus Christ it means that the sovereignty of 
Satan over his life is ended and the sovereignty of God begins; that 
he leaves the sphere of sin, death, darkness and disorder, and enters 
the sphere of righteousness, life, light and liberty; that he ceases 
to be a subject in the kingdom of Satan and becomes a subject in the 
Kingdom of God; that he severs his


alliance with Satan's system, the world, and avows his allegiance as a 
member of Christ's body the Church, to Christ Himself who is its Head. 
It means, in other words, that the old creation with all that pertains 
to it ends at the Cross and is buried in the tomb and that a new 
creation comes forth in the resurrection. It means that the old 
relationship with sin, self and Satan is altogether annulled and a new 
union with God in Christ Jesus is made, and that in this new 
relationship Christ becomes not only the believer's Saviour but his 
Lord and his Life.

     Through His death on the Cross Christ Jesus willed to every man 
who will take it perfect salvation from the pollution, penalty and 
power of sin; perfect victory over death, both spiritual and physical; 
perfect release from the bondage of Satan. Through the resurrection 
from the dead He is appointed by the Father to be Executor of this 
will; to be the Mediator of the New Covenant; to be the Dispenser of 
all the blessings and benefactions which were given through grace to 
all those who have become sons and heirs of God through faith in Him. 
The resurrection of Christ Jesus is the third span in the bridge of 
salvation. (Diagram VI. omitted)



          Ascension and Exaltation

     THERE remains but one double span to complete God's wondrous 
bridge of salvation. The God-man, crucified, buried and risen, must go 
back to His Father in glory and be exalted to the place of honour and 
power at His right hand. Only then would His work be completed. At the 
resurrection Christ Jesus was constituted the last Adam and became the 
Progenitor of a new order of beings but not until His ascension and 
exaltation could He actually be inducted into His work as Head of the 
Church. He must first enter into Heaven to present the blood of 
Calvary's Sacrifice to His Father and then be enthroned by God as "the 
King of kings and the Lord of lords." 

          The Home-coming of the Son

     In His glorified body the God-man left the earth and passing 
through the heavens entered into Heaven itself.

     Acts 1:10, 11, "And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as 
he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; Which also 
said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same 


Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like 
manner as ye have seen him go into heaven."

     Heb. 9:24, "For Christ is not entered into the holy places made 
with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, 
now to appear in the presence of God for us."

     Oh! What a Home-coming that must have been! Thirty-three years 
before the well-beloved Son, who through all eternity had been in the 
bosom of the Father, had left His home in glory to be born in the womb 
of a virgin. Earth had never held such an One as He and the world not 
knowing the worth of the precious gift received Him not. But, having 
glorified His Father on earth and having finished the work which He 
gave Him to do, the Son now goes Home. He is marred and scarred by His 
treatment on earth. Hands and feet and brow all tell the story of the 
crucifixion on Calvary's tree. The precious body of flesh and bones 
(Luke 24:39) is a silent witness to the blood shed on the cruel Cross. 
Surely Heaven had never homed such an One as He. But Heaven knew the 
worth of the treasure it held on that wonderful ascension day and the 
angelic host, the number of whom was ten thousand times ten thousand, 
and thousands of thousands, praised Him with a loud voice and heaven 
reverberated with the anthem of welcome that greeted the triumphant 
Redeemer as He entered its portals.

     Ps. 24:7-10, "Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lifted 
up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in.


Who is this King of glory? The LORD strong and mighty, the LORD mighty 
in battle. Lift up your heads, O ye gates; even lift them up, ye 
everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this 
King of glory? The LORD of hosts, he is the King of glory."

          The Exaltation of the Son

     The Father awaited the return to glory of His well-beloved Son 
that He might bestow upon Him the place of highest honour; that He 
might exalt Him to the place of greatest power; that He might give Him 
a name which is above every name; that He might crown Him Lord of all.

     Eph. 1:20-22, "Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him 
from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly 
places, Far above all principality, and power, and might, and 
dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but 
also in that which is to come: And hath put all things under his feet, 
and gave him to be the head over all things to the church."

     Phil. 2:9-11, "Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and 
given him a name which is above every name: That at the name of Jesus 
every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and 
things under the earth; And that every tongue should confess that 
Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father."

     The exaltation of Jesus Christ meant His enthronement. The 
eternal Son who once voluntarily had emptied and humbled Himself was 


now exalted to the throne of God and all power in Heaven and upon 
earth was granted unto Him. The crucified Saviour is now the 
preeminent Lord.

     Matt. 28:18, "And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All 
power is given unto me in heaven and in earth."

     Acts 2:36, "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, 
that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord 
and Christ."

          The Present Work of the Living Christ

     There are three tenses in salvation, past, present and future. 
Three statements may be made regarding the sinner which are apparently 
contradictory, yet absolutely true; the believer has been saved, the 
believer is being saved, the believer will be saved. There is a 
salvation that is to be appropriated in a moment of time by the 
sinner, that day by day is to be actualized in the believer's life, 
that some future day will be fully accomplished. The work which the 
God-man began on the Cross for the sinner He continues on the throne 
for the saint.

     The Divine-human Mediator. There is but one way of approach to 
God whether for sinner or for saint and that is by way of Christ 
Jesus, the divine-human Mediator. The sinner has no way of access to 
God for salvation except through Christ.

     John 14:6, "Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and 
the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me."


     The saint has no way of approach to God for sanctification except 
through Christ.

     Heb. 7:25, "Wherefore he is able also to save them to the 
uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make 
intercession for them."

     Whether we wish to be delivered out of the bondage of sin, or 
whether we desire to enter into the fulness of our glorious liberty as 
sons and heirs of God, we must do it through Christ. Through the 
mediation of Christ Jesus we obtain life; through the same mediation 
we obtain life more abundant. Our eternal inheritance is in Him. All 
blessings promised under the new covenant are hid away in the God-man. 
The glorified Lord is the depository of all the spiritual treasures 
kept for God's people. He holds them in trust to be bestowed by Him as 
Mediator when claimed by faith. The representative Man who was on the 
Cross as the sinner's Substitute is on the throne as his Surety.

     Heb. 9:15, R.V., "And for this cause he is the mediator of a new 
covenant, that a death having taken place for the redemption of the 
transgressions that were under the first covenant, they that have been 
called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance."

     The Great High Priest. Just before Jesus gave up the ghost He 
cried "It is finished." What was finished? The completion of His work 
as the Sacrifice for man's sin. He Himself was that Sacrifice.


     Heb. 9:26, "For then must he often have suffered since the 
foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he 
appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself."

     But in olden times the sacrifice made for sins had to be 
ministered by a priest. On the great day of atonement the great high 
priest alone went into the Holy of Holies to offer the sacrifice for 
the sins of the people. The sacrifice would have been of no avail had 
it not been offered by a God-appointed, God-anointed, priest. Christ 
is the Lamb of God offered as a Sacrifice to put away sin for us. But 
have we a Great High Priest who can act as minister of the sanctuary 
and make the Sacrifice for sin avail for our forgiveness, cleansing 
and renewal? Praise God we have just such a Great High Priest.

     Heb. 8:1, "Now of the things which we have spoken this is the 
sum: we have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the 
throne of the Majesty in the heavens."

     Heb. 10:12, "But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for 
sins for ever sat down on the right hand of God."

     Heb. 4:14, "Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is 
passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our 

     The Man who was the Sacrifice also offered the sacrifice.

     "It is finished"--"He sat down."

     The priest-in olden times always stood; he never


sat because his work was never finished, "for it is not possible that 
the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins" (Heb. 10:4). So in 
those sacrifices there was a remembrance year by year of sins (Heb. 
10:3). But when "this man had offered one sacrifice for sins forever," 
then "He sat down." A perfect Sacrifice for sin had been made; the 
Saviour's work was done.

     Heb. 7:26, 27, "For such an high priest became us, who is holy, 
harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the 
heavens; Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up 
sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this 
he did once, when he offered up himself."

     But in order that the precious blood of the Lamb might avail for 
the forgiveness, cleansing and renewal of the believer a 
God-appointed, God-anointed high priest is needed. Such a Great High 
Priest Jesus Christ became. In virtue of His perfect life on earth, in 
virtue of His perfect sacrifice upon the Cross, in virtue of His 
finished work for man's redemption, the God-man sits at the right hand 
of God as our Great High Priest. He is there as our Forerunner having 
made a blood-sprinkled path from earth to Heaven--even into the Holy 
of Holies--for sinful men (Heb. 6:20; 10:19). He is there as our 
Representative before God, "a merciful and a faithful high priest in 
things pertaining to God." While down here on earth He was tempted in 
all points like as we are so He is a High Priest who is touched with 
the feeling of our infirmities


(Heb. 4:14, 15). He knows our trials, afflictions, disappointments, 
difficulties, sufferings and sorrows, for He has met and passed 
through them on earth. Therefore He is able now to succour them that 
are tempted (Heb. 2:18).

     The Sympathetic Advocate. God cannot condone sin nor company with 
it whether that sin is in the sinner or in the saint. Sin always, 
everywhere, separates from God. When the believer sins, his fellowship 
with God is broken, but he cannot restore himself any more than the 
sinner could save himself. As the sinner needed a Saviour to open a 
way to God through redemption so the saint needs an Advocate to keep 
that way open through restoration.

     Such an Advocate must be one who sympathetically understands the 
awful power of sin and himself has felt its tremendous pressure upon 
spirit, soul and body, and yet one who has been uncompromising in his 
refusal to yield to it in thought, word or deed.

     Such an Advocate must be one who is able to have access moment by 
moment to God and one who has a remedy to offer God for the things he 
attempts to make right.

     Such a righteous and effectual Advocate the believer has in 
Christ Jesus. Such an efficacious remedy for cleansing and restoration 
Christ has in His shed blood.

     1 John 2:1, "My little children, these things write I unto you, 
that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous."


     1 John 1:6, 7, "If we say that we have fellowship with him, and 
walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth: But if we walk in the 
light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and 
the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin."

     As the sinner is cleansed once for all from the guilt of sin 
through the precious blood of Christ, so the saint in the same way is 
cleansed daily from the defilement of sin.

     The Faithful Intercessor. God was not satisfied with delivering 
the sinner from the old sphere of death, darkness and disorder but He 
wished him to claim and use to the full his possessions and privileges 
in the new sphere of life, light and liberty. He is not content merely 
to have a man saved but He purposes to have him saved to the 
uttermost. God is able not only to lift the sinner from the lowest 
depths of life on the plane of the natural but also to exalt the saint 
to the highest heights of life on the plane of the spiritual. For this 
He has made ample provision in the faithful intercession of the 
exalted Lord.

     Rom. 8:34, "Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, 
yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, 
who also maketh intercession for us."

     Heb. 7:25, "Wherefore he is able also to save them to the 
uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make 
intercession for them."

     The intercession of the exalted Son is the capstone of His 
finished work. What He made potential through


His crucifixion on the Cross He makes actual through His intercession 
on the throne. "The intercession of the exalted Christ for the saint 
is the projection into experience of the saving act of the crucified 
Saviour for the sinner. It is by His work from heaven that we 
appreciate His work upon earth."

     In His last prayer with the disciples on earth, recorded for us 
in John seventeen, He unveils the nature and the content of His High 
Priestly intercession for all believers. He prays for their safety and 
their sanctification; He anticipates the oneness of life which He as 
Head will have with them, as members, of His body; and prays for His 
perpetual presence in them that it may mean the perfection of His life 
in theirs. "Christ ever liveth to make intercession for us," praying 
that God's eternal purpose which He wrought out in the incarnation, 
crucifixion, resurrection, ascension and exaltation of His Son may be 
perfectly realized in the life of the believer in his complete 
deliverance from bondage and in his full acceptance of Christ.

     In the ascension and exaltation of Jesus Christ God completes the 
fourth span in the bridge of salvation.



     THERE remains yet one thing to be done to perfect God's gracious plan of salvation. A connecting link between the Saviour in Heaven and the sinner on earth is needed. The finished work of Christ by some means must be made applicable to and operative in the souls of men. A way must be provided whereby the life of the crucified Saviour, now enthroned as Lord in Heaven, may be communicated to, and maintained in, the believer on earth. Two Wondrous Gifts.
Upon the sinner God has bestowed a wondrous gift, that of His Son as Saviour; upon the believer God has bestowed a second wondrous gift, that of His Spirit as Sanctifier.

     Gal. 4:4-6, "But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent 
forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them 
that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.
And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son 
into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a 
servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ."


     God sent forth His Son that the sinner might enter the family of 
God as a child. God sent forth His Spirit that the child might enter 
into the fulness of his inheritance as an heir. God gave His Son to 
make salvation possible for us; God gave the Spirit to make salvation 
real in us. God gave His Son that we might have life; God gave the 
Spirit that we might have life abiding and abounding. 

          God's Crowning Work

     Without the Holy Spirit's work all that was accomplished through 
Christ's death, resurrection and exaltation would be of no avail. One 
cannot study thoughtfully the Lord's last conversation with His 
disciples on earth recorded in John 13-16 without seeing that He 
teaches most clearly that the sending of the Holy Spirit from the 
Father upon His return to glory was to be the crowning work in His 
salvation of men. Let us turn then to these chapters for a study of 
this truth.

     There were many things that He longed to say to His disciples 
that last night but they were unable to bear them (John 16:12). A few 
things, however, He must make clear. One was the kind of life He 
expected them to live. It was to be both an abiding and an abounding 
life. His life was to be to their life what that of the vine is to the 
branch. In Him dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily and that 
fulness was to be made theirs until they were "filled with all the 
fulness of God" (Col. 2:9-10; Eph. 3:19).

     As He talked along about this wonderful abiding and abounding 
life, He said, "But because I have said


these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart" (John 16:6). No 
doubt He was watching their faces and saw a confused, troubled look as 
He spoke of going away from them and yet of expecting them to live any 
such life as this. He had told them that it was to be a life 
characterized by peace, joy, power, fruitfulness, friendship and love, 
yet it was to be interwoven with suffering, tribulation, persecution, 
even possible death by violence. How could they ever hope to live such 
a life if He went from them when in those three years in which they 
had enjoyed the blessing and helpfulness of His personal presence 
there had been so much of envy, criticism, discouragement, cowardice, 
fear, and unbelief in their lives? His quick sympathy understood what 
they feared to express and He hastened to comfort them by saying: "I 
will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you."

     What a strange thing to say--to tell them in the same breath that 
He was going away from them and yet coming to them. But He explains 
further: "Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye 
see me." He was to be with them and seen of them but in a way unknown 
and invisible to others. It must be, then, in a spiritual rather than 
in a physical presence. Still they were perplexed and could see no 
real benefit in His leaving them. Then He said, "Nevertheless I tell 
you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not 
away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will 
send him unto you." But what would be gained by the going of Jesus 
Christ and the sending of some one else in His


place? Had it not been very wonderful to have the Lord with them on 
earth, talking and praying with them, teaching and leading them, 
letting them work with Him, showing them by the life He lived and the 
work He did how they ought to live and work? Yes, it had been very 
wonderful but not altogether successful. While there had been much of 
joy in fellowship with Him yet there had been also much of 
discouragement. He said so much the meaning of which they could not 
grasp and even what they did understand they so often failed to obey. 
He had been much with them but they had not grown like Him in the 
three years. What gain then could it be to have Him go away so that 
even His bodily presence was denied them? He does not leave them 
without answering every questioning of their sad, perplexed hearts.

     John 14:16, 17, "And I will pray the Father, and he shall give 
you another Comforter, that he may abide with you forever: even the 
Spirit of truth ... for He dwelleth with you, and SHALL BE IN YOU."

     Oh! here is something entirely new: wholly different from any of 
God's dealings with men before. God the Spirit had been with men and 
He had come upon men but never had He been in men as a perpetual 
presence. Now it would seem that through Jesus Christ's going back to 
the Father by way of the cross and the tomb and the clouds an entirely 
different relationship was to be established between God and men, a 
relationship more close and intimate than anything man had experienced 
through all the centuries. "We will come


unto him and make our abode with him" (John 14:23). God, the 
righteous, holy One, was to live in men in actual presence. How could 
such a thing be? The Lord Jesus tells us.

     John 14:20, "At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, 
and ye in me and I in you."

     John 17:21, "As thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they 
also may be one in us."

     How would the Son who was leaving to go back to the Father in 
Heaven and to live at His right hand be able to live also in Peter, 
and in James, and in John on earth? "O, the depth of the riches both 
of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his 
judgments, and his ways past finding out!" Here indeed is the crowning 
work of the Lord Jesus.

     John 16:7, "Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient 
for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not 
come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you."

     John 16:13, 14, "Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, 
he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself: 
but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he shall shew 
you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, 
and shall shew it unto you."

     John 15:26, "He shall testify of me."

     Jesus taught clearly in these words that the chief mission of the 
Holy Spirit in being sent forth from the


Father to dwell in the believer was that He might make the presence of 
the risen, glorified, living Lord an actual spiritual reality. He also 
taught them that the Holy Spirit was to be both the sole and the 
sufficient messenger of spiritual truth and the medium of spiritual 
revelation. In other words all that they would ever know of, or 
receive from, their risen Lord was to be communicated by and through 
the Holy Spirit. Without Him there would be no means for the presence 
and power of the risen Christ to be manifested in their lives, and no 
way for them to realize in their spiritual experience the blessing and 
benefit gained for them by Jesus Christ through His death and 
resurrection. The Holy Spirit was to be the middleman between Heaven 
and earth. The salvation that had come from the Father through the Son 
would be applied by the Spirit. By the power invested in the Holy 
Spirit the believer would be lifted to the plane of the spiritual man 
and his life maintained there. 

          The Promise of Christ Fulfilled

     Christ had promised that, if He went away, the Holy Spirit would 
come and His promise was fulfilled literally. He died and rose again. 
He met the disciples individually and collectively several times, 
revealing Himself to them as their risen Lord. He gave them a last 
commission; then He repeated His promise and commanded them to wait 
for its fulfillment.

     Luke 24:49, "And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon 
you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with 
power from on high."


     Acts 1:4-5, "And, being assembled together with them, commanded 
them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the 
promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall 
be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence."

     Jesus Christ then ascended into Heaven (Acts 1:10-11). They 
waited according to His command (Acts 1:12-14). God's time was 
fulfilled. The day of Pentecost came (Acts 2:1-4). The promise of the 
Father was actualized in the descent of the Holy Spirit in baptism 
upon the waiting group of believers. 

          The Twofold Aspect of the Holy Spirit's Baptism

     The descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples had a double 
import: it accomplished two definite, distinct things.

     First, the Holy Spirit came upon each believer filling him with 
Himself. Through this baptism the exalted Christ took up His abode in 
the individual believer where He was enthroned as Lord and 
appropriated as Life. Through the baptism in the Holy Spirit the 
abundant life of the living Lord was manifested in power in each 

     Acts 2:4, "And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost."

     Second, the Holy Spirit came upon the whole group of believers 
and baptized them into one body, the Church. Through this baptism they 
were united to Christ, its Head, and to one another as fellow-members 
of the body of Christ. Through the Holy Spirit's


descent on the day of Pentecost the exalted Christ was installed as 
Lord over, and instilled as Life into, the Church.

     1 Cor. 12:12-14, "For as the body is one, and hath many members, 
and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so 
also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, 
whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have 
been all made to drink into one Spirit. For the body is not one 
member, but many."

          The Result of the Holy Spirit's Baptism

     Through His death, resurrection and exaltation, the Lord Jesus 
not only removed the penalty of sin but He broke its power. Through 
union with Him by faith He had made potential for the believer on 
earth the same life of victory, power and holiness, which He lived in 
Heaven. This life was to be communicated to and maintained in each 
believer through the incoming, indwelling and infilling of the Holy 

     On the day of Pentecost Peter, James, John and all the other 
believers who tarried in the upper room were baptized with the Holy 
Spirit. The question is bound to rise in our hearts, "Did that baptism 
make any difference in their lives? If so, what difference?" Even a 
casual comparison of the record of the life of the disciples before 
and after Pentecost will convince any one that a marvellous change had 
been wrought. These men had been in almost daily companionship with 
Jesus during the years of His public ministry. They had been taught 
deep truths by Him, they had shared 


His wonderful prayer life. They had lived under the spell of that 
matchless personality day by day. He had been both their Teacher and 
their Example for three years.

     But witness the failure, defeat, and sin of their lives as it is 
laid open to our gaze in the Gospels! See the jealousy, ambition, 
selfishness, pride, self-seeking, self-assertion, self-love, weakness, 
and fruitlessness. In spite of their fellowship with the Holy One who 
tried in all possible ways to help them they remained very largely 
what they were before they followed Him.

     And why was this true? Because He was only living with them, one 
without, working upon them by His word and personal influence. But 
what a change was wrought when on the day of Pentecost, through the 
baptism in the Holy Spirit, Christ came down into those men to take 
the perfect possession, the complete control, and the unhindered use 
of their whole being. Self was dethroned and Christ was enthroned as 
Lord. Christ became the Life of their life.

     A fourfold fruitage was manifested in their lives immediately. 
They became men of purity. "God, which knoweth the hearts, giving them 
the Holy Spirit, purified their hearts by faith." A mighty inward 
change first was wrought. The Spirit of God is a holy Spirit and He 
can only dwell in a holy place. So His primary work is always the 
cleansing of the innermost recesses of the life. "Be ye holy for I am 
holy" is God's mandate to the saved soul. When the disciples were 
baptized with the Holy Spirit He first purified them, displacing pride 
with humility; selfishness with love; 


cowardice with courage; carnal with spiritual; worldly with heavenly; 
human with divine; temporal with eternal.

     They became men of power. "Ye shall receive power after that the 
Holy Ghost is come upon you." This promise abundantly was fulfilled in 
them. Inward purity begat outward power. The book of the Acts is one 
unbroken record of the mighty power of God the Holy Spirit coursing 
through purified channels. "Rivers of living water" flowed through 
those first apostles and believers into Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, and 
even to the uttermost parts of the earth.

     They became men of passion. One and all they gave themselves to 
the winning of souls. Their own hearts, all aglow with fervent 
gratitude and adoring praise to Him who loved them enough to give 
Himself for them, were kindled into a flame of passionate desire to 
bring others into the joy and peace and security of a personal, saving 
relationship to the Lord Jesus Christ. They became men of one 
passion--"This one thing I do" animated their lives.

   "Oh! for a passionate passion for souls!
     Oh! for a pity that yearns! 
   Oh! for a love that loves unto death!
     Oh! for a fire that burns! 
   Oh! for a prayer power that prevails!
     That pours itself out for the lost; 
   Victorious prayer in the Conqueror's name,
     Oh! for a Pentecost!

     They became men of prayer. Communion with God through prayer, and 
cooperation with  God through intercession 


in making the finished work of Christ operative in other men's lives, 
became their chief delight and constant occupation. The book of the 
Acts is one continuous record of answered prayer. All their wonderful 
works were begun, continued, and ended in prevailing prayer.

     The repeated impression made upon the student of the book of the 
Acts is that through the baptism in the Holy Spirit at Pentecost those 
first believers were changed from carnal into spiritual Christians and 
that from that time on they purposed to live their lives on the 
highest plane. What life on the highest plane was to them is defined 
aptly and adequately in a description used repeatedly in connection 
with them, "They were filled with the Holy Spirit."

     Through our studies thus far we have seen that in the finished 
work of Jesus Christ, the eternal, incarnate, crucified, risen, 
ascended, exalted Son crowned by the sending forth of the Holy Spirit, 
God has made all-sufficient provision for lifting any and every person 
from the deepest depths of life on the natural plane to the highest 
heights of life on the spiritual plane. (Diagram VII. omitted)



Chapter I:
  He That is Spiritual: L.S. Chafer
  The Three Realms of Spiritual Life: Mrs. Tydeman Chilvers

Chapter II:
  God's Plan of Redemption: Mrs. Mary McDonough
  The Spirit of Christ: Andrew Murray
  Soul and Spirit: Mrs. Penn-Lewis
  The Bible and Spiritual Life: A.T. Pierson

Chapter III:
  Earth's Earliest Ages: G. H. Pember
  Man's First Disobedience: L.S. Keyser 
  Gleanings in Genesis: Arthur Pink
  The Biblical Story of Creation: Giorgio Bartoli

Chapter IV:
  Studies in Romans: Leon Tucker
  Romans: W.R. Newell

Chapter V:
  Satan: L.S. Chafer
  Satan, His Kingdom and Its Overthrow: W.E. Blackstone 
  The Warfare with Satan and the Way of Victory: Mrs. Penn-Lewis 
  Satan and His Gospel: Arthur Pink

Chapter VI
  Can Morality Save Us? I.M. Haldeman 
  Christianity and Liberalism: Gresham Machen
  What is the Gospel? C.G. Trumbull


Chapter VII:
  The Divine Reason of the Cross: H.C. Mabie
  Atonement and Law: J.M. Armour
  The Bible and the Cross: G. Campbell Morgan

Chapter VIII:
  The Incarnate Son of God: Henri De Vries
  Many Infallible Proofs: A.T. Pierson

Chapter IX:
  The Person and Work of Jesus Christ: N.E. Wood
  The Christian View of God and the World: James Orr
  The Real Christ: R.A. Torrey
  The Crises of the Christ: G. Campbell Morgan
  The Christ of the Bible: R.A. Torrey

Chapter X:
  The Gospel and Its Ministry: Sir Robert Anderson
  The Death of Christ: James Denney
  The Greatest  Theme in the World: F.E. Marsh
  The Meaning of the Cross: Eleanor Boyd
  The Meaning of the Cross: Gordon Watt
  The Glories of the Cross: A.C. Dixon

Chapter XI:
  Outlines of Christian Doctrine: H.C.G. Moule
  The Work of Christ: A.C. Gaebelein

Chapter XII: The Greater Life and Work of Christ: A. Patterson


Chapter XIII:
  The Ministry of the Spirit: A.J. Gordon
  Person and Mission of the Holy Spirit: Geo. Soltau
  The Holy Spirit: Who He is and What He Does: R.A. Torrey

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