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This small commentary on the Gospel of Luke by A.C. Gaebelein will provide insight for your study of God's Word. Enjoy!

Arno Clement Gaebelein

Copyright 1919: In the Public Domain

                            The Gospel of Luke


     The Gospel of Luke is the third of the so-called Synoptics.  The
word synoptic means "seeing the whole together or at a glance."
Matthew, Mark, and Luke are called the synoptic Gospels, because
they present a common narrative, relate the same incidents of our
Lord, with much the same words, though characteristic differences,
omissions, and additions are equally apparent.  Various theories
have been advanced to explain the similarity and differences, so
often called discrepancies, of these three Gospels.  One is the theory
that originally there existed a primitive Gospel, which has been
lost.  Out of this primitive Gospel, it is claimed, the three Gospels
were constructed.  Another theory is that they grew out of one
another; that one wrote first and the others followed to add to it
and omit what they thought best to omit. It is beyond the scope
of our Bible study work to take up these attempted explanations
of how the Gospels came into existence.  Nor can we follow in
detail the intensely interesting historical evidences, which so
wonderfully demonstrate their authenticity.  However, we desire to
say that the last word in the controversy of the Gospels and their
genuineness has been spoken.  The attacks upon the historicity of the
narrative, the denials which have been made, have been silenced,
though infidelity cannot completely be silenced, at least not in the
present age.

     The well-known scholar, Dr. Schaff, made the statement, "The
essential identity, of the Christ of the Synoptics is now universally
conceded." This is true.  But the differences, the divergences in
numerous things of the story the Synoptic Gospels reveal, how
are they to be explained? There can be but one answer.  The
three persons who have written were chosen by the Spirit of God
to write the narrative in exactly the way in which they did.  The
characteristic differences of their work is not man-made, but God-
breathed.  They 'wrote independently of each other.  They did
not try to improve upon a record already in existence.  The Holy
Spirit guided the pen of each, so that we possess in these three
Gospels the testimony of the Holy Spirit concerning the Lord
Jesus in a threefold aspect.  The proof of this will soon be found
in the careful and prayerful study of the Gospels.  The truth is
not discovered by learning and research in linguistic or historical
lines, but by earnest searching in the Word itself.  The three
Gospels make the humanity of the Lord Jesus prominent, but not
to the exclusion of His Deity.  The full revelation of His Deity
is given in the fourth Gospel, the Gospel of John, but not excluding
His true humanity.  The Transfiguration is given by each of the
Synoptics, but it is not found in the fourth Gospel.  There is no
room for it in the Gospel of John.  Of the characteristic features
of the Gospel of John and the contrast with the Synoptics, we have
more to say in our introduction to that Gospel.

     We have already seen that Matthew describes the Lord Jesus
as the King and Mark pictures Him as the obedient servant, who
came not to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give His
life a ransom for many.  The Gospel of Luke is the Gospel of His
Manhood; we behold Him in this Gospel as the Son of Man.  It
has often been pointed out that the early church possessed these
fundamental facts concerning the synoptic Gospels and the Gospel
of John and that knowledge may be traced in an outward form
through centuries.  It was Irenaeus who, as far as we know, called
first the attention to the fourfold appearances of the Cherubim
and the four Gospels.  He declared that the four faces of the
Cherubim are images of the activity of the Son of God.  The
Cherubim had the faces of the lion, the ox, the man, and the eagle.  
The application to the four Gospels of the four faces of the Cherubim 
has been maintained for many centuries as the true application.  
Ancient manuscripts, illuminated missals, etc., bear witness
to it.  The Lion, the kingly animal, represents Matthew's Gospel.
Mark, the Gospel of the Servant, is represented by the Ox, the bur-
den-bearing animal.  In Luke we see the Face of a Man and the
Eagle, sweeping the heavens, coming from above and returning
there, represents Him, who came from the Father and has gone back
to the Father.

     We turn now our attention to the Gospel of Luke, the Gospel
of Manhood.

                      The Writer of the Third Gospel.

     The writer of the third Gospel does not mention his name, though
he speaks of himself in the opening verses of the first chapter.
The first verse in the Book of Acts makes known that the same
writer who wrote the Book of Acts also wrote the third Gospel and
that both mention the same person, who is addressed, that is
Theophilus.  Furthermore, we learn from Acts 1:1, that the third
Gospel had been written, when the writer of Acts began his work.
Inasmuch as Luke is undoubtedly the writer of the Book of Acts,
he is also the penman of the third Gospel.  "It has been generally
and almost unanimously acknowledged that the Gospel, which we
now possess is that written by Luke." (Dean Alford.)

     Luke did not belong, as some hold, to the seventy our Lord sent
forth to minister.  His own words answer this statement. (Read
Luke 1:2.) The Epistles give us the only reliable information about
his person.  In Colossians 4:14 we read of him as "the beloved
physician." In the Epistle to Philemon he is called a fellow laborer
of the Apostle Paul.  From Second Timothy we learn that he was
in Rome when Paul was a prisoner and remained faithful to him
when others forsook the Apostle.  He had also joined the Apostle
during his second missionary journey at Troas (Acts 16:10).  The
evidence of it is found in the little word "we." He went with Paul
to Macedonia and remained sometime in Philippi.  In Colossians,
chapter 4 we find also the fact brought out that he was a Gentile.
First Paul mentions those of the circumcision (Colossians 4:11).  Then
Epaphras, a Colossian Gentile, is mentioned, followed by the names
of Luke and Demas, both undoubtedly Gentiles.  He is therefore
the only writer in the Bible who was a Gentile.  The reason that
he was selected to write the Gospel, which pictures the Lord
Christ, as the perfect Man, and the Book of Acts is more than
interesting.  The Gospel of Luke, a Gentile, addressed to a gentile
(Theophilus) is the Gospel for the Gentiles.  And the same Gentile
instrument was chosen to relate the history of the Gospel going forth from
Jerusalem to the Gentiles.  Other critical questions, such as the
time it was written, where it was written, etc., we are obliged to
pass by.

             The Characteristic Features Of The Gospel Of Luke

     We have seen from the study of Matthew that our Lord is seen
in it as the King and in Mark as the Servant.  The Gospel of
Luke has even more characteristic features which bring out the
great purpose of the last Synoptic Gospel.  The perfect Manhood
of the Lord Jesus Christ, His moral perfections, His tender sympathies
as the Saviour of man, are written here in a most precious way.
The Priesthood the glorified Son of Man exercises now in behalf
of His people, being touched with a feeling of our infirmities has
for its foundation His true Manhood.  "For every high priest
taken from among men is appointed in behalf of men in things
Godward, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins; Who
can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of
the way; since he himself also is compassed with infirmity." (Hebrews
5:1-2).  That He was the true and perfect Man, tempted in all points
like as we are, apart from sin; holy, blameless, undefiled and
separate from sinners, is fully seen in the Gospel of Luke.

     A glance at the beginning of the Gospel of Luke reveals at once
its object.  Matthew's Gospel begins with a genealogy; the
genealogy of the King and is followed by the account of the wise men
coming to Jerusalem looking for the new born King of the Jews.
Mark begins abruptly, one might say in a hurried way, as if the
writer is anxious to introduce the untiring ministry of the perfect
Servant at once.  And so he does.

     How different is the beginning of the third Gospel! It is perfectly
human.  A friend writes to a friend and when he begins to tell the
story he starts also in a very human way, "There was in the days of
Herod the King." The two opening chapters are peculiar to Luke.
All is new.  We do not find anywhere else the details of John's birth,
Gabriel's visit to Mary and the announcement of the coming birth of
Christ, and the beautiful outbursts of praise of the two women and
Zacharias.  The Gospel, which is to reveal "the face of a Man" had
to give these blessed facts.  The second chapter, containing the most
beautiful description of the birth of our Lord; bringing out the facts
that He entered the world, whose Creator He is, like every other son
of man, born of a woman, no room in the inn, his first resting place
a manger, known to Matthew, Mark and John, were omitted by
them.  Luke, chosen to describe the perfect Man, had to embody these
blessed details in his narrative.  The babe, the child growing, the
twelve year old boy in the temple, His increase in wisdom and
stature, in favor with God and man, all related in the second
chapter of Luke show Him forth in His true humanity.  The  authenticity
of these two chapters has often been doubted.  There can be no
valid reason for it; on the contrary their genuineness are as
completely proven as the rest of the Gospel.  Another beautiful feature
of this Gospel is that Luke speaks more of the prayers of our Lord
than the others.  Prayer is the expression of human dependence
upon God.  Inasmuch as the Son of God had taken the Creator's
(creature's?) place, He prayed and was cast upon God.  Being baptized
"and praying" heaven was opened. (Luke 3:21.) Before He called the
twelve Apostles He continued all night in prayer (6:12-13).  "As
He was praying" He asked the disciples, "Whom say the people that
I am," (9:18).  According to Luke He was transfigured "as He was
praying." He also said to Peter "I have prayed for thee." All this
is peculiar to this Gospel and is needed to bring out His true
humanity.  When Luke speaks of Him more than the other evangelists,
that "He sat down to eat meat" we have the picture of a true
man among men.  And what more do we find in the Gospel of the
beloved physician, which brings out His tender human sympathy.  
The story of the raising up of the widow's son at Nain is alive with
tenderness and sympathy.  Then there are the parables peculiar to
Luke.  The parable of the lost coin, the prodigal son, the parable
of the importunate friend, the unjust steward, the good Samaritan,
the Pharisee and the Publican praying in the temple and others are
reported only by Luke.  In this Gospel only we have the record of
the story of the rich man and Lazarus, their life on earth, their death
and their state after death; the conversion of Zacchaeus; the dying
thief and his salvation; the walk to Emmaus and other incidents.
How fitting that Luke, the Gentile, should also tell us what the
others were not commissioned to write in reporting the prophetic
utterances of our Lord, that Jerusalem should be trodden down by
the Gentiles, till the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

     All these characteristic features and many others, such as the
genealogy in chapter 3, His ministry as reported by Luke, the
description of His suffering, His death, and His resurrection are pointed
out in the annotations. May it please the Holy Spirit to give us
through the study of this Gospel a new vision of Him who was rich
and who became poor for our sakes, that we through His poverty
might be rich.

      Events and Principal Circumstances Reported Exclusively by Luke

     It will be of much help to the student of the Gospels to possess
a list of events and a number of circumstances, which are not reported
by Matthew, Mark and John, but only by Luke.  These interesting
peculiarities of the third Gospel shed much light upon the Gospel
itself.  We give the list of fifty-eight items by chapter and verse.

1.--The vision of Zacharias, and conception of Elisabeth 1:5-25.
2.--The salutation of the Virgin Mary 1:26-38.
3.--Mary's visit to Elisabeth 1:39-56.
4.--The birth of John the Baptist, and hymn of Zacharias 1:57-80.
5.--The decree of Caesar Augustus 2:1-3.
6.--The birth of Christ at Bethlehem 2:4-7.
7.--The appearance of angels to the shepherds 2:8-20.
8.--The circumcision of Christ 2:21.
9.--The presentation of Christ in the temple 2:22-24.
10.--The account of Simeon and Anna 2:25-38.
11.--Christ found among the doctors 2:41-52.
12.--Date of beginning of John's ministry 3:1-2.
13.--Success of John's ministry 3:10-15.
14.--Genealogy of Mary 3:23-38.
15.--Christ preaching and rejected at Nazareth 4:15-30.
16.--Particulars in the call of Simon, James and John 5:1-10.
17.--Christ's discourse in the plain 6:17-49.
18.--Raising of the widow's son at Nain 7:11-17.
19.--Woman in Simon's house 7:36-50.
20.--Women who ministered to Christ 8:1-3.
21.--James and John desiring fire to come down 9:51-56.
22.--Mission of seventy disciples 10:1-16.
23.--Return of seventy disciples 10:17-24.
24.--Parable of the good Samaritan 10:25-37.
25.--Christ in the house of Martha and Mary 10:38-42.
26.--Parable of friend at midnight 11:5-8.
27.--Christ in a Pharisee's house 11:37-54.
28.--Discourse to an innumerable multitude 12:1-53.
29.--Murder of the Galileans 13:1-5.
30.--Parable of the barren fig tree 13:6-9.
31.--Case of the woman diseased 18 years 13:10-20.
32.--Question on the few that be saved 13:22-30.
33.--Reply to the Pharisees' warning about Herod 13:31-33.
34.--Case of a dropsical man 14:1-6.
35.--Parable of the lowest room 14:7-14.
36.--Parable of the great supper 14:15-24.
37.--Difficulties   of Christ's service 14:25-35.
38.--Parable of    the lost sheep and piece of money 15:1-10.
39.--Parable of the prodigal son 15:11-22.
40.--Parable of the unjust steward 16:1-18.
41.--The rich man and Lazarus 16:19-31.
42.--Instruction to disciples 17:1-10.
43.--Healing of ten lepers 1712-19.
44.--Question and answer about the coming of God's kingdom 17:20-37.
45.--Parable of the importunate widow 18:1-8.
46.--Parable of the Pharisee and Publican 18:9-14.
47.--Calling of Zacchaeus 19:2-10.
48.--Parable of the pounds 19:11-28.
49.--Christ weeping over Jerusalem 19:41-44.
50.--Special warning to Peter 22:31-32.
51.--Direction to buy sword 22:35-38.
52.--Appearance of an angel, and bloody sweat in garden 22:43-44.
53.--Pilate sends Christ to Herod 23:6-16.
54.--Women deplore Christ's sufferings 23:27-32....
55.--The penitent thief 23:39-43....
56.--The appearance of Christ to two disciples going to Emmaus 24:13-35....
57.--Circumstances attending Christ's appearance to the eleven 24:37-49.
58.--Christ's departure in the act of blessing 24:50-53.

                    The Division of the Gospel of Luke

     As already stated, the Gospel of Luke in its beginning
gives the birth and childhood of our Lord; then reveals
His perfect Manhood, ministering, suffering and dying
as the Saviour of men.  The last chapter reveals the second
Man in His resurrection glory and His ascension.  All
is cast in such a way as to bring out His true and perfect
humanity.  The best verse to quote as key for this Gospel
is found in the nineteenth chapter: "For the Son
of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost"
(19:10).  Various divisions have been made.  Seven
great parts, however, are clearly marked.

I. The Birth and Childhood.  Chapter 1-2:52.

II. The Beginnings of His Ministry.  Chapter 3-4:13.

III. The Ministry in Galilee.  Chapter 4:14-9:50.

IV. The Journey to Jerusalem.  Chapter 9:51-19:27.

V. In Jerusalem.  Chapter 19:28-21:38.
VI. His Rejection, Suffering and Death.  Chapter 22-23.

VII. His  Resurrection and Ascension.  Chapter 24.

     We give the different chapters with their contents in
the Analysis.

          Analysis and Annotations

               I. The Birth and Childhood -- Chapter 1-2:52

                                 CHAPTER 1

     1. The Introduction. 1-4.
     2. Zacharias and Elizabeth; the Vision. 5-12.
     3. John the Baptist, his birth and ministry announced. 13-17.
     4. Zacharias' Unbelief and Punishment. 18-26.
     5. The Angel's Announcement to the Virgin Mary. 27-33.
     6. Mary's Question and the Answer. 34-38.
     7. Mary Visits Elizabeth. 39-45.
     8. The Virgin Mary's Hymn of Praise. 46-56.
     9. The Birth of John. 57-66.
    10. The Prophetic Song of Zacharias. 67-80.

     Verses 1-4.  The third Gospel begins in a way that no
other Gospel does.  It begins in a very human and humble
way corresponding beautifully with the purpose of
the Gospel.  Yet it is couched in the choicest language.
"Not only is it written in most classical Greek, but it reminds
us by its contents of the similar preambles of the most
illustrious Greek historians, especially those of Herodotus
and Thueydides" (Prof. F. Godet).  From the introduction we
learn that Luke was not an eye-witness and minister of
the Word; he did not belong to those who walked with the
Lord during His earthly ministry.  We do not know who
the "many" were who had written on the great things
which had taken place on earth and which all Christians
believed.  The remark has no reference to Matthew or
Mark.  Some have found in this simple introduction, in
which Luke has nothing to say about a divine commission
to write, an evidence that he did not write by inspiration.
Others have pointed out the fact that the words
"from the very first" mean literally "from above" (so
rendered in John 3:3) and found in these words an
evidence that Luke was inspired.  This, however, is 
incorrect; Luke does not assert his own inspiration.  The
entire introduction rather shows the guidance of the
Spirit of God.

     "It is a beautiful example of how naturally the Spirit of God
works, or may work, in what we term inspiration.  The instrument
He uses is not like a mere pen in the hand of another.  He
is a man acting freely--for 'where the Spirit of the Lord is there is
liberty'--as if from his own heart and mind alone.  He uses all
the means he has got, and uses them diligently.  You are quite
prepared to find in his work the character of the writer: why should
not He who has prepared the instrument, use it according to the
quality of that which He has prepared? Why should He set aside
the mind which He has furnished, any more than the affections
of the heart which He has endowed?"--Numerical Bible.

     Verses 5-12.  For about 400 years the Lord had sent
no communication to His people Israel.  The silence of
heaven is at last broken.  The ministering Priest
Zacharias beholds the Angel Gabriel, the same wonderful
being, who brought heaven's messages to Daniel.  The
names of the aged and pious couple are significant.
Zacharias means "Jehovah remembers," and Elizabeth is
translated "the oath of God." If we join them together
we have the sentence "Jehovah remembers the oath of
God." The time of remembrance had come.  Prophecy
is about to be fulfilled.

     Verses 13-17.  John's birth and ministry are
announced.  "John" means "Favor of Jehovah." It fits
in beautifully with the names of Zacharias and Elizabeth.
"Jehovah remembers the oath of God" and the blessed
result of the remembrance is "the Favor of Jehovah."
Gabriel (which means: "God is mighty") announces that
Zacharias' prayer had been heard and the answer was
now given.  The prayers of many years had not been
forgotten.  God's time for the answer had come.  John
is not Elias, but he came in the spirit and power of Elias.
Malachi 4:5-6 is yet to see its fulfillment before the
coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord.

     Verses 18-26.  The announcement of the birth of a son
was not believed by Zacharias.  Like Abraham and Sarah
he looked to earthly circumstances.  He did not reckon
with the power of God.  Disbelieving the words of Gabriel
he was struck dumb.  He should have shouted praises;
instead, he expressed his doubt.  Unbelief insults God;
the character of God demands judgment upon unbelief.

     Verses 27-33.  Next God's messenger is sent to Nazareth
of Galilee to carry the greatest message, which was
ever given to an angel.  He appears in Nazareth and
came in to the Virgin Mary.  How simple and beautiful
is the narrative! Here is the woman, the Virgin of
Prophecy, who is to bring forth the long promised Son.  
She is to conceive; bring forth a Son; His name is to be
called Jesus; He shall be great and shall be called the Son
of the Highest.  Even so it came to pass.  Then we have
an unfulfilled part of the announcement.  "The Lord
God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David;
and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and
of His Kingdom there shall be no end." When He comes
the second time, not in humiliation, but in power and
great glory, He will receive the throne of His father
David and the promised Kingdom.  "Let us beware of
spiritualizing away the full meaning of these words.
The house of Jacob does not mean 'all Christians.' The
throne of David does not mean the office of a Saviour to
Gentile believers.  These words will yet receive a literal
fulfillment, when the Lord Jesus comes a second time.  
The Kingdom of which he speaks is the glorious Kingdom
of Daniel 7:27." (Bishop Ryle.)

     Verses 34-38.  The Virgin's question "How shall this
be, seeing that I know not a man?"--is not the result
of unbelief.  She believed, presupposing the absolute
reality of the promise, in asking the exact manner of its
fulfillment.  The blessed mystery of the incarnation, how
the Son of God should take on the human form and
become man, is made known.  It is a great mystery.  "The
Holy Spirit shall come upon thee" means that the human
nature of our Lord was produced in the Virgin by a
creative act of the Holy Spirit. (Matthew 1:18-20).  And
therefore He possessed an absolutely holy nature.  "And
the Power of the Most High shall overshadow thee."
This is not a repetition of the first statement.  It means
that the Son of God, who is the Most High, overshadowed
the Virgin, uniting Himself with the miraculously
prepared human nature.  He is designated in His Being
"that holy thing" because He cannot be classified.  And
because He is holy there could be nothing in Him, who
was born of the Virgin, which is unholy.  And beautiful
is the submission of the Virgin to the will of God.

     Verses 39-45.  Mary then visited her cousin Elizabeth.
How perfectly human is the whole account! And how
beautiful the language of the elder woman calling the
Virgin "the mother of my Lord." Surely this was a
great revelation she received.  With holy reverence we
also should use that worthy Name.  Well has it been said,
"Let us remember the deep meaning of the words 'the
Lord' and beware of using them lightly and carelessly."
Then she blessed Mary.  "Blessed is she that believed."

     Verses 46-56.  The marvelous outburst of praise which
comes from Mary's lips is a beautiful echo of the Old
Testament Scriptures.  The pious Virgin knew the Word of
God; her heart was filled with it and the Holy Spirit used
the Word in the expression of her praise.  Many
Psalms are touched upon, but especially are we reminded
of Hannah's inspired song. (1 Samuel 2.) Notice also
Mary's deep humility and her acknowledgment of the
need of a Saviour.  The invention of Rome, of the sinless
and immaculate person of Mary, is disproved by everything
in the Word of God.

     Verses 57-66.  When John is born Zacharias' tongue is
loosed.  He is a type of Israel.  Now that people is
dumb; some future day when "the Grace of Jehovah"
is acknowledged by them, when they see and believe,
the remnant of Israel will praise and bless God.  No
doubt Zacharias was also afflicted with deafness.  The
last written word of the Old Testament is a curse, Malachi
4:6; the first written word of the New Testament is
"grace"--Bengel, "Gnomen"  (John: Grace of Jehovah).

     Verses 67-80.  Zacharias prophesies.  He praises God
for the fulfillment of His promises spoken by the mouth
of His holy Prophets.  The Lord of salvation is Messiah.
It denotes strength and power.  He brings deliverance,
salvation from enemies and the promised covenant mercies.
(psalm 132:17-18).  He beholds the blessings of
the promised Kingdom and beholds the blessed results of
the visit of the day spring from on high.  The Septuagint
(Greek translation of the O.T.) translates the word
branch in the Old Testament with "day spring." Christ,
the Branch, is also the day spring from on high.  The
fulfillment of Zacharias' prophecy takes place with the
second coming of the Lord.

                                 CHAPTER 2

     1. The Birth of Christ at Bethlehem. 1-7.
     2. The Glad Tidings Announced to the Shepherds. 8-20.
     3. The Circumcision and Presentation. 21-24.
     4. Simeon and His Prophecy. 25-35.
     5. Anna the Prophetess. 36-38.
     6. In Nazareth. 39-40.
     7. In the Temple. 41-51.
     8. The Increase. 52.

     Verses 1-7.  The appointed time (Galatians 4:4) had come.
According to prophecy the Saviour had to be born in
Bethlehem (Micah 5:2). But Mary lived in Nazareth.
God in His own marvelous way ordered everything and
Caesar Augustus was directed to issue the decree of
taxation at such a time and in such a way and also the journey
of Joseph and his espoused wife, Mary, that she had to be
in Bethlehem when the days were accomplished that she
should be delivered.  The great Roman Emperor knew
nothing of what God was accomplishing by his decree.  
Then He was born, who left the glory of Heaven and became
poor for our sakes.  What condescension we behold 
here! The Maker of Heaven and Earth, born of a
woman, taking the creature's place! The first resting
place of Him, who came from the bosom of the Father
is a manger! There was no room for Him in the inn.

     Verses 8-20.  Here not the birth of a King is
announced as in Matthew, but the birth of a Saviour.  The
wise men from the East looking for the newborn King
are not mentioned by Luke.  Poor shepherds hear the
glad tidings first.  Heaven is opened.  The Glory of the
Lord shines round about; angels' voices are heard, telling
out in heavenly praise, what will be the ultimate result of
the work of the Second Man.  "Glory to God in the highest,
Peace on Earth, good will toward men." But the
world rejected Him.  Good will toward men sounds forth
in the glad tidings, but "Glory to God in the highest and
peace on earth" is yet to come, when He, the Son of Man,
appears again.  The shepherds were obedient.  They
made haste.  How simple their faith; how great their

     Verses 21-24.  And now we find that He, who came of
a woman also was made under the law.  The circumcision
made Him "debtor to do the whole law" which He
alone could fulfill; and then to redeem those upon whom
the curse of the law rests, by being made a curse for us.
(Galatians 3:13).  The name announced before His birth is
then given to the child. (Matthew 1:21).  Five other
persons in the Bible were named before their birth: Isaac,
Genesis 17:19; Ishmael, Genesis 16:11; Josiah, 1 Kings
13:2; Cyrus, Isaiah 44:28, and John the Baptist.  As
the firstborn, according to His own law, He is presented
unto the Lord.  The required sacrifice is brought, in
which is written the story of the cross.  The sacrifice tells
the story of poverty, for the sacrificial birds were only
for the poor.  "If she be not able to bring a lamb, then
she shall bring two turtle doves, or two young pigeons."
(Leviticus 12:6).

     Verses 25-35.  Simeon had the divine revelation that
he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's
Anointed.  He belonged to the faithful remnant of Israel,
who in the dark days of decline and apostasy held fast
the Word and waited for its promised fulfillment.  The
Lord had then a faithful remnant, who waited for His
first coming; and now His faithful people wait for the
blessed Hope, His coming again to receive them unto
Himself.  Simeon had the revelation that he should not
see death, till He had come.  This corresponds to the greater
promises in 1 Corinthians 15:51 and 1 Thessalonians 4:17.
The Spirit led him into the temple at the right moment.
His waiting ended when he held the child in his arms.  It
was a babe, like any other babe.  Yet faith saw in Him
what He is, the Lord's salvation for His people; He who
had come to do the great work.  "A light to lighten the
Gentiles, and the glory of thy people, Israel." This is
prophetic.  The Gentiles are put first.  Even so it has
come to pass; after the fullness of the Gentiles has
come in all Israel will be saved.  See Isaiah 49:5-6; Romans
11:25-26.  And Simeon, holding the babe in his arms, blest
the mother and Joseph, not the child, for he knew He was
the Blesser.

     Verse 36. Then a daughter of Phanuel, Anna,
appeared to add her testimony.  What a beautiful woman
she must have been in her self-denying service! No
sooner had she seen the Lord than she spake at once of
Him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem.
In the midst of the wicked city, soon to become a city of
murderers (Isaiah 1:21), there was a company of men and
women who looked for redemption.

     Verses 39-40.  They returned to Nazareth.  The visit
of the wise men, the flight into Egypt and the return are
omitted.  Twelve years passed and it did not please the
Holy Spirit to give us a report of them.  Spurious 
Gospels of the Infancy were circulated later; they are all
legendary and unreliable.  As the true Man He grew
from infancy to boyhood.  Of all the sinless conditions
of the human body He was partaker.  He grew both
mentally and physically.  His heart ever seeking God
and being in subjection unto Him.

     Verses 41-50.  Every Jewish boy of twelve years
visited Jerusalem at the time of the great festivals.  He
stayed behind and his anxious mother and Joseph found
Him in the temple three days later.  For three days He
was lost to them.  May this not be a reminder of the
three days He was thought lost by His disciples? (Chapter 
24:21).  Here the human infirmity of Mary comes
to light.  She was nervously anxious.  Her words have an
accusing tone.  The greatest mistake she committed was
the mentioning of Joseph as "thy Father." In all this
her human failure is in evidence.  But how sublime the
answer of the twelve year old boy! He is astonished that
they should have sought Him; He came to seek them.
He is astonished that they did not know that He had to
be about His Father's business.  What an answer it is!
These are His first words recorded in the Gospels.  He
corrects His fallible mother, who had said, "thy Father
and I." His Father, He declares, is He in whose house
He had gone.  It is the first self-witness to His Deity.

     Verses 51-52.  And He went down with them to Nazareth
and was subject unto them.  He was obedient in all

           II.  The Beginnings of His Ministry -- Chapter 3-4:13

                              CHAPTER 3

     1. The Ministry of John the Baptist. 1-14.
     2. His Testimony to Christ and his Imprisonment. 15-20.
     3. The Baptism of the Lord Jesus. 21-22.
     4. The Genealogy of Mary, the Mother of our Lord. 23-38.

     Verses 1-14.  Eighteen more years of silence follow.
It is broken by the voice of the forerunner, John, who
preached at Jordan the baptism of repentance for the
remission of sins.  He is not reported here preaching "the
Kingdom of Heaven is at hand." He preached thus as
the witness for the King and the Kingdom about to come.
Matthew had to give the report of this preaching.  Here
we read that "all flesh should see His salvation." This
awaits still its great fulfillment when He comes the second
time.  John's call to repentance is answered by the
people, by the publicans and by the soldiers.  They asked
"What shall we do?" How different, however, the question
concerning salvation and the answer. (Acts 16:30-31).

     Verses 15-20.  Then he gave witness concerning Christ.
The expectation among the people was great and some
thought that John might be the Messiah.  The answer
he gives directs the people to the coming One.  Verses
16 and 17 blend together the first and second Coming of
Christ.  The fire-baptism takes place when He comes
again; it is the fire of judgment.  His first coming has
brought for all who believe in Him the baptism with the
Holy Spirit.

     Verses 21-22.  We request the reader to turn at this
point to the remarks made in our annotations on Matthew
and Mark.  Luke omits, however, the conversation which
took place between our Lord and John; then there is the
additional information that our Lord was praying, when
heaven opened and the Holy Spirit came upon Him.  The
descent into the water signified His death and as the
result of His death, heaven was opened and the Holy
Spirit came down.  As He prayed in Jordan so He prayed
in Gethsemane as He approached the cross.  "Who in the
days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and
supplications with strong crying and tears unto Him that
was able to save Him out of death and was heard in that
He feared." (Hebrews 5:7).

     Verses 23-38.  The age of our Lord, about thirty years,
is only given by Luke.  In the Gospel of the Manhood
this properly belongs.  The annotations on the first
chapter in Matthew should be carefully considered here and
the two genealogies compared.  The genealogy in Matthew 
is that of the King; Luke's genealogy is that of the
Son of Man.  Matthew's genealogy begins with David
and Abraham and leads up to Joseph; Luke's genealogy
begins with Joseph and leads up to Adam, the first man.
It is a tracing backward to the head of the human race,
Adam; and back of Adam is God Himself.  So He who is
God had come and became the Son of Man, the Second
Man, the last Adam.  The genealogy in Matthew is that
of Joseph, a son of David, through the line of Solomon;
Luke's genealogy is that of Mary, the mother of our
Lord, who also is of David through the line of Nathan.
Joseph is called in Luke's genealogy the son of Heli,
because Mary was a daughter of Heli.  Matthew's Gospel
tells us that Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary.

                              CHAPTER 4:1-13

     1. The Temptation in the Wilderness. 1-12.
     2. The Devil Defeated. 13.

     Verses 1-13.  What interests us most is the different
order in which the three temptations of the Lord are
reported by Luke.  The second temptation the devil brings
to bear upon Him (in the high mountain) is the last in the
Gospel of Matthew.  Why did Luke change the order and
put the second temptation last and the last temptation
into the second place? Matthew gives, no doubt, the
correct order.  The Lord's word to Satan, "Get thee behind
me, Satan," proves this. (These words must be
omitted in  the 8th verse.  They are not found in the
best manuscripts.) The order in Luke corresponds
to the nature of man.  Man is composed of Body, Soul
and Spirit.  The first temptation concerns the body; the
second the soul, and the third the spirit.  The temptations
man has to go through in life are clearly seen here.
In youth it is the lust of the flesh; in manhood the lust of
the eyes, to possess and to enjoy; in old age the pride of
life. The change in the order is made to correspond to
this.  But "the holy thing," the holy Son of God, had
nothing in Him which could ever respond to this trinity
of evil.  He did not sin, nor could He ever Sin.  The devil
departed from Him for a season.

             iii. The Ministry in Galilee -- Chapter 4:14-9:50

                              CHAPTER 4:14-44

     1. In the Synagogue of Nazareth. 14-21.
     2. Unbelief and Rejection of Christ. 22-32.
     3. A Demon Cast Out in Capernaum. 33-37.
     4. Peter's Wife's Mother Healed; Many Healed.  38-44.

     Verses 14-21.  And now the description of the ministry
of the Son of Man begins.  The beginning is in His own
city.  How all written here is again in a very human
manner.  He had been brought up in that city and as
His custom was "He went into the synagogue," and as
He had done, no doubt, before, He stood up to read and
like a man finds the place in the scroll which the servant
had handed Him.  Isaiah 61:1-2 is read by Him and then
applied to Himself.  The Spirit of the Lord was indeed
upon Him to preach the Gospel to the poor.  But He
stopped in the middle of a sentence.  The acceptable year
of the Lord, is the last word He read.  In His Person all
this had appeared.  He came to preach the Gospel, to
heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the
captives, recovering of sight to the blind and to set at
liberty them that are bruised.  He did not read "the day
of vengeance of our God." That too is His work, but
not as long as the acceptable year of the Lord lasts.

     Verses 22-32.  "Is not this Joseph's son?" It is the
first hint of the coming rejection.  Then when He declared
that God's grace is not to be confined to Israel,
but that it will, as in days of old, in the case of the widow
of Sarepta and Naaman, go out to the Gentiles, they were
filled with wrath.  They were ready to kill Him.  What
happened? "But He, passing through the midst of them,
went His way." Was it a miracle? Is it the same as
when He passed through shut doors? It was the result
of His own dignity as the perfect Man, which awed the
crowds, so that no one dared to touch Him.

     Verses 33-37.  The same incident is reported in Mark
1:21-28.  The demons knew him but He had come to
spoil the enemy and here He manifested His power.

     Verses 38-44.  Many works of power followed.  As the
seeker of the lost to preach the good tidings, He went
from city to city.

                                 CHAPTER 5

     1. The Miraculous Drought of Fishes. 1-11.
     2. The Leper Healed. 12-16.
     3. The Paralytic Healed. 17-26.
     4. The Call of Matthew and the Feast. 27-29.
     5. The Scribes and Pharisees Answered. 30-35.
     6. The Parable of the Garment and the Bottle. 36-39.

     Verses 1-11.  Two miraculous draughts of fishes are
found in the Gospels.  The one here at the beginning of
His ministry; the other after His resurrection. (John 21).
Both demonstrate His power as Lord over the animal
creation.  Here the net broke (or began to break), in the
other miracle it did not break.  Peter is prominent in
both.  Here he falls at His feet crying out, "Depart from
me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord." The divine presence,
made known by the miracle, showed Peter his own
condition.  The Lord graciously calms his fear.  The
soul that sinks down at the blessed feet of the Lord and
owns his sinfulness is safe.  He came to seek and to save
what is lost.  And more than that.  He calls into service.
"Fear not, from henceforth thou shalt catch men."
They left all and followed Him.  It would have been
strange if they had done anything else.  The highest and
best besides knowing the Lord as our Saviour is to follow
Him and to be obedient to His call.

     Verses 12-16.  Luke describes the leper as being full of
leprosy.  The terrible disease had advanced so as to
cover the entire body.  Leprosy is the most awful, incurable
disease.  It is a living death and one of the best
illustrations of sin and its ravages.  He has the power,
and He alone, to heal the leper, as He is the only One
who can heal the spiritual leprosy.  Then great 
multitudes came together to hear and to be healed.  How
men were attracted to Him and sought Him! But He
went instead into the wilderness to pray.  He felt the
need as the perfect man to seek the Father's presence.  
He has given us an example.  It is the pattern we should

     "Why is it that there is so much apparent religious working, and
yet so little result in positive conversions to God,--so many sermons,
and so few souls saved,--so much machinery, and so little effect
produced,--so much running hither and thither, and yet so few
brought to Christ? Why is all this? The reply is short and simple.
There is not enough private prayer.  The cause of Christ does not
need less working, but it does need among the workers more praying.  
Let us each examine ourselves, and amend our ways.  The most
successful workmen in the Lord's vineyard, are those who are like
their Master, often and much upon their knees."--Bishop Ryle

     Verses 17-26.  The same miracle is reported by
Matthew and Mark. (Matthew 9:2-8; Mark 2:1-12).  See
annotations there.

     Verses 27-29.  The Publican Levi is Matthew, the
writer of the Gospel of Matthew.  He was a tax-gatherer
and as such despised by his own brethren, because he
was serving the hated Roman government.  Tax-gatherers
and sinners the Son of Man came to call.  Levi left
all and followed him.  That he became at once a witness
for the Lord is seen by the feast he made and the large
number of tax-gatherers he had invited.

     The concluding verses of this chapter we have already
considered in the preceding Gospels.

                                 CHAPTER 6

     1. The Son of Man the Lord of the Sabbath.  1-5.
     2. The Man with the Withered Hand Healed. 6-11.
     3. The Twelve Apostles Chosen. 12-19.
     4. Blessing and Woe. 20-26.
     5. Good for Evil. 27-31.
     6. Instructions to Disciples. 32-38.
     7. Warnings. 39-45.

     Verses 1-11.  The opening verses of the chapter are
nearly alike in the three Gospels.  The arrangement in
Matthew is different.  It is used there to bring out the
consummation Of the rejection of the King. (Matthew
12:1-8).  Then He healed the man with the withered hand.
The healing was done in their midst; it was a miracle
done before their eyes. How different from the pretended
healings of Christian Science and other Cults.
They were filled with madness and began their plotting.

     Verses 12-19.  Before He chose the twelve Apostles
He spent the whole night in prayer.  It was "in those
days," the days when they were rejecting Him.  The
refuge of the perfect Man was then in God.  He sought
His presence and cast Himself upon Him for guidance.
The Gospel of Luke has much to say about the prayers
of the Lord Jesus.  His prayers are the expression of
dependence of His perfect humanity.  Among the twelve
is Judas the traitor.  He was called to be an apostle that
the Scriptures might be fulfilled.  The Lord knew him
from the beginning.  He was not a believer in the Deity
of our Lord; Judas never called Him, Lord.  A very old
commentary gives the following suggestion: "Judas is
chosen that the Lord might have an enemy among His
attendants, for that man is perfect who has no cause to
shrink from observation of a wicked man, conversant
with all his ways."--Anselim, who lived from 1033-1109.

     Verses 20-45.  Certain parts of the Sermon on the
Mount.  In Matthew it occupies the most prominent
place, for in the Gospel of the King it is the great
proclamation He utters in the beginning of His ministry.  See
the Study pamphlet on Matthew.  Luke reports only a
part of the great discourse.  A comparison will show
that Luke gives a number of additions, which are all in
line with the purpose of the Gospel.  There is no allusion
made as in the Gospel of Matthew to the Law, nor is there
given in Luke the expansion of the Law.  The
instructions concerning alms and prayer are likewise
omitted.  In Luke's Gospel the words are reported which
touch upon the wants of the disciples as men, who are in
the world.  Their separation from the world, their conduct,
besides warnings are fully given.  In Matthew we
read, "Be ye therefore perfect as your Father in heaven
is perfect." Luke changes by divine guidance the word
perfect to "merciful." The correct rendering is
"Become ye merciful." The Son of Man came to this earth
in mercy to meet man; the disciple is to manifest the
same mercy.  The word "perfect" given by Matthew is
the larger description; it includes "mercifulness," which
Luke is led by the Spirit of God to emphasize.

                                 CHAPTER 7

     1. The Centurion's Servant Healed. 1-10.
     2. The Widow's Son Raised from the Dead. 11-17.
     3. John's Questions and the Answer. 18-23.
     4. The Testimony Concerning John. 24-29.
     5. The Unreasonableness of Unbelief. 30-35.
     6. The Woman With the Alabaster Box. 36-40.
     7. The Parable of the Two Debtors. 41-50.

     Verses 1-10.  In Matthew the healing of the Centurion's
servant comes after the healing of the leper.  It
teaches there the dispensational lesson, that the Gentiles
would enter the Kingdom and the children of the Kingdom 
would be cast out into the outer darkness.  As Luke
writes for another purpose he omits Matthew 8:11-12.
Luke tells us that the Centurion sent the Jewish Elders
first; when on the road to the Centurion's house, the
friends of the Centurion with the message of unworthiness,
met the Lord.  Some have tried to explain these
differences by making the two accounts, two different
miracles.  This is not the case at all.  The account given
by Matthew is more fully explained by Luke.  The Centurion
first sent messengers to our Lord, and afterwards
he came to speak to Him in person.  Matthew relates the
personal interview and Luke the message.  "Speak the
word only, and my servant shall be healed," is a
marvelous utterance of faith.  The Centurion owned Him as
Lord of all, with power over all.  To him He is the
Creator with omnipotent power.  And the Lord marvelled
at him.  It is an evidence of His true humanity.  Twice
He marvelled; here at faith and in Mark 6:6 at unbelief.

     Verses 11-17.  The account of the raising of the
widow's son is peculiar to Luke.  The story brings out
the deep compassion of the Son of Man and that is why
it is exclusively reported in the third Gospel.  The only
son of a widow had died.  Here is human sorrow in the
fullest sense.  A widow losing her only son, her only
support.  He had compassion on her.  How human and
filled with sympathy were His words "Weep not." And
the second Word He spoke in touching the bier was
"Arise." And when the young man came back to life,
He delivered him to his mother.  "Weep not!" the word
of His sympathy; "Arise" the word of His power.  No
wonder that the people declared, "God hath visited His
people." Elijah raised the son of a widow, but he had
to humble himself and had to cry to the Lord.  Elisha
also raised the son of the Shunamite, but only after 
having stretched himself over the child.  But the Lord
commands and death has to release its prey at the one word.
The Second Man has power to deal with sin and death
and man's need is fully met.

     Verses 18-35.  John, perplexed with doubt, sends to
Him two of his disciples.  "Honest doubt never stays
away from Christ, but comes to Him for solution." The
disciples beheld the miracles the Lord did at that time.  
Then when John had evidently made shipwreck of his
witness bearing, the Lord bears witness to him.  He 
declares the greatness of his person. (Verses 27-28).  All
this is recorded in Matthew 11:2-15; but Luke gives an
interesting addition.  Two classes of people stood there.
The people who had heard John, accepted his message
of repentance and who had been baptized.  They and the
tax-gatherers justified God.  The leaders of the nation
rejected the counsels of God against them, they had
testified to that by not being baptized by John.

     Verses 36-50.  The balance of this chapter is again
peculiar to Luke.  He is seen as the friend of sinners,
who had come to seek and save that which is lost.
Beautiful sight this woman so sinful, standing behind Him at
His feet, weeping, so that she wet His feet with her tears!
This incident must not be confounded with the similar
one reported by Matthew, Mark and John; nor was the
woman Mary Magdalene.  She seeks shelter with her
burdened soul at the feet of Him, whom the proud Pharisees
called "a friend of publicans and sinners." How
great must have been His compassion, how marvelous
His lovingkindness, that a woman could come thus in
His presence.  The loveliness and attractiveness of the
perfect Man as the friend of sinners is here fully seen.
And the proud host, the Pharisee Simon, doubts that He
is a prophet, for would He then not know what kind of
a woman she is! The Son of Man at once gives him the
evidence of His omniscience.  Not alone does He know
who the woman is, but He also knows the unspoken
thoughts of Simon.  The parable the Lord gives to Simon
explains the great love of the woman, much had been
forgiven her.  The consciousness of that forgiveness had
produced these blessed actions of the woman.  And once
more she hears from the lips of the Friend of Sinners,
what countless thousands have heard spoken to their
hearts by His Spirit; "Thy faith hath saved thee; go in

                                 CHAPTER 8

     1. The Ministering Company. 1-3.
     2. The Parable of the Sower. 4-15.
     3. The Parable of the Lighted Candle. 16-18.
     4. The Declaration of a New Relationship. 19-21.
     5. The Storm on the Lake. 22-25.
     6. In the Country of the Gadarenes; the Maniac Healed. 26-36.
     7. His Rejection by the Gadarenes. 37-40.
     8. The Woman With the Issue of Blood Healed. 41-48.
     9. The Daughter of Jairus Raised. 49-56.

     Verses 1-3.  This also is reported exclusively by Luke.
What wonderful preaching it must have been when He
with the Apostles went about preaching! And the trophies
of His power and grace were also with Him.  Here
we read that women ministered unto Him of their substance.
What privilege was theirs to minister to Him!

     Verses 4-18.  The parables which follow are known to
us from the Gospels of Matthew and Mark.  The parable
of the Sower is here not in the dispensational setting in
which it appears in Matthew (Chapter 13).  The parables
of the mustard seed and the leaven are reported
later by Luke.  The parable of the Sower is linked here
with the preaching of the Word in verses 1-3.

     Verses 19-56.  The events which follow are also found
in the Synoptics.  The Storm on the Lake shows His true
humanity.  He is asleep.  But in the threatening danger,
when the helpless vessel fills with water, He knows no
fear.  They have to wake Him.  The wind and waves
obey His Word.  And blessed be His Name! He is still
the same.  Then there is the man in his fallen pitiful
condition, under the complete dominion of Satan, both in
body and in soul.  And once more the Son of Man shows
His absolute power over Satan.  The sufferer is completely
healed.  What a transformation took place!
"The 'many devils' by whom he had been possessed were
compelled to leave him.  Nor is this all.  Cast forth
from their abode in the man's heart, we see these
malignant spirits beseeching our Lord that He would 'not
torment' them, or 'command them to go out into the
deep,' and so confessing His supremacy over them.
Mighty as they were, they plainly felt themselves in the
presence of One mightier than themselves.  Full of
malice as they were, they could not even hurt the 'swine'
of the Gadarenes until our Lord granted them permission.

                              CHAPTER 9:1-50

     1. Christ Sends Forth the Twelve Apostles. 1-6.
     2. Herod Perplexed. 7-9.
     3. The Return of the Apostles. 10.
     4. The Feeding of the Five Thousand. 11-17.
     5. Peter's Confession of Christ. 18-21.
     6. The Son of Man Announces His Death and Resurrection. 22.
     7. Necessity of Self-Denial. 23-26.
     8. The Transfiguration. 27-36.
     9. The Demon Cast Out. 37-43.
    10. The Second Prediction of His Rejection. 44-45.
    11. Disciples Rebuked. 46-50.

     Verses 1-9.  The sending out of the twelve is briefly
given by Luke.  The full account is in Matthew.  All
this shows the guidance of the Holy Spirit.  Matthew
writing concerning the King must needs give all the
details of the sending out of the Kingdom messengers.  In
the foreground is put here the power and authority which
the Lord gave to the Apostles over all demons and to cure
all diseases.  Did Judas also have this power?  Assuredly,
for he was an Apostle.  The authority and power
was conferred upon them and not for any faith, virtue or
merit on the Apostle's side.  They went forth preaching
the gospel and healing everywhere.  They are the
messengers of the compassionate friend of sinners.  Herod
here fears Him and desires to see Him, who was greater
than John, whom he had beheaded.  Herod saw Him
later.  He had desired to see Him for a long time.  At
last He stood before Him bound, the willing sacrifice to
be led away to the cross.  Herod never heard a single
word from His lips.  Then the wicked King mocked.
(Chapter 23:8).

     Verses 10-26.  The compassion and tenderness of the
Lord is blessedly revealed throughout these verses.  The
Apostles returned and He took them away for rest.  The
multitude followed Him "and He received them, and
spake unto them of the Kingdom of God, and healed
them that had need of healing." The miracle of the
feeding of the five thousand is reported in all the Gospels
including John.  He graciously supplied their need.  
Peter's confession is preceded by prayer.  In Matthew
we read the fuller confession, "Thou art the Christ, the
Son of the living God." There also the Lord saith that it
was revealed unto Peter by His Father.  Luke alone tells
us He prayed before.  May we then not look upon the
confession as an answer to the Lord's prayer?

     Verses 27-50.  In the transfiguration scene we see Him
again in prayer.  "And as He prayed the fashion of His
countenance was altered, and His raiment was white and
glistening." Luke tells us of the subject of the conversation
between the Lord, Moses, and Elijah.  They spoke
of His decease, which He should accomplish in Jerusalem.
He had announced for the first time His coming suffering
and death (verse 22) and that death demanded by the
Law (Moses) and predicted by the prophets (Elijah),
which must needs be and precede His, glory, is the great
theme.  Another statement is found in Luke, which is
absent in Matthew and Mark.  Moses and Elijah "appeared
in glory"; not their own glory, but His glory.
Luke also informs us that when they entered the
overshadowing cloud, they feared.  The Transfiguration is
prophetic.  Some day the Second Man, the last Adam,
the head of the new creation, will appear in His Glory,
and all His Saints will share that coming Glory.

            IV.  The journey to Jerusalem -- Chapter 9:51-19:27

                              CHAPTER 9:51-62

     1. His Face Set Toward Jerusalem. 51-52.
     2. The Rejected Messengers and His Rebuke. 53-56.
     3. Tests of Discipleship. 57-62.

     The fifty-first verse marks a new part in this Gospel.
The time was come; His hour was approaching.  As the
perfect Man we have seen Him.  As babe, as child, as
man in all His loveliness we have seen Him and now the
compassionate, loving One, He, who always pleased God
in a perfect obedience "steadfastly set His face to go up
to Jerusalem." Coming from Galilee the messengers entered
into a village of the Samaritans, who would not
receive Him because His face was set toward Jerusalem,
the city the Samaritans hated.  James and John asked
the Lord to command fire to come down from heaven to
consume them as Elias did.  They believed the Lord had
the power to do this.  They had been with Him and had
seen His deeds of love and kindness and yet they could
make so strange a request.  He then rebuked them.  Later
John went again into Samaria, but manifested a far 
different spirit (Acts 8).

                                CHAPTER 10

     1. The Seventy Appointed. 1-16.
     2. The Return of the Seventy and the True Rejoicing. 17-20.
     3. Jesus Rejoiced in Spirit. 21-24.
     4. The Question of the Lawyer. 25-29.
     5. The Parable of the Good Samaritan. 30-37.
     6. Martha and Mary. 38-42.

     Verses 1-24.  Seventy others are commissioned by Him
to be His heralds.  They were to visit every city and
place, which He would visit.  How great and extended
the labors of the Son of Man must have been.  The Gospel
of the Kingdom was then heralded as a witness.  And
He knew that the message would be rejected.  The meek
and lowly One, the friend of sinners pronounces as Judge
the woes upon the cities, who had already rejected the
message.  When the messengers returned He said unto
them, "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven."
According to Revelation 12, he is still occupying the
heavens and the casting out of Satan is still future.
The Lord beheld this complete downfall of Satan; the
work the seventy had done was but a little anticipation
of that which is yet to come.  Then He rejoiced.  Three
times we read of Him that He wept, but only once that
He rejoiced.  He uttered concerning Himself a great 
declaration, which reveals His glory.  "All things are
delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the
Son is but the Father, and who the Father is but the Son,
and he to whom the Son will reveal Him." Only He
who is very God could utter such a declaration.

     Verses 25-37.  The lawyer's question leads to the
utterance of the parable of the good Samaritan, to answer the
question, "Who is my neighbor?" The parable answers
the question fully, but it also contains the most blessed
Gospel truths.  Jerusalem is the city of God; Jericho
represents the world.  The traveller is the type of 
humanity.  Man has fallen in the awful road which leads
down, fallen among thieves, naked, wounded, helpless
and hopeless.  The failure of the Priest and the scribe to
help illustrates the inability of the law and the ordinances
to save man out of his deplorable condition.  The good
Samaritan is the Lord Jesus Christ.  He came to the
place where the lost are and He alone could have compassion
on him.  The wine typifies His precious
blood He shed to save us.  The oil is the type of the Holy
Spirit, who applies the blood.  He takes care of fallen
man found by Him.  The inn is typical of the church,
where the Lord through His Spirit cares for His own.  
The two pence are not typical of "two sacraments" but
speak of the reward, which those receive, who, under the
Holy Spirit, care for souls.  The promised coming again
with a greater reward offered is the Second Coming of
our Lord. The Gospel of the Manhood records this 
parable exclusively.

     In verses 3,8-42 we find another incident reported
exclusively by Luke.  The story of Martha and Mary is
closely linked with the preceding paragraph.  Martha
and Mary were both disciples.  Martha was busy serving
the Lord, while Mary took her place at His feet and let
the Lord serve her.  In this He delights.

     "Martha has received Christ into her house, and surely into her
heart.  If she is busy, she is busy serving Him; yet that does not
prevent her being distracted by it.  She is more: she is vexed and
irritated.  Mary her sister is sitting quietly at the feet of Jesus,
listening to His word; and she blames even the Lord for permitting
it, while she needs her help so much.  But the Lord asserts that
Mary has chosen the good part, and it is moreover the only needful
thing: it shall not be taken from her.

     But is learning of Jesus, then, the one needful thing? Is activity
nothing? is service nothing? We may be sure the Lord is very far
from meaning that.  But if a man brings me, let us say, an apple,
I do not despise it when I say, 'The one thing is the tree that bears
the apples.'"--Numerical Bible.

     Twice more we find in the Gospels Mary at the feet of
the Lord.  When her brother Lazarus, had died, she wept
at His feet and He comforted her.  When she anointed
Him, Mary again was at His feet.  She owned Him as
Prophet (Luke 10) as Priest (John 11) and as King (John 12).

                                CHAPTER 11

     1. The Prayer Given to the Disciples. 1-4.
     2. The Friend at Midnight. 5-10.
     3. Encouragement to Pray. 11-13.
     4. A Demon Cast Out and the Blasphemous Accusation.  14-23.
     5. The Return of the Unclean Spirit.  23-26.
     6. The Blessedness of Hearing the Word. 27-28.
     7. The Sign of Jonas. 29-32.
     8. The Single Eye. 33-36.
     9. The Pharisees Exposed and Denounced. 37-44.
    10. The Lawyers Exposed and Denounced. 45-54.

     Verses 1-13.  Prayer is here more fully dealt with.
We have learned how the perfect Man, the Son of God,
who had taken the creature's place, made use of prayer.  
Again we see Him praying and when His disciples request
Him to teach them to pray, He gives them the form
of prayer, commonly known as "the Lord's prayer."
But the better name is "the Disciples' Prayer," for the
Lord Jesus had no need to pray, "forgive us our sins."
Many teach that this form of prayer was given twice,
once in the Sermon on the Mount and the second time
here.  This is of course not impossible, but far from 
probable.  If the prayer had been previously given, why
should the request be made again? The ending which
appears in Matthew, "For thine is the kingdom, etc.,"
is omitted here as it ought to be in the Gospel of Matthew,
for it was undoubtedly added by someone else.  The parable
which follows is peculiar to Luke.  The parable was
spoken to encourage perseverance in prayer, to pray
without ceasing, continue in prayer, to always pray and
not faint, which are all exhortations to His people.  
The promise contained in the thirteenth verse was
fulfilled when the Holy Spirit was given on the day of
Pentecost.  To plead this promise now is unscriptural.  
The Holy Spirit has been given; He has come and dwells
in the believer.

     The story of His rejection is followed much in
the same way as in Matthew.  Verses 24-26 are in Matthew's
Gospel applied to the nation.  The unclean spirit
of idolatry had left them and is to return with seven
others.  But here the words of the Lord have a wider
application, for He speaks of the state of a man.  Outward
reformation without true conversion and the reception of
the nature from above, but brings Satan back with seven
other spirits.  Self-reformation cannot save.

     The chapter closes with the judgments pronounced
upon the Pharisees and Lawyers.  Verses 37-54.  He had
entered the lawyer's house as his guest.  When the Pharisee
marvelled, that He had not washed His hands in the
ceremonial way, as commanded by the traditional law,
the Lord uttered these solemn woes.  They remind us of
Matthew 23, but a closer study reveals the fact that
the words of judgment Luke reports here were uttered
at another occasion entirely.  The words in Matthew were
uttered in Jerusalem, while the words in Luke were
spoken when He was journeying towards Jerusalem.

                                CHAPTER 12

     1. Warning Against Hypocrisy. 1-3.
     2. Encouragements. 4-14.
     3. Warning Against Covetousness. 15-21.
     4. Warning Against Anxiety. 22-31.
     5. The Disciples Comfort and Hope. 32-40.
     6. The Parable of the Steward. 41-48.
     7. The Purpose of God and the Resulting Division. 49-53.
     8. Concerning signs. 54-57.
     9. The Failure of Israel. 58-59.

     Verses 1-31.  Nearly all of the entire twelfth chapter is
not found in the other Gospels.  Perhaps the largest
multitude, which ever gathered to hear the Lord, is seen
here.  He speaks to His disciples first of all and warns
of the leaven of the Pharisees.  But the warning was
also meant for all who heard Him.  He declares a coming
day, when the hidden things shall be uncovered.  Then
He gives encouragement to His friends, "Be                     not afraid."
What meaning these words have, coming from such lips!
The entire first half of the chapter is taken up with
warnings and encouragements to those who heed the
warnings and are His friends.

     Verses 32-48.  He speaks of His own coming again.
The little flock is assured of the kingdom.  Everything
else is uncertain, insecure and passing away.  He is 
coming again and His return will bring the reward to His
friends, who are obedient to His Word.  They are to wait
for Him.  "From the wedding" is better rendered by
"because of the wedding." The wedding, the marriage-feast
does not precede His return, but follows that event.
"He shall gird Himself, and make them to sit down to
meat, and will come forth and serve them." This is a
wonderful statement.  What service that will be, when
He has His faithful people with Him! The Romans divided
the night into four watches.  The Lord speaks of
the second and third watches, but does not mention the
fourth.  However in Matthew 14 we read that He came
to His toiling servants in the fourth watch.

     "He says nothing of the fourth, simply for the reason that the
disciples, from that, should note that His return was by no means
to be expected as late as possible; even as He does not name the first,
because it would weaken the whole representation of the watchful
servants.  The Parousia does not come so quickly as impatience, nor
yet so late as carelessness supposes, but in the very middle of the
night, when the temptation to fall asleep is great and therefore must
be most vigorously combated.  It may even tarry longer than the
servants think; but, grant that it should not take place even till the
third, or should come even in the second watch of the night,
whosoever perseveres faithfully at his post shall in no wise lose
his reward."--Van Oosterzee.

     He assures them that He will come "at an hour when
ye think not." The parable of the Steward is closely
linked with all this.  A solemn declaration is made,
found only in Luke, concerning the penalties. (Verses
47-48.) The punishment is according to the knowledge of
the Lord's will.  His rejection by Israel has brought for
the world the results of which He speaks next.

                                CHAPTER 13

     1. The Necessity of Repentance. 1-5.
     2. The Barren Fig Tree. 6-9.
     3. The Healing of a Daughter of Abraham. 10-17.
     4. Parable of the Mustard Seed. 18-19.
     5. Parable of the Leaven. 20-21.
     6. Solemn Teachings. 22-30.
     7. The Answer to Herod. 31-33.
     8. Lament over Jerusalem. 34-35.

     Verses 1-9.  Luke alone gives the parable of the fig
tree as well as the historical incidents preceding the
parable.  The absolute necessity of repentance is 
emphasized by the Lord.  The fig tree is the nation Israel;
but the individual application must not be eliminated.  
When there is no repentance, after God's merciful 
patience, the delayed judgment will be executed.  Israel
illustrates this fully.  The tree was hewn down, though
the root remains.  In Matthew we read of the budding
fig tree, the sign that the summer is nigh.

     Verses 10-17.  The healing of the daughter of
Abraham, whom Satan had bound for eighteen years, is
reported only by Luke.  Attention has been called to the
significance of the number 18.  Upon 18 fell the tower
of Siloam and the woman, who was bound for 18 years.
"The number 18, which is 3 x 6 (six the number of man) speaks
of evil manifested in its highest uprise"--Numerical Bible.
Satan had manifested his dreadful power over this daughter of
Abraham but the Son of Man, who came to seek and to
save that which is lost, has the power to deliver her.
She was made straight and glorified God.  The expression
"daughter of Abraham" signifies that she was a
believer.  Satan was permitted to afflict her body; it
was the same with Job.  See also 1 Corinthians 5:5.

     Verses 18-21.  The parables of the mustard seed and
the leaven appear in Luke in an entirely different
setting than in Matthew.  We have already seen in our
annotations of Matthew 13, what these two parables
teach.  Here in Luke they are evidently closely linked
with the parable of the barren fig tree, showing that
when Israel has failed and passed under the national
judgment, the Kingdom of God, as resting in the hands
of man, becomes like any other kingdom of the world,
sheltering the unclean (fowls), and internally it is
corrupted by leaven.

     Solemn teachings follow in answer to the question
"Lord, are there few to be saved?" The door is open,
but narrow.  And the door to salvation will one day be
shut for those who refused to enter in.  And here we find
the words which were omitted by Luke in the account of
the healing of the Centurion's servant.  The application
to the Jews, who rejected Him, and the acceptance of the
Gospel by the Gentiles is self -evident.  The person, whom
our Lord calls "fox," most likely was Herod himself.
The "today and tomorrow" refer to His great work
in bearing testimony and working miracles; the third
day, when He would be perfected, is the day of
resurrection.  Then follows His lament over Jerusalem.  The
consecutive teachings of this chapter, beginning with the
necessity of repentance, Israel's failure, the demonstration
of His power, His solemn words and finally His lament
over Jerusalem are intensely interesting.

                                CHAPTER 14

     1. The Man with the Dropsy Healed on the Sabbath. 1-6.
     2. The Wisdom of Humility. 7-11.
     3. Recompensed in Resurrection. 12-14.
     4. The Parable of the Great Supper. 15-24.
     5. Conditions of Discipleship. 25-35.

     Verses 1-6.  Again He heals on the Sabbath.  In the
house of a ruler, a Pharisee, they were watching Him.
He had gone there to eat bread.  What condescension!
They were His enemies, yet He loved them.  He healed
the man with the dropsy.  The question, "Is it lawful to
heal on the Sabbath day?" was answered by the very
power of God.

     Verses 7-14.  The parable which follows, also peculiar
to Luke, emphasizes the wisdom of humility.  The natural
man with the pride of life as a governing principle
loves self-exaltation.  Abasement for him follows in
judgment to come; but if man humbleth himself before
God, exaltation will follow.  He, the Son of Man, had
humbled Himself and taken the lowest place.  How great
is His exaltation! Then He exhorts to seek recompense
at the resurrection of the just.  Here is a hint on the two
resurrections, which are so clearly distinguished in 
Scripture.  The first resurrection is the resurrection of 
the just and includes all the Saints of God.  In that
resurrection there will be a reward according to works, but 
no sinner can work to make himself worthy of that resurrection.

     Verses 15-24.  The parable of the great supper is
distinct from the similar one in Matthew 22:1-14.  They
were spoken at different occasions.  The parable in 
Matthew has clearly marked dispensational aspects, such as
the twofold offer to Israel, before and after the cross, the
judgment upon Jerusalem and the calling of the Gentiles,
etc.  The primary object of the parable in Luke is also
to show the unbelief of the Jews, especially the
self-righteous Pharisees and the call of the publicans and
harlots.  God has mercifully provided the feast.  The 
Kingdom had come nigh.  All things are now ready.  The
Son of God had come in their midst.  But the parable
also looks forward to the finished work of the Cross.
That work has made all things ready.  The self-righteous
among the Jews refused and brought their excuses.
Then exactly that came to pass of which the Lord had
spoken (verses 12-14).  The publicans and harlots, the
poor, maimed, blind and lame came.  They could not
have the excuses of the self-righteous of the nation.  
The call of the Gentiles is also seen in this parable: "Go
out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to
come in, that my house may be filled." The doom f the
rejectors is seen in verse 24.  The great multitude, which
followed Him then hears from His lips the conditions of
true discipleship.  Let no one say, as it has been said,
that they are not binding today.

                                CHAPTER 15

     1. The Murmuring Pharisees. 1-2.
     2. The Parable of the Lost Sheep. 3-7.
     3. The Parable of the Lost Coin. 8-10.
     4. The Parable of the Prodigal Son and the Elder Brother. 11-32.

     Verses 1-10.  A blessed climax of the teaching of our
Lord as the Saviour and the friend of sinners is reached
with this chapter, a chapter which the Saints of God
have always loved and will always love.  Here we
find the completest illustration of the key text of
Luke "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to
save that which is lost." The tax-gatherers and sinners,
after hearing His words and knowing the welcome
which awaited them, drew near to Him in large
numbers.  The murmuring of the Pharisees and scribes
and their words "This man receiveth sinners and eateth
with them" is answered by the Lord with three parables.
The parables of the lost sheep, of the lost coin and of the
prodigal son belong together.  The lost Coin parable and
the parable of the prodigal are peculiar to Luke.  The
Trinity is revealed in these parables seeking that which
is lost.  The Son is seen in the Shepherd; the Holy Spirit
in the parable of the lost coin and the Father in the
parable of the prodigal.

     In the study of these parables it must not be
overlooked that the Lord answers in the first place the
murmuring Pharisees.  This however does not exclude the
wider application on Gospel lines.  Bengel states that
in the first parable the sinner is seen as stupid; in the
second as totally ignorant of himself and in the third as
the daring, wilful sinner.  In the parable of the Shepherd
the ninety and nine do not, represent the unfallen
angels, nor, as it has been suggested, inhabitants of other
worlds, but the self-righteous Pharisees, who think they
need no repentance.  The one sheep, lost and helpless,
pictures the tax-gatherers and sinners, who owned their
lost condition.  All must first be applied on this ground.  
The Son of Man had come to seek and to save.  He looked
for the lost; He followed them and sought them out at
their tables; He ate and drank with them, so that He
was called a wine-bibber.  The found sheep He puts on
His own shoulders; He would not leave this to a servant.  
The care of the saved sheep is all His own.  And there
is joy in heaven over one repenting sinner.  It was a
severe rebuke to the Pharisees, who did not rejoice when
the tax-gatherers and sinners came but murmured.  The
second parable is of much interest and has been 
interpreted in various ways.  We quote here the exposition
as given in the "Numerical Bible" as the most
satisfactory one.

     "The second parable is that of the woman, in the Scripture the
figure of the Church, the instrument of the Spirit.  The lamp of the
Word is in her hand, and she needs it in the darkness of the night,
while Christ is absent.  The 'house' is the circle of natural ties and
relationships; for it is not just a question of public preaching, but
of that testimony upon which the success of the preacher after all
so much depends, and for which the whole Church, and not any class
or section of it, is responsible.  Good it is to realize that every soul
of man, covered with the dust of sin as he may be, and hidden in
the darkness of the world, belongs of right to the King's treasury,
and has the King's image stamped on him, though with sore
disfigurement.  Claim him we may, wherever we may find him, for God
to whom he belongs.  This general evangelism, we may learn from
the parable here, is what is the mind of the Spirit for the Church
indwelt of Him.  Here too there must be friends and neighbors
summoned to rejoice,--angelic onlookers who are in sympathy with
Him who is always the glorious Seeker, and who sets in motion all
the springs of love and pity that flow anywhere in unison with His

     In the Parable of the prodigal son is brought out again
the two classes of men before whom the Lord spoke these
parables.  The prodigal represents the publicans, the
elder son the ritualistic Pharisees.  The application in
the Gospel, which this parable so blessedly reveals, the
condition of man as a sinner, the true repentance, the
Father's joy, the welcome the returning one receives,
etc., all is so well known that we need to make no
further annotations.  The elder son's character clearly
shows that the Pharisee, self-righteous and self-sufficient,
is completely in view.  He has never transgressed a 
commandment and therefore considers himself above the
poor, lost wanderer, who has returned home; he was
angry.  Thus the Pharisees were angry, when the Lord
received the outcasts.  It is strange that this parable
should have been explained to mean that our Lord endorses
worldly amusements and that a Christian may
dance and make merry.  There is no reason whatever
that He has done so.  The parable has, no doubt, a
national meaning as well.  The elder son represents the
Jews and their unwillingness to see the Gentiles converted.  
The prodigal then is a picture of the degradation
of the Gentiles.

                                CHAPTER 16

     1. The Unjust Steward. 1-12.
     2. The Impossible Service. 13.
     3. The Deriding Pharisees Answered. 14-17.
     4. Concerning Divorce. 18.
     5. The Rich Man and Lazarus. 19-31.

     Verses 1-12.  Let us notice that this story was spoken
to the disciples.  It contains a number of difficulties.  It
has well been said "there are knots in it which perhaps
will never be untied, until the Lord comes again.  We
might reasonably expect that a book written by inspiration,
as the Bible is, would contain things hard to be
understood.  The fault lies not in the book, but in
ourselves." The story of the unjust steward is used to
teach wisdom in the use of earthly things.  What the
steward did was an unjust thing, but he acted wisely.
"The lord commended the unjust steward because he had
done wisely." Then our Lord makes the statement that
"the children of this world are in their generation wiser
than the children of light." But what is the application?
"And I say unto you, Make yourselves friends of
the mammon of unrighteousness; that when it (not ye)
fails, they may receive you into everlasting habitations."
Pages could be filled with interpretations which have
been given of this statement.  Many of these have been
made at the expense of the grace of God, which alone fits a
sinner for glory.  (Godet gives a novel interpretation: "May not
the disciple who reaches heaven without having gained here below
the degree of development which is the condition of full communion
with God, receive the increase of spiritual  life, which is yet
wanting to him, by means of those grateful spirits with whom he
shared his temporal goods here below?") Heaven cannot be bought
by the rightful use of earthly things.  Man as God's steward
has failed and has wasted His goods.  But the disciple is
to use earthly things, the mammon of unrighteousness,
to a wise and advantageous purpose.  The Lord's word
may be paraphrased in this wise: "Use the temporal
things, the mammon of unrighteousness with an eye to
the future, as the steward did his, so that it will be like
friends you have made." "That they may receive you"
is indefinite and must be regarded to signify rather "Ye
may be received." We leave this difficult passage by
quoting a valuable comment on it: "On the one hand
let us beware of opposing that by any use of money
we can purchase to ourselves God's favor and the pardon
of our sins.  Heaven is not to be bought.  Any such
interpretation of the verse is most unscriptural.  On the
other hand, let us beware of shutting our eyes against the
doctrine which the verse unmistakably contains.  That
doctrine plainly is, that a right use of our money in this
world, from right motive, will be for our benefit in the
world to come.  It will not justify us. It will not bear
the severity of God's judgment, any more than other
good works.  But it shall be an evidence of our grace,
which shall befriend our souls.  There is such a thing as
'laying up treasure in heaven,' and 'laying up a good
foundation against the time to come.' (Matthew 6:20; 1 Timothy
6:19.)"--Bishop Ryle.  That the whole story has a meaning
connected with the elder son the Pharisee in the preceding
parable must not be overlooked.  The Pharisees were
avaricious.  After the Lord had declared the impossible
service, not alone then, but in all times, "Ye cannot serve
God and mammon," the Pharisees, who heard all these
things and who were covetous, derided him.

     Verses 19-31.  A solemn paragraph closes the chapter.
Avoid the use of the word "parable" in connection with
these verses.  The Lord said, "There was a certain rich
man." It is history and not a parable.  The derision of
the Pharisees on account of the Lord's words about the
unjust steward must have been based upon their trust
in the law and the promise of the law, that temporal
blessings and riches were in store for all who keep the
law.  The story our Lord relates is aimed once more at
the sneering, unbelieving, self-righteous Pharisees.  The
rich man had great riches.  But his riches were not the
evidences of divine favor and blessing.  Lazarus, the
poor man, had no earthly possessions.  Was his poverty
an evidence of divine displeasure? Then the Lord, the
omniscient Lord, draws aside the veil and reveals what
is hidden from the sight of man.  Both die.  Lazarus is
carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom.  He had
no means to make friends for himself by using the mammon
of unrighteousness, so as to be welcomed in the everlasting
habitations.  And yet he is there.  God had in
His infinite grace carried him so high.  Lazarus' name
means "God is Helper." The rich man also died and is
in Hades (not in hell; the lake of fire opens after the
judgment).  He is in torment and sees Lazarus in
Abraham's bosom.  He hears that there is no relief, no hope.
An impassable gulf is fixed, which separates forever the
lost and the saved.  Not a ray of hope is given by the
Lord, that there is the slightest possibility after death
for another chance.  Death fixes forever the eternal
condition of every human being.  Whoever meddles with
this solemn truth, whether a Russellite, or Restorationist
or whatever name he may bear, rejects the testimony of
the Son of God and charges Him with not having spoken
the truth.  We cannot follow the solemn story in all its
details.  Future punishment of the wicked, the future
conscious punishment of the wicked, the future conscious
and eternal punishment of the wicked is denied and
sneered at today by the majority of professing Christians.
But the Lord Jesus, the friend of sinners, the One
who came to seek and to save what is lost, teaches beyond
controversy in this solemn story, the future, conscious and
eternal punishment of the wicked.

     Of late one hears much that the story is a parable, that
the rich man typifies the Jew, his torment, their
persecutions; the poor man is the Gentile.  It is an invention.
The story must be forced to mean this.  The careful
student will soon see how impossible such an application
is. Nor is the view new.  It was taught by many errorists
of past generations.

                                CHAPTER 17

     1. Concerning Offenses and Forgiveness. 1-4.
     2. Increase of Faith and Lowly Service. 5-10.
     3. The Ten Lepers. 11-19.
     4. Concerning the Kingdom and His Second Coming. 20-37.

     Verses 1-19.  The story of the ten lepers is only found
in Luke.  All were cleansed by the power of God and the
nine obeyed the Word of the Lord and went to the priests
(Leviticus 13-14).  But the tenth did not go but instead
turned back and glorified God with a loud voice
and fell on his face at the feet of the Lord.  He took the
attitude of a worshipper; and he was a Samaritan.  He
turned his back upon the ceremonial law and owned the
Giver of the blessing he had received.  We have in this
healed, worshipping Samaritan, who does not worship
in the mountain of Samaria, nor in the temple in Jerusalem,
an earnest of the new dispensation to come. (John 4:22-24.)

     Verses 20-37.  The question "when the Kingdom of
God should come" is answered by the statement "the
Kingdom of God is within you." The translation is
faulty.  The "within" means "among"; so that we read
"the Kingdom of God is among you." It had appeared
in their midst in the Person of the King.  Then He spoke
of His second coming.  He reminds them of the days of
Noah and the days of Lot.  His coming here is His visible
coming at the end of the age and not His coming for
His Saints, which is a subsequent revelation. (1 Thessalonians
4:13-18.) Then one will be taken (in judgment as the
People perished in Noah's and Lot's day) and the other
left (on earth to be in the Kingdom).

                                CHAPTER 18

     1. The Unjust Judge and the Avenging of His Elect. 1-8.
     2. The Parable of the Pharisee and the Publican. 9-14.
     3. The Little Children and the Required Lowliness. 15-17.
     4. The Rich Young Ruler. 18-27.
     5. Rewards Promised. 28-30.
     6. The Renewed Prediction of His Suffering, Death and Resurrection.
     7. The Blind Man near Jericho Healed. 35-43.

     Verses 1-8.  The parable of the unjust judge is closely
connected with the preceding announcement of His second
coming.  "When the Son of Man cometh, shall He
find faith on the earth?" Apostasy and darkness will
rule the day.  But a faithful remnant of His people, His
elect, will suffer and cry day and night to Him for help
and deliverance.  His coming will avenge them.  The
resources in those days will be prayer, as prayer is
always the resource of the Saints of God.  In the Psalms
the Spirit of God has recorded the prayers of the suffering
Jewish Saints during the great tribulation.

     Verses 9-14.  This parable also is found only in Luke.
It is a continuation of the great subject of this Gospel,
that the lost are saved and the self-righteous rejected.
"Every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and
he that humbleth himself shall be exalted." The
self-righteous Pharisee trusted in himself; pride and
self-conceit are expressed in his prayer.  He speaks of a
negative goodness "not as other men" and then he speaks
of his good works, which are even more than God
demanded in His law.  God did not demand tithes of all
possessions.  The Publican did not lift his eyes to heaven.  
His prayer was more than asking for mercy.  It means
literally translated, "God be propitiated towards me, the
sinner." He felt the need of a sacrifice.  It is interesting
to note that the Greek word "be merciful to" is
found only once more in the New Testament.  In Hebrews
2:17 it is applied to our Lord "making reconciliation."

                              CHAPTER 19:1-27

     1. The Salvation of Zacchaeus. 1-10.
     2. The Parable of the Ten Pounds. 11-27.

     Verses 1-10.  When He drew near to Jericho the Lord
healed the blind beggar.  The reader will find hints on
the meaning of this miracle in the annotations of the
Gospel of Mark. (10:46-52.) The story of Zacchaeus is
not found in the other Synoptics.  The Lord is now in
Jericho.  Zacchaeus (meaning: clean) was the chief
tax-gatherer and a rich man.  "He sought to see Jesus";
his desire and faith overcame all hindrances which were
in his way.  The rich man climbing into a sycamore tree
must have brought him ridicule.  Little did he know
that He, whom he sought, was seeking him.  The Lord
knew him and called him by name.  And so Zacchaeus
received Him joyfully into his house, while others 
murmured because He was to be a guest of a sinner.  But
Zacchaeus, though the chief publican, was an honest man.
His confession shows that.  He did not say what he
intended to do, but what he had done already in his past
life.  It was not the result of having received the Lord in
his house, but Zacchaeus answered by it the accusation
of those who had murmured.  He was a son of Abraham,
yet destitute of salvation, which he knew not with all his
honesty.  But the Lord had brought now Salvation to
his house.  Zacchaeus was lost but the Son of Man had
found him.

     Verses 11-27.  The parable of the ten pounds was
occasioned because they that heard Him thought the 
Kingdom of God should immediately appear.  He speaks of
Himself in the parable as going to a far country to 
receive a Kingdom and to return.  In the interval His
servants are to be faithful with the entrusted pounds.
"Occupy till I come." The ten servants represent
Christendom in the same way as the ten virgins.  The one who
had hidden the pound in the sweat cloth (soudarion) is
called a wicked servant and represents a mere professing
believer, an unsaved person.  The citizens mentioned
in the parable, who hated the nobleman are the Jews.
(Verse 14.) The parable teaches definitely that when
the Lord returns He will reward His faithful servants for
their faithfulness.  May it be an incentive for us to
occupy till He comes.

                  V. In Jerusalem -- Chapter 19:28-21:38

                             CHAPTER 19:28-48

     1. The Triumphal Entry in Jerusalem. 28-40.

     2. Weeping over Jerusalem. 41-44.
     3. The Purification of the Temple. 45-48.

     Verses 28-40.  The triumphal entry of the Lord into
Jerusalem has been before us already in Matthew and
Mark.  He is presented as King.  Luke gives an interesting
addition.  The multitude of disciples rejoiced and
praised God for all the mighty works they had seen.
"Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the
Lord; peace in heaven and glory in the highest." The
angelic announcement was "peace on earth"; here the
disciples say "peace in heaven." Such will be the
ultimate and glorious effect of the work of Christ, when
Satan will be cast out of heaven, the heavenly inheritance
redeemed (Ephesians 1:13), and the reconciliation of things
in heaven (Colossians 1:20) accomplished.  All this and much
more will surely come, when the King-Messiah comes
again.  Then there will be peace on earth, peace in
heaven and glory in the highest.
     Verses 41-48.  What a scene it must have been when
He saw the great city and wept over it! Before He utters
the great prophecy announcing the doom of the city,
He weeps.  What a glimpse it gives of the loving heart
of the Saviour-King, the friend of sinners! And all came
as He announced.  The second cleansing of the temple
took place after that.  See annotations on Mark 11:15-18.

                                CHAPTER 20

     1. His Authority Demanded and His Answer. 1-8.
     2. Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. 9-19.
     3. Question about Tribute to Caesar. 20-26.
     4. The Question Concerning Resurrection. 27-40.
     5. The Question Christ Asked. 41-44.
     6. Beware of the Scribes! 45-47.

     The events in this chapter are found in both Matthew's
and Mark's Gospels.  The parable of the vineyard foretells
His death.  He is the son, the beloved son, whom
the husbandman cast out of the vineyard and killed.
The rejected stone, which becomes the head of the corner
(Psalm 118:22) is likewise Christ.  Verse 18 shows the
judgment which came upon the Jews nationally.  Rejecting
Christ, stumbling and falling upon that stone
they were broken.  It also shows the future judgment
which will strike the Gentile world-powers at the close
of the times of the Gentiles, when the Stone shall fall out
of heaven and smite the image, which represents Gentile
dominion (Daniel 2).  Inasmuch as we have followed
the different questions in Matthew and Mark, put to the
Lord by the chief priests, scribes, Sadducees and Pharisees,
to ensnare Him, no further annotations are needed here.

                                CHAPTER 21

     1. The Widow's Mite. 1-4.
     2. The Destruction of the Temple Predicted. 5-6.
     3. The Disciple's Question Concerning the Future. 7.
     4. Things to Come. 8-19.
     5. The Destruction of Jerusalem and the World-wide Dispersion of
        Israel. 20-24.
     6. The Return of the Lord with Power and Great Glory. 25-28.
     7. The Fig Tree and Warnings. 29-38.

     This entire chapter with the exception of the incident
of the widow's mite is prophetic.  Luke's account
however differs in many ways from the account given of the
prophetic Olivet discourse in Matthew and also that in
Mark.  Matthew gives the Olivet discourse in its
completest form. (See Matthew 24 and 25.) He reports
what the Lord had to say concerning the end of the age,
the great tribulation, which concerns the Jewish believers
living at that time; then in three parables He revealed
the moral conditions existing in Christendom and how
He will deal with them and finally He revealed, as
reported by Matthew, the judgment of the Gentile nations.
The characteristic feature of Luke's report is that he has
little to say about the details of the end of the age, such
as the great tribulation and what will take place during
that period of time (Matthew 24:4-42).  Instead of
this he was led by the Spirit of God to record in the
fullest way what our Lord had said concerning the fall of
Jerusalem, the fate of Jerusalem, the dispersion of the
nation and the duration of all this.  The Lord announced
that Jerusalem would be compassed by armies and that
days of vengeance would come. (Verses 20-23.) There
would then be great distress in the land and wrath upon
this people.  This great prophecy was fulfilled in the year
70 A.D., when the Romans besieged Jerusalem and a million
perished, besides 100,000 who were made slaves.  It
is one of the most awful pages in human history.  So has
verse 24 been fulfilled.  The Jewish nation has been 
scattered among all the nations; Jerusalem has been trodden
down by the Gentiles and is still in that state.  But the
times of the Gentiles will be fulfilled in the future and
when that comes, deliverance and restoration for Jerusalem
and the nation are promised.  Luke significantly
tells us about the fig tree, "and all the trees." (Verse
29.) They are to shoot forth and that would be a sign
of His Return.  The fig tree is Israel.  Who are the other
trees? Other nations, who are to see a revival before
the Lord comes, such as the centers of the Roman empire,
Italy, Greece and Egypt.  Israel and these other
nations indeed "shoot forth"; from this we are to learn
that great events in connection with the Kingdom of God
are at hand.  May we also heed the warnings with which
this chapter closes.

         VI.  His Rejection, Suffering and Death -- Chapter 22-23

                                CHAPTER 22

     1. The Betrayer. 1-6.
     2. Preparation for the Passover. 7-13.
     3. The Last Passover. 14-18.
     4. The Lord's Supper Instituted. 19-20.
     5. The Betrayal Announced. 21-23.
     6. Strife for Honor; True Greatness. 24-27.
     7. Rewards Promised. 28-30.
     8. Peter and the Disciples Warned. 31-38.
     9. The Agony in the Garden. 39-46.
    10. The Betrayal and the Arrest. 47-53.
    11. Peter's Denial. 54-62.
    12. The Son of Man Buffeted and Before the Council. 63-71.      a

     And now we reach the story of His Rejection, Suffering
and Death.  What pen is able to describe it all! What
mind can fathom it! We shall again confine ourselves
to those things which are peculiar to Luke and not repeat
annotations as given in Matthew and Mark.  Notice the
difference in the words of the institution of the Lord's
supper.  Matthew and Mark have "My blood shed for
many." In Luke we find the words "My body which is
given for you"; "My blood which is shed for you."
His love shines out fully in these words.  In Luke alone
we have His loving request "this do in remembrance of
Me." Oh! that His people for whom He shed His blood
may never forget this beautiful word and remember Him
in this simple way.

     And Luke shows us the contrast between Himself and
His disciples.  He was about descending into the deepest
depths of humiliation; sorrow and shame were before
the willing victim, yea the greatest agony and death.
Among them was strife, who of them should be accounted
the greatest.  This was the second instance of
contention for preeminence recorded by Luke. (See
9:46.) Then He announced the denial of Peter.  Verses
31-32 are peculiar to Luke.  Satan was to sift him as
wheat, but the Lord knew all about it and had prayed for
him and therefore Peter could not succumb and be lost.
And the Lord is the same today.  He knows His own
and prays for them before Satan can ever come near with
his temptations.  The word "when thou art converted"
does not mean that Peter was unconverted.  It has the
meaning "when thou hast returned back."

     There is also a marked difference in the account Luke
gives of Gethsemane from the accounts in Matthew and
Mark.  Luke tells us of an angel who strengthened Him.  
How could an angel strengthen Him, who is the Creator
of the angels? He certainly could not strengthen His
holy soul.  That an angel strengthened Him must belong
to His deep humiliation.

     "But the body suffers, and presently the strain upon it is seen in
the 'sweat, as it were great drops of blood,' that fall down upon the
ground.  Laborer for God and man as He is, His labor is a warfare
also: the enemy is here, as He presently says to those who come to
apprehend Him: 'This is your hour, and the power of darkness.'
The Seed of the woman is planting His heel upon the head of the
old serpent, but His heel is bruised in doing this.  In the weakness
of perfect Manhood He suffers, and conquers by suffering" (F.W. Grant).

     Then follows the Betrayal with a kiss, the arrest of the
Son of Man, Peter's Denial.  Luke alone tells us that the
Lord looked upon denying Peter; what look that must
have been! The chapter ends with the cruel treatment of
the Son of Man, the Friend of sinners, who had come to
seek and to save that which is lost, received from man,
His glorious self-witness and unjust condemnation by the

                                CHAPTER 23

     1. The son of man before Pilate and Herod. 1-12.
     2. Pilate Yields to the People's Will; Barabbas Freed and the Son of
        man Condemned. 13-26.
     3. The Crucifixion of the Son Of Man. 27-38.
     4. The Penitent Thief. 39-43.
     5. The Death of the Son of Man. 44-46.
     6. The Testimony of the Centurion. 47-49.
     7. The Burial. 50-56.

     Verses 1-12.  Before Pilate the Son of Man is accused
as a perverter of the nation and as an enemy of the
Roman government.  They had attempted to ensnare
Him with the question of the tribute money and failed so
miserably in it.  Their motive stands now uncovered.
Pilate asks Him concerning His Kingship, which the Lord
answered affirmatively.  Thus He witnessed to two facts,
His Sonship and His Kingship.  Luke tells us what 
Matthew and Mark omit, that Pilate sent Him to Herod.
The silence of the Son of Man standing before that
wicked king is very solemn.  Then He is mocked by
Herod and his soldiers.  Herod and Pilate became united
in rejecting Christ.  See how this fact is used in the first
prayer meeting after the church had been formed.  Acts

     Verses 13-38.  The weakling Pilate is helpless.  Their
voices prevail.     "Away with this man!"; "Release unto
us Barabbas!"--"Crucify Him! Crucify Him!" These
are the cries now heard.  Pilate then gave the awful
sentence, that it should be done to Him as they 
required.  The lamenting women and the Lord's answer
is peculiar to Luke.  "Weep not for me!" Blessed
words of His great love.  He looked for no sympathy
from man.  Frail women were moved to pity.  He is the
green tree; they were the dry wood.  The people's wrath
fanned by Satan's power was spending itself upon Him,
the green and fruitful tree.  How awful it would be when
the dry wood, the unsaved masses, would be exposed to
the fires of wrath and persecution.  Forty years later the
"dry wood" burned fiercely in the siege of Jerusalem.
When they reach the place called "Calvary" (the skull: Luke only
gives the name "Calvary" because it is the Gentile Gospel),
the Latin, Gentile name for Golgotha,* they crucified Him.
Luke omits much which is more fully given in the other
Synoptics; we read nothing of the cry of the forsaken
One.  But Luke tells us of the blessed prayer which Matthew
and Mark omit, "Father, forgive them for they
know not what they do." And His last word, "Father,
into Thy hands I commit My Spirit," is also given
exclusively by Luke.  All this is in blessed keeping with the
character of this Gospel.

     Verses 39-56.  The story of the dying thief and his
salvation is also characteristic to Luke.  The great lesson
of the three crosses is so familiar that it needs no lengthy
annotations.  The two classes, the saved and the unsaved,
are represented by the two thieves.  He, the Lamb of
God paying the penalty of sinners, is in the midst.  The
way the penitent was saved is the only way in which man
can be saved.  He could do no good works; he could not
get baptized or perform anything else.  All he could do
was to cast himself in faith as a lost sinner upon the Lord.
Nor was his salvation a life-long, progressive work (as
some teach on salvation); it was instantaneous.  Nor was
there any "purgatory" for him.  He expected to be
remembered in the Kingdom to come.  Instead of that he
hears, "Verily I say unto thee, today thou shalt be with
me in paradise." The attempt by soul-sleepers, restorationists
and others to put the comma after "today" is a
deceptive invention to bring the Word of God into line
with their evil doctrines.

     "This short prayer contained a very large and long creed, the
articles whereof are these. 1. He believed that the soul died not
with the body of man;--2.  That there is a world to come for
rewarding the pious and penitent, and for punishing the impious and
impenitent;--3.  That Christ, though now under crucifying and
killing tortures, yet had right to a kingdom;--4.  That this kingdom
was in a better world than the present evil world;--5.  That Christ
would not keep this kingdom all to himself;--6.  That He would
bestow a part and portion hereof on those that are truly penitent;--
7. That the key of this kingdom did hang at Christ's girdle, though
He now hung dying on the cross;--8. That he does roll his whole
soul for eternal salvation upon a dying Saviour" (Ness).

     Then the Son of Man cried with a loud voice ere He
dismissed His spirit and the Centurion, in keeping with this
Gospel, bears witness, that He was a righteous Man.

                    VII. His Resurrection and Ascension

                                CHAPTER 24

     1. The Resurrection. 1-12.
     2. The Walk to Emmaus; the Appearance of the Risen Son of Man.  13-35.
     3. The Appearance to the Eleven. 36-45.
     4. The Commission. 46-48.
     5. The Ascension. 49-53.

     The account of the Resurrection in Luke's Gospel has
also its characteristic features.  He alone reports the full
account of the walk to Emmaus.  It is a precious story
showing forth the fact that the risen One is the same
tender, loving, sympathizing friend of His own.  He joined
Himself to the two disciples, who bad left Jerusalem.  Their
hearts were filled with Sadness and perplexity.  He
Himself drew near and their eyes were holden that they could
not recognize Him.  In a perfectly human way He joined
Himself to them and asked them about their troubles.
Then He reproved them for their unbelief and opened the
Scriptures unto them.  Constrained by them, He abides
with them, as He always will with those who belong to
Him.  In the breaking of bread, their eyes were opened
and they knew Him and He vanished from them.  They
returned to Jerusalem where they found abundant proof
that the Lord is risen indeed.  The appearance to Simon
is not fully made known.  What took place between the
Lord and the disciple who failed Him is a blessed secret
between them.  He then appeared again with His
gracious "Peace be unto you." He showed them His hands
and feet.  He had a body of flesh and bones.  He was not
a phantom, but a real man.  His body was real for He
ate fish and honeycomb.  All this belongs properly to
the Gospel of the Manhood. It is the fullest demonstration
of His physical resurrection.  All the wicked "isms,"
including Russellism and Christian Science, which deny
His physical resurrection stand here fully convicted.

     It may be well to mention here the twelve distinct
appearances of our Lord after His resurrection.  He appeared:

     1. To Mary Magdalene alone.  Mark 16; John 20:14.
     2. To the women returning from the sepulchre.  Matthew 28:9-10.
     3. To Simon Peter alone.  Luke 24:34.
     4. To the two disciples going to Emmaus.  Luke 24:13, etc.
     5. To the apostles at Jerusalem, except Thomas who was absent. 
        John 20:19.
     6. To the apostles at Jerusalem, a second time, when Thomas was
        present.  John 20:26-29.
     7. At the sea of Tiberias, when seven disciples were fishing.
        John 21:1.
     8. To the eleven disciples, on a mountain in Galilee.  Matthew 28:16.
     9. To above five hundred brethren at once.  1 Corinthians 15:6.
    10. To James only.  1 Corinthians 15:7.
    11. To all the apostles on Mount Olivet at His ascension.  Luke 24:51.
    12. To Paul as an untimely birth.  1 Corinthians 15:8-9.

     Three times we are told that His disciples touched Him
after He rose.  Matthew 28:9; Luke 24:39; John 20:27.
Twice we are told that He ate with them.  Luke 24:42;
John 21:12-13,

     The Gospel of Luke ends with the commission given to
His disciples and the ascension of the Lord "while He
blest them."

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